The importance of physchosocial support for people with spinal cord injuries and amputations as a result of the conflict in Syria and their families and carers is is briefly described through several case histories.
The extended family as a potential cause of and protection against intimate partner violence (IPV) remains relatively unstudied. This mixed-methods study used focus group discussions (FGDs) and a clinic-based survey to investigate several family-based risk and protective factors associated with women's risk of IPV in Jordan. Seventeen FGDs (total number of participants = 105) were conducted with women in Amman. Each transcript was coded for categories using open coding methodology and mapping. Relevant categories and subcategories were family support, family interference, family abuse, exposure to violence in childhood, and place of residence. For the survey, systematic probability proportionate to size methodology was used to select a sample of 517 literate, ever married, women from seven reproductive health clinics located throughout the country (response rate = ≤70%); due to missing data, the analytic sample was restricted to 418 women. Measures assessed the categories mentioned above. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between IPV and the main predictors of interest (residence, family interference, family violence, exposure to violence as a child, and family support). The combined results of the FGDs and the survey demonstrated that the respondent's husband's exposure to violence in childhood and violence perpetrated by other family members were risk factors for IPV. Family interference was also significantly related to IPV but only when the respondent identified the interference as harmful to her relationship. Residence with the respondent's in-laws demonstrated mixed effects. A supportive family was protective against IPV, although the FGDs revealed that families were not always an effective source of assistance. Findings demonstrate the continued role of the wife's and husband's kin in women's risk of IPV in Jordan, highlighting the importance of a broader view of the context of IPV.
This report presents key findings from a practical ‘know-how’ query, which included a rapid review of key literature as well as a small set of key informant interviews (KIIs) to help fill gaps and supplement online evidence. This query is based on a rapid review of the available literature to provide a brief overview of the barriers people with disabilities face in Gaza in terms of access to basic services, jobs and social inclusion/participation (Section 2), and the policy framework in Gaza in relation to the rights of people with disabilities(Section 3). The main body of this query comprises a mapping of existing interventions for people with disabilities in Gaza and an analysis of the trends and gaps in programming (Section 4)
This Compendium documents the broad range of UNICEF’s social protection interventions in MENA from 2014-2017.
The Compendium includes 20 case studies detailing UNICEF’s contributions in the MENA region across the following five Action Areas
- Evidence and Advocacy (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Yemen, Morocco)
- Policies, coordinating and financing (Djibouti, Morocco)
- Cash transfer programming and systems strengthening (Egypt, Jordan, Tunisia)
- Cash plus interventions and social work (Iraq, State of Palestine (highlights children with disabilities), Yemen)
- Social protection in fragile and humanitarian contexts/settings (Yemen, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria). The Syrian programme was "Reaching children with complex disabilities through cash transfers and case management"
This report looks at the challenges linked to the use of explosive weapons in the Syrian context for the provision of adequate immediate assistance and to plan for mid- to long-term assistance to the victims of explosive violence, to ensure their full recovery and inclusion into society. It is based on data and testimonies collected from humanitarian agencies, actors and patients across all areas of control in Syria. The testimony of Farah, a Syrian girl injured during the bombing of her school, and of her mother, is shared throughout the report to illustrate the challenges faced by victims.
This report was compiled from June to August 2019 and relies on multiple sources, including review of both gray and academic literature, published and unpublished data from INGOs working in Syria response, firsthand interviews with patients and Syrian humanitarians working both inside Syria and from cross-border locations, and expatriate staff from INGOs and UN agencies. Interviews were conducted at a distance during June and July 2019 with 12 individuals, among which: 2 patients; 3 mine action operators; 4 medical staff, and 3 humanitarian workers
This K4D helpdesk research report seeks to explore the current (2018) situation of persons with disabilities (PWD) in Jordan. It presents recent data on the state of PWD in Jordan, such as data on access to basic services for PWD. It also considers the political, social, cultural, and economic context for PWD in Jordan. Finally, it explores laws and policies relevant to the rights of PWD in Jordan. It considers the situation for Syrian refugees with disabilities with regards to the above themes. Where possible, the report presents data disaggregated by age and gender
This K4D helpdesk report identifies information since 2013 concerning:
- data on the state of persons with disabilities in Lebanon
- assessments of laws on the rights of persons with disabilities in Lebanon
- analyses of the political, social, cultural, and economic context for persons with disabilities in Lebanon
Issues particular to persons with disabilities amongst Syrian refugees within these aspects are identified where possible.
The state of knowledge and gaps are discussed.
A K4 helpdesk report, commissioned by DFID (UK), provides a rapid review of literature to provide best estimates of psychosocial disability in specific countries in the Middle East.
Topics discussed include:
Prevalence and different forms of mental health conditions and psychosocial disability
Factors influencing prevalence
Differences across demographics
Provision for those with psychosocial disabilities
This desk based review reports on the then current best estimates of psychosocial disability in the following countries in the Middle East and North Africa: Lebanon, Jordan, Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPTs), Iraq, Syria and Yemen. Factors influencing prevalence of psychosocial disability in each of these countries, and whether conflict was an important factor were considered. Prevalent forms of psychosocial disability and how might they differ by country were reviewed. How prevalence and form of psychosocial disability differ across the following demographic characteristics: gender, age, religion, ethnic group was addressed. The state of provision, both state and non-state, for those with psychosocial disabilities in these countries, and variation of eligibility and access to provision/services across demographics (e.g. age, gender, religion or ethnic group) were also considered.
Factos and figures are provided in infographic format about:
- people with disabilities in Syria and the host refugee nations
- grave violations against children
- displacement of people
- humanitarian access and siege
- extreme survival measures
Highlights of the UNICEF response are provided
In 2015, Italy was the second most common point of entry for asylum seekers into Europe after Greece. The vast majority embarked from war-torn Libya; 80,000 people claimed asylum that year. Their medical conditions were assessed on arrival but their mental health needs were not addressed in any way, despite the likelihood of serious trauma before and during migration. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), in agreement with the Italian Ministry of Health, provided mental health (MH) assessment and care for recently-landed asylum seekers in Sicily. This study documents mental health conditions, potentially traumatic events and post-migratory living difficulties experienced by asylum seekers in the MSF programme in 2014–15.
All asylum seekers transiting the 15 MSF-supported centres were invited to a psycho-educational session. A team of psychologists and cultural mediators then provided assessment and care for those identified with MH conditions. Potentially traumatic events experienced before and during the journey, as well as post-migratory living difficulties, were recorded. All those diagnosed with MH conditions from October 2014 to December 2015 were included in the study.
Among 385 individuals who presented themselves for a MH screening during the study period, 193 (50%) were identified and diagnosed with MH conditions. Most were young, West African males who had left their home-countries more than a year prior to arrival. The most common MH conditions were post traumatic stress disorder (31%) and depression (20%). Potentially traumatic events were experienced frequently in the home country (60%) and during migration (89%). Being in a combat situation or at risk of death, having witnessed violence or death and having been in detention were the main traumas. Lack of activities, worries about home, loneliness and fear of being sent home were the main difficulties at the AS centres.
MH conditions, potentially traumatic events and post-migratory living difficulties are commonly experienced by recently-arrived ASs, this study suggests that mental health and psychosocial support and improved living circumstances should be integrated into European medical and social services provided by authorities in order to fulfil their humanitarian responsibility and reduce the burden of assimilation on receiving countries.
Immigration Asylum seekers Refugee Mental health Italy Europe Traumatic event Operational research
Objective To quantify and predict the economic burden of dementia in China for the periods 1990–2010 and 2020–2030, respectively, and discuss the potential implications for national public health policy. Methods Using a societal, prevalence-based, gross cost-of-illness approach and data from multiple sources, we estimated or predicted total annual economic costs of dementia in China. We included direct medical costs in outpatient and inpatient settings, direct non-medical costs – e.g. the costs of transportation – and indirect costs due to loss of productivity. We excluded comorbidity-related costs.
Findings The estimated total annual costs of dementia in China increased from 0.9 billion United States dollars (US$) in 1990 to US$47.2 billion in 2010 and were predicted to reach US$ 69.0 billion in 2020 and US$ 114.2 billion in 2030. The costs of informal care accounted for 94.4%, 92.9% and 81.3% of the total estimated costs in 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively. In China, population ageing and the increasing prevalence of dementia were the main drivers for the increasing predicted costs of dementia between 2010 and 2020, and population ageing was the major factor contributing to the growth of dementia costs between 2020 and 2030.
Conclusion In China, demographic and epidemiological transitions have driven the growth observed in the economic costs of dementia since the 1990s. If the future costs of dementia are to be reduced, China needs a nationwide dementia action plan to develop an integrated health and social care system and to promote primary and secondary prevention.
"Mental illnesses are the largest contributors to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. However, there is extremely limited access to high quality, culturally-sensitive, and contextually-appropriate mental healthcare services. This situation persists despite the availability of interventions with proven efficacy to improve patient outcomes. A partnerships network is necessary for successful program adaptation and implementation."
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. Data was used from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost–YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability–YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group.
This report, produced by the University of Sydney’s Centre for Disability Research and Policy (CDRP),
uses data collected in rounds four and five of UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys programme (MICS) to describe the wellbeing of young children with and without developmental delay in six Asian countries. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) were used as a framework for identifying indicators of child wellbeing.
The report, authored by CDRP Disability and Inequity Stream Leader Professor Eric Emerson with Dr Amber Savage of the Family and Disability Studies Initiative, University of Alberta, Canada and CDRP Director Professor Gwynnyth Llewellyn, found that children with Developmental Delay in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan and Vietnam are more likely than their peers to:
• Be living in poverty (SDG1). In five out the six countries children with developmental delay were more likely to be living in poverty than their peers
• Experience hunger (SDG2). In all six countries children with developmental delay were more likely to have experienced persistent severe hunger than their peers
• Suffer poor health (SDG3). On three indicators (poor peer relationships, diarrhoea and fever) children with developmental delay were more likely to have poor health than their peers. On three indicators (obesity, aggression and acute respiratory infections) there was no systematic difference between children with and without developmental delay.
• Experience barriers to quality education (SDG4). On all four indicators (attendance at early childhood education centre, family support for learning, access to learning materials in the home, maternal level of education) children with developmental delay were more disadvantaged than their peers.
• Experience barriers to clean water and sanitation (SDG6). On two indicators (improved sanitation, place to wash hands) children with developmental delay were more disadvantaged than their peers. On one indicator (improved drinking water) there was no systematic difference between children with and without developmental delay.
The authors noted that “Since the development of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1998, increased attention has been paid to monitoring the well-being of children. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and UNCRC both contain explicit provisions regarding the rights of children with disabilities. These impose obligations on governments to act to ensure that children with disabilities enjoy the same rights and opportunities as other children. In order to promote the visibility of children with disabilities, enable better policy, and monitor progress, disaggregation of data related to children’s well-being on the basis of disability is needed."
"Social inclusion of children with physical disabilities is essential for their mental health. The long-standing conflict and political instability in Palestine since 1948 has resulted in an unprecedented number of children with disabilities. This study aimed to assess social inclusion and mental health of children with physical disabilities in Palestine. Method: A mixed methods research design was used. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Brief Assessment of Social Inclusion for Children with Disability (BASIC-D) were administered to 100 children with amputations, 12-18 years of age, in the Gaza Strip. Ten semi-structured interviews were also conducted with personnel working across civil society rehabilitation services in the area, particularly in services that focussed on the physical rehabilitation of children who had lost a limb"
"This study aimed to define the current barriers and facilitators to socioeconomic inclusion for women with physical disability living in the community in Bangladesh and to highlight the impact of these barriers on health."
“This study was conducted with the aim to explore the experiences of mothers in dealing with children having disabilities in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Through random sampling method 154 mothers of physically handicapped children studying in pre-schools and primary schools were selected as respondents…The data highlights that the disability of the children had been unexpected for all the mothers who participated in this research. The mothers reported to have been shocked (56%) and apprehended about the future of the children (41%)… The data demonstrates that measures taken by mothers to facilitate their children included seeking help from internet and engaging with support groups and friends”
European Scientific Journal, Vol.11
“This paper explores UAFA’s [United Aid for Azerbaijan] experience, since 2002, in working with Azerbaijani stakeholders to move from the medical approach to disability, propagated by the Soviet model of planning and implementation, to a social, community-based approach. The paper highlights the common misconceptions and how these can be overcome, including the policy gaps that challenge effective implementation. The importance of creating and maintaining a core team is discussed, alongside the process that UAFA has developed for building up teams of CBR [Community Based Rehabilitation] workers. Finally, the paper raises the issue of introducing outcomes-based evaluation in a society that has no such prior experience, followed by an account of the continual challenge faced by most programmes–namely, how to achieve sustainable funding”
Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development, Vol 26, No 3
This editorial reviews the lessons learned from the 2005 Pakistan earthquake and other lessons learned including the recent Nepal earthquake in order to better understand appropriate disaster response strategies from a disability and rehabilitation perspective
Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, Vol.65, No.10
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