This key list provides information resources on disability and sexuality for use by people with disabilities, family members, policy makers and practitioners, with a specific focus on inclusive access to sexual health services.
According to the World Disability Report (World Bank and WHO, 2011) an estimated 15% of the worlds population live with a disability. People with disabilities have the same sexual health needs as other people; however, they often face barriers to information and services. Many of these barriers are due to the ignorance and attitudes of society and individuals, including healthcare providers, and not the disabilities themselves.
Some people with disabilities experience physical difficulties in sexual activity on account of their impairment. Others are excluded from appropriate sex education, resulting in poor access to sexual health information and services to protect them from sexually transmitted infections. Furthermore, women with disabilities may receive inadequate access to maternal and reproductive healthcare services, and people with disabilities may also be at increased risk of sexual exploitation and violence.
Existing sexual health services usually can be adapted easily to accommodate people with disabilities. Increasing awareness, resourcefulness and involving disabled people in programme design and monitoring can lead to essential inclusive services. Accessible sexual health education and information can enable disabled people to fully express their sexuality. Inclusive sexual health policies and initiatives are supported by articles 9, 13, 23, 24 and 25 of the Convention on the rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).
We welcome your suggestions: please send comments or suggested additions to firstname.lastname@example.org.
This website presents the workshop reports and presentations of the first part of an international workshop titled: "Going beyond the taboos in community-based rehabilitation (CBR)." The workshop focused on social relationships, sexuality and reproductive rights. Links are provided to the workshop report and presentations in pdf format “"Going beyond the taboo areas in CBR" workshop, part 1
29 November 2012
For many people who are called disabled, having this label means to be excluded from the experience of 'an ordinary sexual life'. For those who are called intellectually disabled exclusion from experiences of any kind of positive sexual life is almost universal. This article explores how some people with intellectual disabilities have sought to open up pathways towards accessing experiences of sexual expression as a way to move forward towards being able to integrate a concept of sexuality into their lives. Two support workers are interviewed. Both are employed by a Human Services organization in Aotearoa, New Zealand, which provides long term support for people with intellectual disabilities. Their comments reveal that access to successful instances of sexual expression for people in this group are currently only available those who are articulate enough and persistent enough to keep trying until they succeed. Barriers to success are isolated and some wider issues surrounding what changes might positively affect this group are discussed.
A virtual library containing references and access to full text documents from around the world on independent living and related themes: for example women with disabilities, international access solutions and disability and development. Materials cited include reports, resource kits, training manuals, conference papers and journal articles. The database can be searched by author, by selecting a topic from a list of categories such as international development, human rights or UN documents, or by performing a free search. Search results are ranked to indicate best match to search query. There is also a database of organisations and companies working in the disability field
This resource addresses issues of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programming for persons with disabilities. SRH, in particular, deserves attention because these needs have been so widely and so deeply neglected. At the same time, however, the approaches discussed here apply broadly to all aspects of health programming for persons with disabilities. This note outlines a general approach to programming and does not address specific protocols for the SRH care and treatment of persons with disabilities It is intended for SRH experts and advocates within UNFPA and WHO as well as those in other development organisations and partners
Establishes definitions of terms such as 'sex' and 'sexuality', and discusses basic concepts, concerns and problems related to promoting sexual health. Presents and discusses five basic goals, or broad recommendations for action, to advance the sexual health of people in the Americas.
This article explores how people with intellectual disability often experience difficulties meeting their sexual needs and desires due to poor education and social isolation. However, the article highlights that people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships with appropriate education and good social support. It emphasises that providing this support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability
Salud Publica Mex, 50 suppl 2
This website is focuses upon questions a woman with a disability might have - about her body, about the mechanics and dynamics of having sex, about the complexities of being in an intimate relationship or having children, about unvoiced fears or experiences of encountering abuse in some form. It discusses a wide range of topics related to sexuality and presents verious perspectives. this website is useful to anyone interested in sexuality and disability
Sexuality and Disability is an international forum for the publication of peer-reviewed original interdisciplinary scholarly papers that address the psychological and medical aspects of sexuality in relation to rehabilitation
"This paper presents one position in support of sexuality education for children and adolescents with ASD (autism spectrum disorders). The nature of human sexuality is discussed to provide a context for the rights of individuals with ASD to learn about their sexuality. Further justification for providing sexuality education in terms of the unique characteristics of this population is offered in conjunction with potential consequences of failing to provide sexuality education. Lastly, information regarding a decision-making process for sexuality education curriculum is presented, including the responsibilities of families and professionals providing sexuality education"
Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2)
This article provides information to assist in the development of sexuality in individuals with intellectual disability and to foster their social integration. The article highlights priorities to consider when developing educational interventions for promoting sexual health. This resource is useful to people interested in sexuality in individuals with intellectual disability
Salud pública de México, vol 50, suppl.2
This website offers a number of online resources about disability and sexuality. Topics include gay and lesbian sexuality, aging and sexuality, sexuality and disabled adolescents, and more. The site also contains references to other resources and an online forum
The intersection of theories of disability and bisexuality is unexplored, yet both are identities rendered in/visible by paternalistic environments where individual and political identities are defined by oppositional binaries and vulnerable to compulsory citizenship. The development of such identities can be better understood by using a bisexual approach to inform theories of disability and a disability approach to inform theories of sexuality inclusive of bisexuality. Common themes that emerge center around issues of choice, fluidity of identity, the phenomena of "coming out" and "passing," and limitations to citizenship attendant to in/visible identities. Disability studies can provide a non-normative discursive space within which such identity issues may be addressed critically. Further, this article hopes to interject a bisexual perspective in discussions concerning applications of queer theory in disability studies
This book deals with practical advice on health care for women with disabilities. It has been developed in partnership with health care professionals and disabled women in over 42 countries. It covers the key issues of disability in the community; accessible health care; mental health; sexual health; family planning; and child birth. The book is written in a practical and accessible style, suitable for anyone with an interest in disability, social development and women's health issues. In particular, the book offers a valuable insight into 'real-life' personal experiences of disabled women
"This paper considers some of the issues around sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It is essentially a discussion paper, highlighting previous research, and information about the rights of people with learning disabilities to have sex and relationships. It particularly focuses on concerns for parents and some implications for professional practice that have arisen from a research project that is trying to find out more about the issues. The main messages coming from parents within the research project is that there is a need for clear, concise information about sex and relationships for young people with learning disabilities and there is also a need for professionals to give parents more support"
Mental Health and Learning Disabilities Research and Practice Journal, 5
There is limited research into the sexual lives of mothers, particularly mothers with disabilities. This article examines the barriers to sexuality facing mothers with disabilities. These barriers include: stereotypes that disabled mothers are not sexual, lack of resources for essential aspects of parenting, and difficulty in creating time for personal and private adult activities. Recommendations are presented based on the experiences of disabled mothers.
"This is not a typical academic article. Although it provides references and research information, the perspective is different. It intends to share stories from a lifetime of participant observation on disabled adoptive parents. This article provides a radical reconceptualization of the sexuality experiences of disabled parents"
Sexuality and Disability, Vol 20, No 1
The mission of the Center for Research on Women with Disabilities is to promote, develop, and disseminate information to improve the health and expand the life choices of women with disabilities. This section addresses issues for sexuality and reproductive health for women with disabilities by providing useful information and related resources for specific thematics
"This Briefing Paper examines the sexual and reproductive rights of women and girls with disabilities in the context of the future development agenda Beyond 2014 and Post 2015"
ICPD Human Rights Conference on Sexual and Reproductive Health The Hague, Netherlands
7-11 July 2013
"This book is designed for parents, professionals, and other caregivers working with school-aged children who have combined vision and hearing loss or deaf-blindness coupled with significant developmental delays. It aims to provide them with special methods to familiarize children with sexual aspects of their daily life...Each chapter takes an in-depth look at a particular aspect of developing sexuality for these children: (a) developing sexuality education programs in a school system; (b) teaching appropriate touch and modesty; and (c) instruction about menstruation, masturbation, coupling, sexual health, and sexual abuse. The last chapter includes readings and resources"
"This manual was created as a practical resource for persons with disabilities and health care clinicians who work with these clients. It includes research, clinical expertise, and product information to aid with dialogue surrounding sexual and reproductive issues and disabilities. The information presented here is not prescriptive, and the specific products not recommended per se, but are meant to provide examples and illustrations of some of the potential options that can be introduced into the sexual practices of the individual or be used as an adjunct in the discussions of sexuality and disability by the health care clinician. The devices included are a sampling of what is available (in Canada) in 2009"
The purpose of this manual is to provide deaf youth and adults, teachers, parents and guardians with a tool for addressing basic health awareness within an independent framework utilising optimal communication. The activities are participatory and interactive, and are designed with and by deaf Kenyans fluent in Sign Language (SL), and acknowledge the use of other SL variations within the various deaf groups. The three main issues addressed cover sexual education, relationships and hygiene. The manual is designed to blend with the school curriculums/co-curriculum activities, plus other issues that affect students while in school. It also befits other settings such as seminars and workshops, and can be used to tackle a specific subject. It is appropriate for varied ages, communities, cultures, religions, and literacy levels
This study assesses the vulnerability, impact and coping mechanisms of disabled people on HIV and AIDS, and suggests strategies for developing an HIV and AIDS programme for disabled people’s organisations. Using participatory methodologies of inquiry, the study found that disabled people perceive themselves to be at higher risk of HIV infection due to their disability, regardless of their awareness levels. Their social exclusion from the mainstream HIV/AIDS services makes the situation worse. The study revealed that the many myths and misconceptions around HIV and disability increase the vulnerability of disabled people to HIV/AIDS, such as the belief that sex with a disabled person cleanses a person of HIV/AIDS. It also revealed that disabled people have limited access to HIV/AIDS information and limited use of HIV/AIDS services mainly because of the nature of their disability, the location of the facilities and the attitudes of service providers. In conclusion, the study revealed that disabled people are at a higher risk of infection by sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS due to their exclusion from mainstream HIV interventions. This situation is further exacerbated by the lack of policy framework on disability and HIV and AIDS
This dissertation in clinical psychology explores the extent to which South African schools and organisations that work with persons with disabilities deal with issues of HIV and AIDS. The study indicates that although HIV education takes place, issues relating to HIV and AIDS are handled with much anxiety. The results reveal that in some cases HIV education is used to control and oppress disabled people’s sexual expression, instead of empowering them to have fulfilling sexual lives. Issues regarding sexual abuse and rape are also discussed. The dissertation ends with recommendations regarding further research on disabled people’s experiences and the need to address the silence around issues such as rape and abuse. This resource would be useful for people looking for in-depth information on disability and HIV in general (chapters 2 and 3), and with a focus on South Africa in particular (chapters 5 to 7). Moreover, it would be useful to people interested in the psychological aspects of working in the field of HIV (chapter 4)
This article looks at the impact of HIV on people living with permanent physical, sensory, intellectual, or mental health disability. In particular, it considers whether AIDS messages reach disabled populations and the inequity of access to health care that they face
An article providing a background to the Global Survey on HIV/AIDS and disability, which began in January 2003
This report looks at the findings of a research project to identify gaps in HIV awareness, prevention, care and support programmes in India and make recommendations on how HIV planning, policy and practice might be made inclusive of people with disabilities. In over 500 interviews with people with disabilities, levels of awareness of HIV and perceptions of vulnerability were explored as well as how these differ according to sex, age, impairment and location. In addition, organisations working on HIV were visited to look at whether people with disabilities were included in their programmes and organisations working with disabilities for their provision of information on HIV. The main recommendation of the report is that one or more disability NGOs become HIV champions to encourage and support the disability sector to engage with the HIV sector. The report offers a series of suggested strategies and some practical recommendations for both sectors. The project was funded by the Programme Management Office on behalf of the Department for International development
This survey was undertaken to increase the understanding of the factors that contribute to the sexual health of Canadian youth. It was done by exploring the socio-cultural, socio-environmental and interpersonal determinants of adolescent sexual behaviour. A section of the survey (pp 111-114) looks specifically at disability and sexual activity
This analysis was carried out by Save the Children UK after reports from the field suggested that disabled people were not accessing HIV prevention information or services, despite being at higher risk of infection. It outlines ways in which disabled people are not fully included in safer-sex communications: for instance blind people hear talk about condoms, but have never held one; the necessity to have a sign-language interpreter for deaf people compromises their right to confidentiality; young girls with disabilities are more likely to be raped and are less able to negotiate safe sex. It recommends the greater integration of disabled people into health and HIV communications and further research to develop disabled-friendly means of communication
"This report talks about the Sex and Relationships project. This was a 3-year project that took place at CHANGE, a leading national organisation led by disabled people that is based in Leeds, in England, that fights for the rights of people with learning disabilities...The project found out about the views and experiences of young people with learning disabilities about sex and relationships"
This briefing paper summarises the key findings from an evidence review on the sexual health and wellbeing of young people with learning disabilities. The review assimilates various forms of evidence, including the voices of young people themselves and emerging findings from practice. It also identifies a number of potential future actions that will help ensure that sexual health services and sex and relationships education are better able to meet the needs of young people with learning disabilities, as well as those of their parents and the professionals that support them