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Interventions to improve the labour market situation of adults with physical and/or sensory disabilities in low and middle-income countries : a systematic review

TIPNEY, Janice
et al
November 2015

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This systematic review analyses the methodology, collection, and results of fourteen individual studies that examined the effectiveness of fifteen different intervention methods to assist students with disabilities in low and middle income countries to improve the labour market situation

Campbell Systematic Reviews 2015:20

 

Leave no one behind : the real bottom billion

BHATKAL, Tanvi
SAMMAN, Emma
STUART, Elizabeth
September 2015

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"This paper sets out why the ‘leave no one behind’ agenda should be a key priority (i) in implementing the SDGs in all countries and (ii) in assessing whether or not governments have met them. It underlines how deeply entrenched marginalisation is, how vulnerabilities often overlap to amplify multiple disadvantages, and just how little we know about some groups that are likely to be deprived"

The economic lives of people with disabilities in Vietnam

PALMER, M
GROCE, N
MONT, D
NGUYEN, O H
MITRA, S
July 2015

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Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how
they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs
gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour) that helps to maintain living standards
in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to
all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.

Disability, gender, and employment relationships in Africa: The case of Ghana

NAAMI, Augustina
2015

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The exploratory quantitative study sought to develop an understanding about the relationships among disability, gender and employment in Northern Ghana. A total of 110 individuals with disabilities (20–60 years) from various disability groups participated in the study. The results indicate that many persons with disabilities are unemployed, the majority being women. Discrimination is cited as the greatest barrier to the employment of persons with disabilities, particularly women. The majority of persons with disabilities, typically women, live in poverty; given that some are unemployed and those who are employed worked mostly in marginal, seasonal and menial jobs. Persons with disabilities also experience several challenges on the job, including negative perceptions about their capabilities, discrimination and exclusion, irrespective of the employment sector and disability type. Educational interventions such as workshops, documenting and showcasing success stories of persons with disabilities could be helpful to reduce negative perceptions about their capabilities as well as discrimination against them. Government intervention to support persons with disabilities with start-up capital and funding for formal education is also recommended as these two elements were identified respectively as barriers to self-employment and employment in the public/private sectors. Government interventions to create educational opportunities for persons with disabilities are essential given that lower educational attainment affect their employment.

The prevalence of self-reported vision difficulty in economically disadvantaged regions of South Africa

NAIDOO, Kovin S
JAGGERNATH, Jyoti
RAMSON, Prasidh
CHINANAYI, Farai
ZHUWAU, Tom
ØVERLAND, Lene
2015

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Background: Vision impairment, resulting in vision difficulties, is a leading cause of disability, and hence one of the key barriers for people to access education and employment, which may force them into poverty.

 

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported vision difficulties as an indicator of vision impairment in economically disadvantaged regions in South Africa, and to examine the relationship between self-reported vision difficulties and socio-economic markers of poverty, namely, income, education and health service needs.

 

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in economically disadvantaged districts to collect data from households on poverty and health, including vision difficulty. As visual acuity measurements were not conducted, the researchers used the term vision difficulty as an indicator of vision impairment. Data were collected from 27 districts (74 901 respondents). Logistic regression analysis and chi-square tests were used to determine bivariate relationships between variables and self-reported vision difficulty. Kernel density estimators were used for age, categorised by self-reported and not reported vision difficulty.

 

Results: Prevalence of self-reported vision difficulty was 11.2% (95% CI, 8.7% – 13.7%). More women (12.7%) compared to men (9.5%) self-reported vision difficulty (p < 0.01). Self-reported vision difficulty was higher (14.2%) for respondents that do not spend any money. A statistically significant relationship was found between the highest level of education and self-reporting of vision difficulty; as completed highest level of education increased, self-reporting of vision difficulty became lower (p < 0.01). A significantly higher prevalence of self-reported vision difficulty was found in respondents who are employed (p < 0.01), 17% (95% CI: 12.8% – 21.1%).

 

Conclusion: The evidence from this study suggests associations between socio-economic factors and vision difficulties that have a two-fold relationship (some factors such as education, and access to eye health services are associated with vision difficulty whilst vision difficulty may trap people in their current poverty or deepen their poverty status). The results are thus indicative of the need for further research in South Africa.

A multifaceted program causes lasting progress for the very poor : evidence from six countries

BANERJEE, Abhijeet
et al
May 2015

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This article presents results from six randomized control trials of an integrated approach to improve livelihoods among the very poor. The graduated approach combines the transfer of a productive asset with consumption support, training, and coaching plus savings encouragement and health education and/or services. Results from the implementation of the same basic program, adapted to a wide variety of geographic and institutional contexts and with multiple implementing partners, show statistically significant cost-effective impacts on consumption (fueled mostly by increases in self-employment income) and psychosocial status of the targeted households. The impact on the poor households lasted at least a year after all implementation ended. It is possible to make sustainable improvements in the economic status of the poor with a relatively short-term intervention

Science, Vol 348, Issue 6236

Can households cope with health shocks in Vietnam?

MITRA, S
PALMER, M
MONT, D
GROCE, N
May 2015

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"This paper investigates the economic impact of health shocks on working-age adults in Vietnam during 2004-2008, using a fixed effects specification. Health shocks cover disability and morbidity and are measured by 'days unable to carry out regular activity', 'days in bed due to illness/injury', and 'hospitalization'. Overall, Vietnamese households are able to smooth total non-health expenditures in the short run in the face of a significant rise in out-of-pocket health expenditures. However, this is accomplished through vulnerability-enhancing mechanisms, especially in rural areas, including increased loans and asset sales and decreased education expenditures. Female-headed and rural households are found to be the least able to protect consumption. Results highlight the need to extend and deepen social protection and universal health coverage."

Applied research concerning inclusion of persons with disabilities in systems of social protection - social protection policy analysis, Peru

VASQUEZ, Alberto
GOTELLI, Veronica
BLANCHET, Karl
WALSHAM, Matthew
May 2015

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The effect of mainstream social protection policies in Peru on the inclusion of persons with disabilities in Peruvian society are explored in the both economic and social context.  The policy analysis was conducted to understand past successes and failures and to plan for future policy implementation and the research took place alongside a similar analysis in Tanzania.  A policy research guideline was developed allowing cross-country comparison between the two studies. A literature review was carried out to identify social protection policies and programmes in Peru. In addition, 22 interviews were held with key stakeholders, including organisations of persons with disabilities, to explore more in-depth information on the impact of major policies. Social protection policies, health, education and employment issues for people with disabilities are covered. Associated qualitative and quantitative reports are available.

Participation and quality of life outcomes among individuals with earthquake-related physical disability: A systematic review

NUNNERLEY, Joanne
DUNN, Jennifer
McPHERSON, Kathryn
et al
May 2015

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A literature review to evaluate quality of life and participation outcomes of individuals with earthquake-related physical injury. A systematic review was performed searching MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, CINAHL and AMED electronic databases from 1966 to January 2014. Studies that measured quality of life or participation outcomes among individuals who acquired a physical disability as a result of an earthquake injury were included, with no limits on research design. The search yielded 961 potentially relevant articles after removal of duplicates. Of these, only 8 articles met the inclusion criteria. Seven papers were reviewed from the following 5 earthquakes: 2001 Gujarat earthquake, India; 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China (also known as the Sichuan earthquake); 2005 Kashmir earthquake, Pakistan (27); 2009 Padang earthquake, Indonesia; 2010 Port-au-Prince earthquake.

Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol.47, no.5, 2015, 385-393

10.2340/16501977-1965

The economic costs of exclusion and gains of inclusion of people with disabilities : evidence from low and middle income countries

BANKS, Lena Morgon
POLACK, Sarah
2015

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This report, formed of two parts, provides robust empirical basis to support the theorized disability-poverty link. The first section presents a systematic review of the literature on the relationship between disability and economic poverty. The second section explores the economic consequences of the exclusion and inclusion of people with disabilities in the areas of education, employment and health. The key pathways through which these economic costs may arise are discussed and studies that have attempted to quantify the financial impacts are reviewed

Rethinking the work capability assessment

BAUMBERG, Ben
et al
March 2015

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This report outlines the key research findings about the Work Capability Assessment (WCA) criteria of the Employment Support Allowance (ESA), a means tested benefit for those who are unable to find work in Britain. It presents the state of the UK’s existing assessment and then describes how seven key countries systematically assess incapacity, and the lessons these countries provide for reforming the WCA in the UK

Decent work and poverty reduction strategies (PRS) : a reference manual for ILO staff and constituents

INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE (ILO)
2015

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This publication originated in 2003 as an ILO contribution to deliberations then taking place in preparation for the development of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). By examining the development over time of the ‘right to work’ of persons with disabilities,1 how this matter has been dealt with in international instruments and national legislation to date, and experience around the world in promoting employment and work opportunities, the working paper enabled those involved in the preparation of the proposed CRPD to build on earlier achievements.

First edition 2005. Third edition 2015

Capturing the difference we make : community-based rehabilitation indicators manual

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2015

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This manual presents indicators that "capture the difference (Community-Based Rehabilitation) CBR makes in the lives of people with disabilities in the communities where it is implemented. This manual presents these (base and supplementary) indicators and provides simple guidance on collecting the data needed to inform them. The indicators have been developed to show the difference between people living with a disability and their families and those without disabilities in relation to the information reported in the indicators. This comparability provides valuable information to CBR managers, donors and government agencies alike, which can be used to guide decision-making, support advocacy and improve accountability. Further, the ability of the indicators to provide a comparison of the populations of persons with disability to persons without disability aligns with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which states that persons with disability have equal rights to those without disabilities...this manual serves to standardize the monitoring of differences made by in the lives of people with disabilities and their families, making it possible to compare the difference CBR makes across areas and countries. This manual aligns with the WHO Global Disability Action Plan 2014–2021, and may also be used to monitor other development plans in an easy and efficient way”

Disability at a glance 2015: Strengthening employment prospects for persons with disabilities in Asia and the Pacific

UN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC (ESCAP), Social Development Division
2015

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This report, the fifth edition in the Disability at a Glance series, focuses on barriers to the employment of persons with disabilities in the Asia-Pacific region, and offers solutions to strengthen their employment prospects. It offers a regional overview of disability legislation, policies and practices, as well as relevant country-specific information with a particular emphasis on the employment of persons with disabilities. The information is drawn from a targeted disability survey carried out in 2015 by the ESCAP secretariat, and research undertaken by other organizations and scholars.

The publication consists mainly of two parts. In Part 1, Chapter 1 discusses key employment trends shaping the experiences of persons with disabilities in Asia and the Pacific. Chapter 2 considers the major barriers that persons with disabilities face as they seek to find decent work in the open labour market. Chapter 3 explores a number of strategies used by governments and in the private sector to promote greater access to employment for persons with disabilities. Finally, Chapter 4 lays out a series of action points governments should consider in their efforts to remove the numerous employment barriers faced by many millions of disabled people. In Part 2, country snapshots provide the latest demographic, socioeconomic and employment-specific data from 58 countries in 5 ESCAP subregions .

Guidelines for integrating gender-based violence interventions in humanitarian action: Reducing risk, promoting resilience and aiding recovery

WARD, Jean
LAFRENIERE, Julie
et al
2015

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The purpose of these Guidelines is to assist humanitarian actors and communities affected by armed conflict, natural disasters and other humanitarian emergencies to coordinate, plan, implement, monitor and evaluate essential actions for the prevention and mitigation of gender-based violence (GBV) across all sectors of humanitarian response. Part One presents an overview of GBV, provides an explanation for why GBV is a protection concern for all humanitarian actors and outlines recommendations for ensuring implementation of the Guidelines. Part Two provides a background to the ‘thematic areas’ in Part Three. It also introduces the guiding principles and approaches that are the foundation for all planning and implementation of GBV-related programming. Part Three constitutes the bulk of these Guidelines. It provides specific guidance, organized into thirteen thematic area sections: camp coordination and camp management; child protection; education; food security and agriculture; health; housing, land and property; humanitarian mine action; livelihoods; nutrition; protection; shelter, settlement and recovery; water, sanitation and hygiene; humanitarian operations support sectors. The importance of cross-sectoral coordination is highlighted in each section. It is also recommended that sector actors review the content of all thematic area sections. The Guidelines draw from many tools, standards, background materials and other resources developed by the United Nations, national and international non-governmental organizations, and academic sources. In each thematic area there is a list of resources specific to that area, and additional GBV-related resources are provided in Annex 1. The importance of indicators being disaggregated by sex, age, disability and other vulnerability factors is highlighted throughout.

Equal basis 2014 : access and rights in 33 countries

BURKE, Megan
PERSI VICENTIC, Loren
December 2014

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This report presents research about efforts to meet the needs and uphold the rights of persons with disabilities in four thematic areas: health care, rehabilitation, work and employment, and accessibility and enabling environments. Research findings are drawn from the experiences of landmine and cluster munition survivors and other persons with similar needs in 33 countries experiencing armed conflict or emerging from armed conflict or political or economic transition. Findings are placed within the context of relevant articles of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the World Report on Disability

ESCAP Guide on Disability Indicators for the Incheon Strategy

UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC (ESCAP) SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT DIVISION
December 2014

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The Incheon Strategy to “Make the Right Real” for Persons with Disabilities in Asia and the Pacific provides the Asian and Pacific region, and the world, with the first set of regionally agreed disability-inclusive development goals. The Incheon Strategy goals cover a range of development areas from poverty reduction and employment to political participation, accessibility, social protection, education, gender equality, disaster risk reduction, data collection, CRPD ratification and international cooperation.

To ensure that the 10 goals are successfully met, the Strategy identifies 27 targets as well as 62 related indicators for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the 10 goals. These targets and indicators are essential for developing practical implementation strategies, ensuring success and identifying areas where significant challenges remain. Goal 8 of the Incheon Strategy accords particular priority to data collection, calling for improvement of the reliability and comparability of disability data across countries in the region. Member States, in target 8B, have specifically committed to establishing a baseline with reliable statistics by the midpoint of the Asian and Pacific Decade of Persons with Disabilities in 2017, as a source of tracking progress towards the achievement of the Incheon Goals.

The ESCAP Guide on Disability Indicators for the Incheon Strategy aims to guide data collection and generation by ESCAP member States through providing them with relevant methodologies and tools to construct and use the 62 indicators of the Incheon Strategy, in order to monitor the achievement of the 10 disability-inclusive development goals.

“We can also change” Piloting participatory research with persons with disabilities and older people in Bangladesh

BURNS, Danny
OSWALD, Katy
November 2014

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Sightsavers, HelpAge International, ADD International and Alzheimer’s Disease International worked together with the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) to bring the perspectives of those who live in poverty or who are highly marginalised into post-2015 policy making. The aim of the research was to understand better the experiences of social, political and economic exclusion of persons with disabilities and older people in Bangladesh from their own perspectives. Two groups (community and NGO) of peer researchers collected 70 stories from poor and/or excluded persons with disabilities and older people from each of the two sites: Bhashantek, an urban slum in Dhaka; and Cox’s Bazar, a rural area in southeast Bangladesh. From the stories collected and analysed in workshops, the peer researchers identified 13 priority areas that affect persons with disabilities and older people: accidents and disasters; livelihoods; access to education; medical treatment; family support; exclusion and mistreatment; superstition; access to services; mobility; marriage; land; rape and sexual abuse; the role of grassroots community-based organisations. Recommendations from the researchers are made in each area. The peer research programme was evaluated and guidelines for its use are provided.

Wage subsidies and hiring chances for the disabled: Some causal evidence

BAERT, Stijn
July 2014

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The effectiveness of wage subsidies as a policy instrument to integrate disabled individuals into the labour market was investigated. To identify causal effects, a field experiment was carried out in Belgium. Two applications for male graduates, identical except that one reveals a disability, were sent out to 768 vacancies in the Flemish labour market.

 

IZA Discussion Paper No. 8318

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