A short literature review is presented providing: a brief overview of the evidence on the relationship between mental health, maternal health and SRHR, including evidence on relevant outcomes; good practice in integrating mental health into maternal health and SRHR; a list of key guidance and key entry points
This review examines the potential implications of not addressing mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) needs resulting from conflict throughout the life course, including on longer term mental and physical health, communities and families (including intergenerational effects), and overall human development (including education and participation in the workforce).
To learn more about the current status of IECD (inclusive early childhood development) and ECI (early childhood intervention) programs, three international organizations collaborated to conduct a global survey: RISE Institute; UNICEF; and the Early Childhood Development Task Force (ECDtf), which is within the Global Partnership on Children with Disabilities (GPcwd). This large survey was designed in 2016, was conducted in 2017, and the report was prepared in 2018.
The main objectives of the survey were to:
- Map current implementation of IECD and ECI programs and related activities;
- Describe key IECD and ECI program features;
- Identify gaps and challenges in providing accessible IECD and ECI services;
- Document factors associated with successful implementation and scale-up;
- Generate recommendations to inform future policy and program development and national planning and implementation efforts.
The online survey targeted a range of programs, and activities including IECD and ECI services; rehabilitation and habilitation services; humanitarian, emergency, and child Global Survey of Inclusive ECD and ECI Programs 8 protection services; advocacy campaigns; and research and evaluation projects.
Program respondents provided information on 426 programs that were implemented in 121 countries.
Background identification of children at risk of developmental delay and/or impairment requires valid measurement of early child development (ECD). ECD measurement tools were systematically assessed for accuracy and feasibility for use in routine services in low income and middle-income countries (LMIC).
Building on World Bank and peer-reviewed literature reviews, available ECD measurement tools for children aged 0–3 years used in ≥1 LMIC were identified and matrixed according to when (child age) and what (ECD domains) they measure at population or individual level. Tools measuring <2 years and covering ≥3 developmental domains, including cognition, were rated for accuracy and feasibility criteria using a rating approach derived from Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations
Between 2015 and 2017, Plan International Mozambique worked together with communities supporting 106 preschools in rural Mozambique. In late 2016, an approach was piloted in 18 community-based preschools to support them to be disability-inclusive. The overall goal was to increase the number of children with disabilities enrolled in Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) centres delivering quality early learning opportunities. The pilot took place over a 12 month period. Summarised findings about the current status of inclusion in preschool programmes run by Plan International Mozambique, case studies and lessons learned about the inclusion of children with disabilities in these programmes are provided.
They describe five aspects that need to be considered to remove barriers and ensure that children with disabilities can access and benefit from early childhood education:
1. Work directly with the parents of children with disabilities
2. Address individual physical and medical needs of children with disabilities
3. Build the skills and confidence of caretakers
4. Equip and build a strong implementing team
5. Build evidence on what is happening and what (doesn’t) work
Girls and young women with disabilities have the right to make decisions over their own bodies and live free from violence and fear. Yet, on a global level, they are the people least likely to enjoy their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Compelled by this reality, Plan International and the Office of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities have joined forces to ensure young women and girls with disabilities can exercise choice and have control over their bodies. The Let Me Decide and Thrive initiative is supported by in-depth, critical field and desk research and aims to empower girls and young women with disabilities, raise awareness of their plight among stakeholders, and work to secure their sexual and reproductive health and rights.
This research found that the barriers to SRHR confronted by girls and young women with disabilities are overwhelming: infantilisation and disempowerment; forced sterilisation, abortion, and contraception; disproportionate suffering from all forms of violence; substantial barriers in accessing justice; discriminatory attitudes, norms, and behaviours rendering them invisible; and a lack of accessible and appropriate SRHR information and services.
Suboptimal quality of care and disparities in services by healthcare providers are often reported in Nepal. Experience and perceptions about quality of care may differ according to women’s socio-cultural background, individual characteristics, their exposure and expectations. This study aimed to compare perceptions of the quality of maternal healthcare services between two groups that are consistently considered vulnerable, women with disabilities from both the non-Dalit population and Dalit population and their peers without disabilities from both non-Dalit and Dalit communities.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 343 total women that included women with disabilities, Dalits and non-Dalits. Women were recruited for interview, who were aged 15–49 years, had been pregnant within the last five years and who had used maternal care services in one of the public health facilities of Rupandehi district. A 20-item, Likert-type scale with four sub-scales or dimensions: ‘Health Facility’, ‘Healthcare Delivery’, ‘Inter-personal’ and ‘Access to Care’ was used to measure women’s perceptions of quality of care. Chi-square test and t test were used to compare groups and to assess differences in perceptions; and linear regression was applied to assess confounding effects of socio-demographic factors. The mean score was compared for each item and separately for each dimension.
PLoS ONE 12(12): e0188554
This policy paper describes the operational terms of Handicap International’s mandate and values as applied to Mother, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH). Presenting the approaches and references underpinning Handicap International’s actions, choices and commitments, its purpose is to ensure consistency across its practices while taking account of different contexts. Intended as a document to guide programme staff, the paper defines the topic, describes the target populations and sets out the methods of intervention (activities and expected results) and the indicators used to monitor and evaluate. It also aims to ensure that Handicap International programmes implement all projects in accordance with the presented methods of intervention
The SDGs focus on a broader scope of activities and are thus slowly but surely shifting from mortality to address in a more comprehensive manner the well-being and achievement of maximum potential for children and adolescents. With a robust component in sexual and reproductive health, this represents a significant frame of reference for Handicap International’s work in MNCH as it has paved the way for integrating MNCH-related impairments into existing health services. The framework of the SDGs provides a clear vision of the importance of multi-sectorial interventions, which encompass the limit of vertically-organised health systems centred on curative aspects, to offer a more integrated and preventive package of interventions that include chronic conditions, impairments and health for all. After many years of implementing MNCH projects, Handicap International is well-positioned and firmly established as a major player in this process.
Ethiopian disabled women’s experiences of intimacy, pregnancy and motherhood are reported. Qualitative, in-depth, and semi-structured interviews along with personal observations were used to explore the full experiences of participants. Interview data revealed that mothers experienced significant challenges with regard to accessibility of health centers, physician’s lack of knowledge about and problematic attitudes toward them and more general societal prejudices towards individuals with disability. The 13 participants were employed women with physical or visual disabilities, and the interviewees were from the Addis Ababa metropolitan area, Ethiopia.
Disability & Society, 32:10, 1510-1533
Women with disabilities are less likely to receive maternal healthcare services compared to women without disabilities. While few studies have reviewed healthcare experience of women with disabilities, no studies have been conducted to understand provider's attitude towards disability in Nepal, yet the attitude and behaviour of healthcare providers may have a significant influence on aspects of care and the use of service by women with disabilities. This study examines healthcare provider's attitudes towards disability and explores the experience of women with disabilities in maternal healthcare service utilization during pregnancy and childbirth.
The study used mixed method approach. An attitude survey was conducted among 396 healthcare providers currently working in public health facilities in Rupandehi district of Nepal. For additional insight, eighteen in-depth interviews with women with disabilities who used maternal healthcare services in a healthcare facility within the study district in their last pregnancy were undertaken. The Attitude Towards Disabled Persons (ATDP) scale score was used to measure the attitudes of healthcare providers. For quantitative data, univariate and multivariate analysis using ANOVA was used to understand the association between outcome and independent variables and qualitative analysis generated and described themes.
Reproductive Health, 2017
"Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in children worldwide, and yet in most low resource settings there are few services available to support children with cerebral palsy or their families. Research is required to understand the effectiveness of community and/or home based programmes to address this gap. This 2-year study aimed to evaluate a participatory caregiver training programme called ‘Getting to know cerebral palsy’ in Ghana. The training programme consisted of a monthly half-day support group with training, and a home visit, delivered across eight sites in Ghana over 10 months. A total of 76 families and children were included at baseline and 64 families followed up one year later at endline. Children were aged between 18months and 12 years with a mean of 3.8 years and a range of severity of cerebral palsy. Nearly all (97%) the caregivers were female and the father was absent in 51% of families. The study was a pre-post intervention design using mixed methods to evaluate the impact. A baseline and endline quantitative survey was conducted to assess caregiver quality of life (QoL) and knowledge about cerebral palsy and child feeding, health, and nutrition outcomes. Qualitative data was collected to explore the impact and experiences of the training programme in more depth".
"Over 400,000 people across the Americas are thought to have been infected with Zika virus as a consequence of the 2015–2016 Latin American outbreak. Official government-led case count data in Latin America are typically delayed by several weeks, making it difficult to track the disease in a timely manner. Thus, timely disease tracking systems are needed to design and assess interventions to mitigate disease transmission."
"The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in March 2016 that there was a scientific consensus that the mosquito-borne Zika virus was a cause of the neurological disorder Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities based on rapid evidence assessments. Decisions about causality require systematic assessment to guide public health actions. The objectives of this study were to update and reassess the evidence for causality through a rapid and systematic review about links between Zika virus infection and (a) congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, in the foetuses and offspring of pregnant women and (b) GBS in any population, and to describe the process and outcomes of an expert assessment of the evidence about causality."
The microcephaly epidemic, which started in Brazil in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO in 2016. Preliminary results of a case-control study investigating the association between microcephaly and Zika virus infection during pregnancy are reported. A case-control study was carried out in eight public hospitals in Recife, Brazil. Cases were neonates with microcephaly. Two controls (neonates without microcephaly), matched by expected date of delivery and area of residence, were selected for each case.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 16, No. 12, pp. 1356–1363, Dec 2016
With increasing evidence of linkages between Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus infection, the importance of enhancing Guillain-Barré syndrome surveillance is highlighted and use of existing surveillance systems like the one for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) used by polio eradication programmes is proposed. A process for using the AFP surveillance system for Zika virus surveillance is outlined. Worldwide distribution maps of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are presented and control measures following Zika infection testing are listed.
“This study was conducted with the aim to explore the experiences of mothers in dealing with children having disabilities in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Through random sampling method 154 mothers of physically handicapped children studying in pre-schools and primary schools were selected as respondents…The data highlights that the disability of the children had been unexpected for all the mothers who participated in this research. The mothers reported to have been shocked (56%) and apprehended about the future of the children (41%)… The data demonstrates that measures taken by mothers to facilitate their children included seeking help from internet and engaging with support groups and friends”
European Scientific Journal, Vol.11
Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania. Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods. In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.
The goal of this report is to provide the best possible data on the global AIDS epidemic, with a particular focus on information and analysis on the people left behind. The report highlights these gaps firstly in regional terms, providing “Regional Snapshots” and then explores issues faced by the following 12 populations that have been left behind by the AIDS response: people living with HIV, adolescent girls and young women, prisoners, migrants, people who inject drugs, sex workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men, transgender people, children and pregnant women living with HIV, displaced persons, people with disabilities and people aged 50 years and older
There is increasing international interest in the links between malnutrition and disability: both are major global public health problems, both are key human rights concerns, and both are currently prominent within the global health agenda. In this review, interactions between the two fields are explored and it is argued that strengthening links would lead to important mutual benefits and synergies. At numerous points throughout the life-cycle, malnutrition can cause or contribute to an individual's physical, sensory, intellectual or mental health disability. By working more closely together, these problems can be transformed into opportunities: nutrition services and programmes for children and adults can act as entry points to address and, in some cases, avoid or mitigate disability; disability programmes can improve nutrition for the children and adults they serve. For this to happen, however, political commitment and resources are needed, as are better data.
Paediatrics and International Child Health
Volume 34, 2014 - Issue 4: Nutrition and malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries
Neurodevelopmental delay, neurodisability, and malnutrition interact to contribute a significant burden of disease in global settings. Assessments which are well integrated with plans of management or advice are most likely to improve outcomes. Assessment tools used in clinical research and programming to evaluate outcomes include developmental and cognitive tools that vary in complexity, sensitivity, and validity as well as the target age of assessment. Few tools have been used to measure socioemotional outcomes and fewer to assess the disabled child with malnutrition. There is a paucity of tools used clinically which actually provide families and professionals with advice to improve outcomes. Brain imaging, electroencephalography, audiology, and visual assessment can also be used to assess the effect of malnutrition on brain structure and function. The interaction of neurodisability and malnutrition is powerful, and both need to be considered when assessing children.
Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, Child Neurology in Africa, Volume 21, Issue 1, March 2014, Pages 50–57
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