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The impact of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS mortality : a study focusing on educators in South African public schools

REHLE, Thomas
SHISANA, Olive
2005

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This study attempts to estimate the impact of antiretroviral treatment on AIDS mortality over the next ten years, focusing on educators in South African public schools. Recently, African governments have scaled up ART initiatives, but the full potential of wider access to treatment is still unknown. The results of this study show that given that ART only delays death, AIDS mortality rate will increase over time among treated people. Further, as HIV-positive people will survive longer, an expansion of ART programmes will result on higher HIV prevalence. These findings have crucial implications for the education sector. The paper calls for new government policies aimed at increasing the number of students preparing to become teachers and raising the retirement age of educators

Starting or strengthening a drug bulletin : a practical manual

INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF DRUG BULLETINS
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2005

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Access to independent and reliable drug information is key to the promotion of rational prescribing and use of medicines. Bulletins are essential tools for information dissemination and this manual aims to provide guidelines, tips and examples on how to start or improve drug bulletins. It covers all aspects of production, providing a comprehensive overview of the editorial process, the reviewing of new drugs and the design, production and distribution of the bulletin. The manual is an essential guide for anyone starting or running a drug bulletin, but may also be of interest to health professionals and others

World malaria report 2005

ROLL BACK MALARIA
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2005

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A comprehensive report on the spread of malaria worldwide, including detailed profiles of countries' efforts to control the disease through treatment and prevention

Women's treatment literacy toolkit

SAFAIDS
2005

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A collection of information and communication materials on women and HIV/AIDS treatment. With a special focus on ARV treatment, it aims to help women adhere to treatment. Contains information sheets, posters, stickers and articles

Drug promotion : what we know, what we have yet to learn

NORRIS, Pauline
et al
2005

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This is a literature review on drug promotion, summarising current research findings on: professional and lay people's attitudes toward drug promotion; impact of pharmaceutical promotion on attitudes and knowledge; impact of pharmaceutical promotion on behaviour; and interventions carried out to counter promotional activities. The review suggests that promotion affects attitudes and behaviour. However evidence is patchy and more research is needed to verify the relationship between drug promotion and behaviour change

Remuneration guidelines for non-voluntary use of a patent on medical technologies

WEISSMAN, Robert
Ed
2005

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This document provides guidelines for determining reasonable royalties or adequate remuneration for the manufacture or sale of medicines. The emphasis is on patent systems easy to administer and not overly complex, setting royalty levels that should not prevent access to medicines. The document includes an overview of WTO TRIPS provisions, examples of royalty setting, considerations for developing a policy framework for remuneration and non-voluntary use of patents on medicines, royalty guidelines and an evaluation of the Medical Innovation Prize Fund system of remuneration. This document is primarily aimed at policy makers and national governments

Adherence

NATIONAL AIDS MANUAL (NAM)
2005

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Adherence is the most important factor in the success of your anti-HIV treatments. This booklet explains why adherence is important and provides some hints on actions you could take to improve your adherence

An electronic medical record system for ambulatory care of HIV-infected patients in Kenya

SIIKA, A M
et al
2005

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The faculty at Moi University in Kenya and Indiana University in the USA opened adult and pediatric HIV clinics in a national referral hospital, a district hospital, and six rural health centers in western Kenya using a newly developed electronic medical record system (EMR) to support comprehensive outpatient HIV/AIDS care. The EMR contains more than 30,000 visit records for more than 4,000 patients, almost half taking antiretroviral drugs. This article describes the development and structure of this EMR and plans for future development that include wireless connections, tablet computers, and migration to a Web-based platform

Prescription for healthy development : increasing access to medicines

LEACH, Beryl
PALUZZI, Joan E
MUNDERI, Paula
2005

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This resource highlights the importance of increasing the availability, affordability, and appropriate use of medicines in developing countries. Produced by the Working Group on Access to Essential Medicines or the Taskforce on AIDS, Malaria and TB and Access to Essential Medicines it offers concrete and practical steps to increase incentives for research for priority diseases of developing countries, improve procurement and distribution, strengthen primary health systems, develop more human resources, and increase health funding

Improving access and use of psychotropic medicines : mental health policy and service guidance package

FUNK, Michelle
et al
2005

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This module defines the respective roles of the public, private (for-profit) and NGO (not-for-profit) sectors in the financing and provision of psychotropic medicines. It identifies organizational arrangements in these sectors to meet the objectives of access. The guidance sets an agenda for capacity building and organizational development and provides guidance for prioritizing expenditure and making decisions on resource allocation
Note: This module is part of a guidance package that consists of a series of interrelated user-friendly modules that are designed to address the wide variety of needs and priorities in mental health policy development and service planning. Its recommended for use by policy makers, service planners representatives or associations of families and carers of people with mental disorders

The treatment gap in mental health care

KOHN, Robert
et al
November 2004

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This study examines the extent of the gap between the high prevalence of mental disorders and the great number of individuals with psychiatric disorders who remain untreated, even though effective treatments exist. The study uses results from 37 studies on service utilisation worldwide and presents examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are presented. The treatment gaps are universally large but vary from region to region. The abstract to this report is given in French, Spanish and Arabic

Mobile phones keep track of HIV treatments

KHAN, Taman
September 2004

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Thi article reports on the Cell-Life project, which has developed a software and data management systems to allow health workers use their mobile phones to monitor patients' treatment. The data is transferred to a central database, which clinic staff can access over a secure Internet connection. In a successful pilot project 80 HIV counsellours where trained, and through the use of their mobiles are now able to keept track of nearly 800 patients

Willingness and ability to use TRIPs flexibilities : Kenya case study

LEWIS-LETTINGTON, Robert
MUNYI, Peter
September 2004

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This paper examines Kenyan legislation and policy in light of the international intellectual property rights framework, in particular the World Trade Oorganization’s Doha Ministerial Declaration decision. It considers the existing sources of supply and associated trends in pricing of pharmaceutical products in Kenya, placing the focus on medicines that are, or are likely to be, affected by these rights

Access to medicines in under-served markets : what are the implications of changes in intellectual property rights, trade and drug registration policy?

DFID HEALTH SYSTEMS RESOURCE CENTRE (HSRC)
September 2004

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This overview draws on seven studies commissioned by the UK's Department for International Development. After providing some background, it considers the implications of stronger intellectual property protection for access to medicines; the prospects for supply in emerging and under-served markets; and makes recommendations for increasing access

Impact of public-private partnerships addressing access to pharmaceuticals in low and middle income countries : A synthesis report from studies in Botswana, Sri Lanka, Uganda and Zambia

CAINES, Karen
LUSH, Louisiana
September 2004

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This report provides an overview, with general conclusions and recommendations, from a series of studies in Uganda (the pilot country) plus Botswana, Sri Lanka and Zambia, designed to assess the health and health systems impact of public-private partnerships for improving access to pharmaceuticals in relation to tropical diseases and/or HIV and AIDS, where pharmaceutical companies are involved as partners in supplying free or discounted drugs

Antiretroviral roll-out in South Africa : where do children feature?

SHUNG-KING, Maylene
ZAMPOLI, Marco
August 2004

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This is a discussion paper on South Africa's 2003 roll out plan for the 'Comprehensive Care and Treatment for HIV and AIDS' and its implementation. It considers how the plan addresses children's needs and assesses its weaknesses, particularly in relation to the topic of ART for HIV-infected children. The paper laments that children's specific needs are not adequately dealt with, stressing that a comprehensive, child-oriented approach must give consideration to the mother-infant relationship and acknowledge that the health of the mother is a necessary component of the well-being of children. The plan also fails to consider the issues of children in residential care facilities, counselling needs of children, the specific difficulties associated with testing and diagnosing babies and children, and aspects of drug availability and treatment adherence in children. The paper concludes with recommendations designed to help policy making, service delivery and advocacy strategies. In particular the document calls for child-specific attention in areas of monitoring, adherence and drug provision, recommends that greater emphasis is placed on children's needs in the upscaling of ART provision, particularly through primary health care services, and that watchdog bodies and children's rights organisations take a more active role

Processes and issues for improving access to medicines : willingness and ability to utilise TRIPS flexibilities in non-producing countries

BAKER, Brook K.
August 2004

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This paper addresses the varied ways by which a non-medicine producing country may lawfully utilise the agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) flexibilities, primarily by importing. However, it also briefly discusses means for promoting local production through pharmaceutical capacity building and through both compulsory and voluntary licensing. To help decision-makers in understanding and evaluating the opportunities and constraints of each alternative, the paper briefly describes their respective advantages and disadvantages in terms of developing countries’ sustainable access to more affordable medicines, highlighting differing legal interpretations, political realities and pragmatic administrative and economic constraints

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