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Human Rights

www.macao-tz.org
December 2014

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Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania.  Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods.  In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.

Why do women not use antenatal services in low- and middle-Income countries? a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies

FINLAYSON, Kenneth
DOWNE, Soo
January 2013

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This article aims to inform the development of future antenatal care programmes through a synthesis of findings in all relevant qualitative studies. The findings suggest that there may be a misalignment between current antenatal care provision and the social and cultural context of some women in low and middle income countries
PLoS Med, Vol 10, Issue 1

Obesity in disabled children and adolescents : an overlooked group of patients

REINEHR , Thomas
et al
April 2010

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This article presents the results of a literature review about the relationship between disability and obesity in childhood and adolescence. "A total of 38 relevant articles were identified. All studies agreed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with disabilities was almost twice that in their non-disabled peers. No effective, long-lasting interventions for obesity in disabled children and adolescents have been published. Conclusion: Since a high proportion of disabled children and adolescents are overweight or obese, effective strategies for preventing and managing excess weight need to be developed so as not to further endanger their social participation. Moreover, risk factors for overweight in disabled children and adolescents should be identified and their weight status carefully monitored"
Deutsche Arzteblatt International Journal, Vol 107, Issue 15

Child-centred disaster risk reduction : building resilience through participation : lessons from Plan International

PLAN INTERNATIONAL
2010

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This report “presents the results and recommendations of a five-year programme and…includes a series of case studies illustrating how child-centred Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) supports the delivery of the Hyogo Framework’s Priorities for Action, as well as the realisation of children’s rights to education, health and participation within disaster risk contexts…Child-centred Disaster Risk Reduction is an innovative approach to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) that fosters the agency of children and youth, in groups and as individuals, to work towards making their lives safer and their communities more resilient to disasters”

The barefoot guide to working with organisations and social change

REELER, Doug
et al
July 2009

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This is a practical, do-it-yourself guide for leaders and facilitators wanting to help organisations to function and to develop in more healthy, human and effective ways as they strive to make their contributions to a more humane society... The guide, with its supporting website, includes tried and tested concepts, approaches, stories and activities. Its purpose is to help stimulate and enrich the practice of anyone supporting organisations and social movements in their challenges of working, learning, growing and changing to meet the needs of our complex world. Although it is aimed at leaders and facilitators of civil society organisations, we hope it will be useful to anyone interested in fostering healthy human organisation in any sphere of life. This resource has a supporting website where additional resources are available

Change at hand : web 2.0 for development

ASHLEY, Holly
et al
June 2009

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There are dozens of emerging interactive web services and applications, sometimes referred to as the ‘participatory’, ‘social’ or ‘readwrite’ web, but more commonly known as Web 2.0. Together, they are radically changing the ways we create, share, collaborate and publish digital information through the Internet. These new technical opportunities bring challenges as well as opportunities that we need to understand and grasp. Most of the themed articles are based on presentations made at the the international Web2forDev conference, 25-27 September 2007 at the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) headquarters in Rome, Italy

Primary health care, social determinants of health and health public policies : indispensable agents for equity in health

EVANS, Timothy
2009

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This was a key note speech summarises the World Health Organization (WHO) Executive Board's resolutions on social determinants of health and primary health care based health systems. There are six general themes: values; measurement and monitoring; walking the talk in the health care sector; beyond the health care sector; the global frontier; and leadership and leadership capacity. The speech written and delivered by the Assistant Director General of WHO

PMI communication and social mobilization guidelines

PRESIDENT'S MALARIA INITIATIVE (PMI)
2008

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These guidelines are help in the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programmes to influence behaviours and mobilise communities to create long-term normative shifts towards desired behaviours and to sustain enabling behaviours around the four interventions of the Presidents Malaria Initiative. These are: * Increased demand for malaria services and products; * Acceptance of indoor residual spraying; * Improved adherence to treatment regimens and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy during pregnancy; * Regular insecticide-treated nets use by the general population, focusing on vulnerable groups including pregnant women and children under five; * Prompt, appropriate treatment with Artemisinin-based combination therapies for children under five within 24 hours of onset of symptoms; and * Community involvement in malaria control

HIV, AIDS, and Islam : a workshop manual based on compassion, responsibility and justice

ESACK, Farid
Ed
2007

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At a general level, anyone working with Muslims on the challenge of HIV and AIDS will find this manual helpful. More specifically, it is intended for those whose primary purpose is to raise awareness among Muslims about the prevalence of HIV and AIDS in Muslim communities. It is also intended for those who are seeking ways of responding to HIV and AIDS in a just, compassionate, caring, and responsible manner. The manual is intended for use as part of a three day workshop. It presents techniques that enable trainers to draw out the insights and experiences of participants and to build on them and tries to connect individuals’ real life experiences with their faith so that faith becomes more rooted in their daily lives and less of an abstract set of ideas or dogma

UNAIDS expert consultation on behaviour change in the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV : highlights and recommendations

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2007

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This is the report of a two-day meeting to consider the state of knowledge around behaviour change measures for the prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV. Participants identified four priority issues around this: prevention measures that are effective in concentrated epidemics; analysis of and responses to sexual behaviour involving multiple concurrent partners and other hyperendemic scenarios; gender inequality, inter-generational sex and gender-based violence as major sources of vulnerablity to women and girls in hyperendemic scenarios; and HIV-related stigma and denial as barriers to behaviour change. Analyses of these issues produced a number of recommendations

Young children, HIV/AIDS and gender : a summary review

BHANA, Deevia
BRIXEN, Farhana Farook
2006

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(From forward) Studies point to the existence of a global HIV/AIDS emergency among young people. An estimated 6,000 youths a day become infected, an average of one new infection every 14 seconds. The most socially and economically disadvantaged young people appear to be especially at risk of infection, and young women in developing contexts are at the greatest risk. The rate of HIV infection among girls is rapidly outstripping the rate among boys. Girls already account for nearly 60 percent of the infections in sub-Saharan Africa, where the pandemic is most virulent. This paper adopts the hypothesis that this pandemic can be confronted already in early childhood. During the first eight years of life the foundations are set for the capacities, beliefs and attitudes that support individuals in later life. In early childhood, people can therefore more easily learn and integrate appropriate risk avoidance behaviours that may prove useful in the global war on HIV/AIDS. The earliest years may represent a window of opportunity for the successful implementation of HIV/AIDS reduction and prevention programmes

HIV and young children : an annotated bibliography on psychosocial perspectives

SHERR, Lorraine
February 2005

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This annotated bibliography offers a practical guide to the content of the references which informed the literature review presented in BVLF Working Paper 33 (Young Children and HIV/AIDS: Mapping the Field). It is intended to help readers who want to go deeper into the issues and explore the original source material. The bibliography presents the references - mostly to peer-reviewed medical or psychology journals - under subject headings such as "disclosure", "interventions", "parentless children", "social development", and more

HIV/AIDS : what about very young children?

DUNN, Alison
July 2004

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This short paper reflects findings from research carried out to identify current responses to meet the needs of children age 0-8 living in HIV/AIDS affected communities. The overall results show that at local, national and international levels there are gaps in programming and policy to engage ideas and mobilise resources to address the needs and experiences of very young children both infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. The question is then raised: What can we actually do to include very young children in programming and policy responses in HIV/AIDS affected communities? Supporting existing family and community networks and current efforts that are being made by people confronting HIV/AIDS on a daily basis are important strategies. Conclusions are drawn indicating that services are required urgently to support very young children both directly and through the families and communities in which they live. Ways of listening to and including very young children in these processes need to be developed and used. Partnerships need to be developed between parents, families, NGOs, CBOs and government to ensure the holistic development of the child. At policy levels, very young children need to be included in programmes that address children, HIV/AIDS and community development. All government ministries can participate in meeting the needs of very young children in HIV/AIDS affected communities

The journey of life : a community workshop to support children

REGIONAL PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT INITIATIVE (REPSSI)
June 2004

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'The Journey of Life' is a community workshop curriculum to support children. This workshop seeks to address the increasing psychological and social needs of children affected by HIV/AIDS, war, and displacement. Its objective is to raise community awareness of the problems that children face growing up in a time of HIV/AIDS, war, and family disintegration. 'The Journey of Life' assists the community to identify children in need of social, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, and physical support. Through dialogue and reflection the community better understands how to use available resources in solving the problems that children encounter and to strengthen the resilience of their children. The workshop covers the areas of meeting children's needs; understanding children's problems; identifying children who need help; building children's strengths; and community mobilisation. The workshop manual can be used without additional training, though further training has been found to be helpful. A Facilitator's Guide accompanies the workshop

Rethinking conceptual approaches to behaviour change : the importance of context

PARKER, Warren
April 2004

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This concise article critically reviews the concept of behaviour change as it has been applied to individual behaviour in relation to HIV/AIDS. It notes the limits of cognitive approaches to behaviour change when applied within complex contexts and variations of risk to HIV infection. With regard to communication there is a need to move beyond top-down approaches and to incorporate horizontal and participatory approaches. These include recognising and resourcing the role of civil society responses to HIV/AIDS

HIV-infected women and their families : psychosocial support and related issues. A literature review

LINDSEY, Elizabeth
2003

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This review looks at global literature from academic institutions and UN agencies on psychosocial support and counselling, to HIV infected pregnant women and their families (from pre-conception to 2 years old). It also contains information about the efficacy of practices and projects that care for infected women and their families, especially methods used in relation to mother-to-child transmission during the perinatal period. There are also interesting examples of such projects from around the world. The final section of the review makes recommendations on psychosocial support and counselling for HIV infected women and families

Developing materials on HIV/AIDS/STIs for low-literate audiences

FAMILY HEALTH INTERNATIONAL (FHI)
PROGRAM FOR APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY AND HEALTH (PATH)
December 2002

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This manual provides a comprehensive methodology for developing materials for a low-literate audience in the context of a behaviour change communication program. It demonstrates the process of learning about target populations using qualitative research methodologies, developing effective messages with thir input, and crafting visual messages to support the overall HIV and AIDS program. Involving the target population and stakeholders in the development process is key to ensuring high-quality effective print materials. Finally, the guide outlines the process for rigorous pretesting to ensure that the information and issues are understood by the population groups that programs are trying to reach and influence. It can be adapted and used to develop audio-visual materials or materials for other target groups

Handbook for appropriate communication for behavior change. Culturally appropriate information/education/communication : elaboration and delivery

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANISATION (UNESCO). Division of Cultural Policies and Intercultural Dialogue
2001

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This handbook is part of the UNESCO initiative on HIV and culture. It deals with building culturally appropriate information/education/communication (IEC) material and processes. It aims to tailor the content and pace of action to people's beliefs, value systems, capacity to mobilise, and to modify international and national strategies and policies, project design and field work accordingly. It gives a conceptual introduction to the issue and then presents the methodological research to be carried out (evaluation of the current activities, understanding, sensitising and mobilising cultural references and resources accordingly). It then identifies proposed target audiences and their specific characteristics. It concludes by proposing appropriate IEC models combining message elaboration and delivery

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