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The missing billion - Access to health services for 1 billion people with disabilities

KUPER, Hannah
HEYDT, Phyllis
July 2019

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One billion people around the world live with disabilities. This report makes the case that they are being “left behind” in the global community’s work on health. This lack of access not only violates the rights of people with disabilities under international law, but UHC (Universal Health Care) and SDG 3 cannot be attained without better health services for the one billion people with disabilities. 

Health and healthcare are critical issues for people with disabilities. People with disabilities often need specialized medical care related to the underlying health condition or impairment (e.g., physiotherapy, hearing aids). They also need general healthcare services like anyone else (e.g., vaccinations, antenatal care). On average, those with disabilities are more vulnerable to poor health, because of their higher levels of poverty and exclusion, and through secondary conditions and co-morbidities. People with disabilities therefore may require higher levels of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services. However, health services are often lower quality, not affordable, and inaccessible for people with disabilities. In many situations these barriers are even more significant for women with disabilities, compared to men with disabilities.

Deafness and hearing loss

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
March 2018

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A short factsheet about deafness and hearing loss covering key facts, causes (congenital and acquired), impact (functional, social and economic), prevention, identification and management and WHO response. 

Humanitarian Hands on Tool (HHoT)

CBM
2017

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The CBM smartphone app 'Humanitarian Hands-on Tool' (HHoT) provides step-by-step guidance on how to implement an inclusive emergency response. With disability-inclusive humanitarian action broken down into individual task cards, which explain the basic 'how-to' details in simple language and images, this web-based tool and downloadable mobile app aims to become the ‘go-to’ field resource for all agencies planning humanitarian work that leaves no-one behind

Promoting good policy for leadership and governance of health related rehabilitation: a realist synthesis

MCVEIGH, Joanne
MACLACHLAN, Malcolm
GILMORE Brynne
MACLEAN Chiedza
EIDE, Arne H.
MANNAN Hasheem
GEISER Priscille
DUTTINE Anthony
MJI Gubela
MACAULIFFE Eilish
SPRUNT Beth
AMIN Mutamad
NORMAND Charles
et al
August 2016

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General principles requiring contextual adaptation regarding optimal policy related governance of health related rehabilitation in less resourced settings were developed from a literature review and realistic synthesis. A systematic review of literature published since 2003 was carried out. Multiple reviewers selected articles for inclusion in the realistic synthesis.  A Delphi survey of expert stakeholders refined and triangulated findings from the realist synthesis. Context mechanism outcome pattern configurations (CMOCs) were identified from the literature and then developed into statements for the Delphi survey, whereby 18 expert stakeholders refined these statements to achieve consensus on recommendations for policy related governance of health related rehabilitation. Several broad principles emerged throughout formulation of recommendations: participation of persons with disabilities in policy processes; collection of disaggregated disability statistics; explicit promotion in policies of access to services for all subgroups of persons with disabilities and service-users; robust inter-sectoral coordination; and ‘institutionalising’ programmes.

 

 

Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. DRAFT for the 69th World Health Assembly

World Health Organisation (WHO)
May 2016

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This report was presented to Member States at the World Health Assembly in May 2016 and is to be read in conjunction with A69/38: Draft global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. Report by the Secretariat. The vision of this work and report is to "Accelerate progress towards universal health coverage and the UN Sustainable Development Goals by ensuring equitable access to health workers within strengthened health systems". Objectives are "To optimise performance, quality and impact of the health workforce through evidence-informed policies on human resources for health, contributing to healthy lives and well-being, effective universal health coverage, resilience and strengthened health systems at all levels",  "To align investment in human resources for health with the current and future needs of the population and of health systems, taking account of labour market dynamics and education policies; to address shortages and improve distribution of health workers, so as to enable maximum improvements in health outcomes, social welfare, employment creation and economic growth", "To build the capacity of institutions at sub-national, national, regional and global levels for effective public policy stewardship, leadership and governance of actions on human resources for health" and "to strengthen data on human resources for health, for monitoring and ensuring accountability for the implementation of national and regional strategies, and the global strategy".  Global milestones by 2020 and 2030, policy options of Member States, responsibilities of the WHO Secretariat and recommendations to other stakeholders and international partners are discussed for each objective.

 

Quality management of global rehabilitation services

PRYOR, Wesley
BOGGS, Dorothy
September 2013

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This seminar report outlines the proceedings and discussions of Handicap International’s seminar “Quality Management of Global Rehabilitation Services: Global Experiences, Innovations and Shaping Future Reform”. The report closely follows the structure of the seminar week, highlighting key information, contributions, discussions and recommendations from the participants.

During the seminar week, the participants from over 12 countries shared positive and challenging rehabilitation responses and analysed the quality of services, focusing upon the management and development of the workforce. Based upon their lessons learned from rehabilitation experiences, the participants then developed short-term and long-term recommendations, to be shared widely with the aim of contributing to the enhancement of global quality rehabilitation

“Quality Management of Global Rehabilitation Services: Global Experiences, Innovations and Shaping Future Reform” Seminar

Ougadougou, Burkina Faso

11–15 June 2012

Resilient livelihoods : disaster risk reduction for food and nutrition security framework programme

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
April 2013

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Through its disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) seeks to protect livelihoods from shocks, to make food production systems more resilient and more capable of absorbing the impact of, and recovering from, disruptive events. The FAO Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme (DRR for FNS) serves to support and provide strategic direction, to FAO member countries and partners, for the implementation of Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security programmes. The goal is to enhance the resilience of livelihoods against threats and emergencies to ensure the FNS of vulnerable farmers, fishers, herders, foresters and other at risk groups

The labour market for human resources for health in low and middle-income countries

SCHEFFLER, Richard
BRUCKNER, Tim
SPETZ, Joanne
July 2012

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This paper provides an introduction to the terms and tools of labour market analysis and connects these labour market principles to real-world case studies from LMIC. Three examples are provided of issues: workforce shortage in Thailand; unfilled posts in Kenya; and ghost workers in Rwanda. The labour market for health workers is considered and an integrated framework is provided. The technical structure and dynamics of the health worker market is discussed and applied to the first two examples. Task shifting, health worker performance and health worker productivity are also discussed.

Human Resources for Health Observer, No. 11

Who is where, when, doing what (4Ws) in mental health and psychosocial support : manual with activity codes

IASC REFERENCE GROUP FOR MENTAL HEALTH AND PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT IN EMERGENCY SETTINGS
2012

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"Humanitarian actors in emergencies often encounter challenges in knowing Who is Where, When, doing What (4Ws) with regard to mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS). Such knowledge is essential to inform coordination. 4Ws tools are used in many areas of aid to map activities conducted across large geographical areas". This manual outlines the 4Ws with regard to mental health and psychosocial support for humanitarian actors with MHPSS coordinating responsibilities. The tool exists in two parts: a 4Ws data collection spreadsheets application (in excel online) and this manual which describes how to collect the data

Guidance note on disability and emergency risk management for health

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2012

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"The Guidance note on disability and emergency risk management for health is a short, practical guide that covers actions across emergency risk management, such as risk assessment, prevention, preparedness, response, recovery and reconstruction. Developed primarily for health actors working in emergency and disaster risk management at the local, national or international level, and in governmental or nongovernmental agencies, the guidance note points out the health-related actions that are required to ensure that both mainstream and specific support are available and accessible to people with disabilities in emergencies"

Field based training for mental health workers, community workers, psychosocial workers and counselors : a participant-oriented approach

VAN DER VEER, Guus
FRANCIS, Felician Thayalara
July 2011

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"This article discusses the training of mental health workers whose basic job is with clients that have been seriously affected by armed conflict and/or natural disasters by using ‘helping through talking’, and who have had little education that is relevant to this work. It sums up the characteristics required of the workers, their learning needs, the messages that the training needs to convey, and the characteristics and potential contents of a tailor made, participants-oriented programme"
Intervention, Vol 9, Issue 2

Alternative care in emergencies (ACE) toolkit : summary guidance

FULFORD, Louise Melville
2011

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"This document provides a rapid overview of best practices in relation to interim care, including Key Principles and a Key Summary Guidance of the actions required before and during the emergency response, associated tools and where in the Extended Guidance to go for detailed information. A List of Tools located in the Zip File is included as well
This document also contains the Draft Standard Operating Procedures for Supporting Children’s Community-Based Care Placements (SOP’s). These were developed from the Haiti response by Katherine Williamson for the IRC, and provide an example set of the tasks required by those identifying, assessing and placing separated and unaccompanied children in an emergency, in accordance with the national context and required procedures. These serve as an example and can assist in the development of SOP’s to suit the context and legal and policy framework in which you are working"

Alternative care in emergencies (ACE) toolkit : extended guidance

FULFORD, Louise Melville
2011

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"The tools and guidance in this resource are designed to facilitate the process of planning for and implementing interim care and related services for children separated from or unable to live with their families during an emergency. They are based on learning from recent and current emergencies, drawing on the principles and standards set out in the key documents relating to separated children, and out of home care"

Increasing access to health workers in remote and rural areas through improved retention|Global policy recommendations

DOLEA, Carmen
et al
2010

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These guidelines aim to help national policy makers address the challenge of ensuring there are sufficient numbers of qualified health workers in remote and rural areas to be able to deliver effective health services and improve health outcomes. The guidelines outline the principles for creating national policy; evidence-based recommendations to improve the attraction, recruitment and retention of health workers to remote and rural areas; and measuring and evaluating the impact of rural retention policies

The Kampala declaration and agenda for global action

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
GLOBAL HEALTH WORKFORCE ALLIANCE
2008

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This resource contains both the Kampala declaration and an agenda for global action to "guide the initial steps in a coordinated global, regional and national response to the worldwide shortage and mal-distribution of health workers, moving towards universal access to quality health care and improved health outcomes. It is meant to unite and intensify the political will and commitments necessary for significant and effective actions to resolve this crisis, and to align efforts of all stakeholders at all levels around solutions"

Age-friendly primary health care centres toolkit

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2008

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This toolkit aims to improve the primary health care response for older persons. The information presented assists health care workers in the diagnosis and management of chronic diseases and the four main issues of memory loss, urinary incontinence, depression and falls/immobility that often impact people as they age. The toolkit contains a number of instruments that can be used by primary health care workers to assess and address older persons' health, such as evaluation forms, slides, figures, graphs, diagrams, scale tables, country guidelines, exam sheets, screening tools, cards, and checklists
Note: The link provided also contains Annex 1: Trainers guide for normal ageing and communication, a Normal Ageing power point presentation and Communication with older people power point presentation

Towards zero : ambitious road safety targets and the safe system approach|Summary document

INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM (ITF)
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD)
2008

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"This is a summary of the report ‘Towards Zero: Ambitious Road Safety Targets and the Safe System Approach’...The purpose of the report is to review the state of the art in improving road safety performance and examine the role of targets in raising the level of ambition and achieving effective implementation of road safety policies. The work aims to assist governments in raising the performance threshold by developing more systematic approaches to road safety. It highlights the institutional management changes required in many countries to implement effective interventions through a strong focus on results and underlines the economic case for road safety investment. This summary document comprises the recommendations, executive summary and table of contents of the full report together with details of the experts that contributed to the work"

Community-based management of severe acute malnutrition : a joint statement by the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, the United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition and the United Nations Children's Fund

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2007

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This statement advocates a community-based approach to the management of severe malnutrition, combined with a facility-based approach for those malnourished children with medical complications. It outlines actions that countries can take and suggests how WHO, WFP, SCN, UNICEF and other partners can support these actions

Let's talk about HIV counselling and testing : facilitators' guide

International HIV/AIDS Alliance
December 2006

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This is a toolkit to help NGOs and community-based organisations working to mobilise communities to improve their awareness of HIV counselling and testing and to improve the up-take of HIV counselling and testing; advocating for increased access to quality HIV counselling, testing, care, treatment and prevention; or interested in providing HIV counselling and testing services. It is divided into eight sections: What is HIV and what is AIDS?; what is involved in HIV counselling and testing; who is providing these services in the community and who they are for; the advantages and barriers of counselling and testing; stigma, discrimination and confidentiality; the needs of people after being tested and ideas for community activities. Each section has an accompanying information sheet

Ethical infrastructure for good governance in the public pharmaceutical sector

ANELLO, Eloy
November 2006

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This paper focuses on the values approach for promoting ethical practices in the governance and management of pharmaceuticals within ministries of health. It recognises the need to coordinate and integrate such endeavours with existing legislative efforts to establish a legal framework and ethical infrastructure that adequately address the problem of corruption within the context of each country. The paper is a working draft for field testing and revision

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