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HIV prevention with especially vulnerable young people : case studies of success and innovation

WOOD, Kate
et al
May 2006

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This follow-up publication is intended to be read in conjunction with 'HIV/AIDS prevention and care for especially vulnerable young people: a framework for action', which set out five core principles underpinning effective HIV/AIDS prevention programming with young people: putting the young person first; promoting meaningful participation; a commitment to rights; promoting gender equity; and tackling risk and vulnerability. It outlines five case studies. Each case study describes how these principles have been put into action, through innovative approaches to working with young people who are homeless, using drugs, selling sex or living in deprived communities. Case studies come from Argentina, India, Iran, Kenya and Nigeria. This is a useful resource for policy-makers, practitioners and researchers working to promote young people's sexual health in resource-constrained settings

Human rights and essential medicines : what can they learn from each other?

HOGERZEIL, Hans V.
May 2006

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"This paper provides a brief overview of what the international human rights instruments mention about access to essential medicines, and proposes five assessment questions and practical recommendations for governments. These recommendations cover the selection of essential medicines, participation in programme development, mechanisms for transparency and accountability, equitable access by vulnerable groups, and redress mechanisms"

Examining adherence and sexual behavior among patients on antiretroviral therapy in India

SARNA, Avina
et al
April 2006

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This is the report of a diagnostic study among people living with HIV&AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at selected private and public sector health facilities in Delhi and Pune. The objectives of the study were to: assess the current levels of adherence to ART among clients; identify the factors that influence adherence to treatment; examine the sexual risk behaviours of clients; and determine the economic burden of ART on clients

HIV and AIDS treatment education technical consultation report

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
March 2006

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This is a report on a technical consultation on treatment education held in Paris November 22-23, 2005, which aimed to assess the current state of HIV treatment literacy and community preparedness, identify needs and recommend strategies for the future. The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and medical care relies on timely HIV testing and treatment adherence. Treatment education interventions addressing issues of stigma and complacency, have been shown to contribute to a wider uptake of testing services and to improve adherence to ART. The report calls for an integrated and synergetic collaboration between all stakeholders, including people with HIV, and for the adoption of a participatory, person-centred approach. It also acknowledges that while there is a wealth of initiatives aimed at improving community preparedness, there is also a need to scale up programmes that have shown to work. The report concludes with a number of key recommendations for future activities. Those include: providing support to partnership and inter-sectoral collaborations; integrating treatment education across HIV education programmes and health systems; differentiating and customising approaches according to settings and audiences; involving affected communities and individuals; monitoring and evaluating treatment education initiatives

Handbook of supply management at first-level health care facilities : 1st version for country adaptation

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2006

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This guide describes all major medicines and supply management tasks, known as the standard procedures of medicines supply management at first level health care facilities. Each chapter covers one major task, explains how the task fits into the process of maintaining a consistent supply of medicines, and recommends which standard procedures to use. Annexes contain various checklists and examples of forms which can be introduced at health care facilities as needed

eHealth tools and services : needs of the member states. Report of the WHO Global Observatory for eHealth

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) GLOBAL OBSERVATORY FOR EHEALTH
2006

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This is a report on some of the findings of a global survey on eHealth carried out by the Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe), concerning the needs for eHealth tools and services. The survey found that WHO Member States would welcome an active involvement of WHO in the development of generic eHealth tools, while particularly non-OECD members would benefit form guidance on eHealth issues. It also found that needs vary even among OECD countries, and that existing eHealth tools and services should be better known. The report recommends that WHO should actively intervene in the provision of generic tools (eg, drug registries, patient record systems, health professional directories), facilitate access to existing tools, promote knowledge exchange, provide eHealth information and promote eLearning programmes

Living on the outside : key findings and recommendations on the nature and impact of HIV/AIDS-related stigma

HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT NETWORKS (HDNET)
AIDS-CARE-WATCH CAMPAIGN
2006

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This publication presents an overview of discussions, evidence and proposals contributed to the Stigma-AIDS eForurm by both experts and people living with HIV and AIDS, and moderated by Health and Development Networks (HDNet). Three major areas are covered: HIV stigma and place, including the work place, health care services and religious settings; HIV stigma and people living with HIV/AIDS, addressing self-stigma and injection drug users; HIV stigma and society, with a focus on the role of the media. Each topic includes a brief commentary and sets out specific recommendations. It is aimed at individuals, organisations and policy makers willing to learn about practical approaches to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma

2006 report on the global AIDS epidemic

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2006

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This annual report takes an overall look at the global AIDS epidemic. Provides an impact analysis of AIDS on populations at risk and civil society. Looks at effective ways to prevent, control and treat the disease. Indicates how to improve allocation and use of financial resources, design and implement effective national policies and approach the response from a strategic perspective rather than in terms of crisis management. Annexes include country profiles, essential statistics and country progress indicators

Developing pharmacy practice : a focus on patient care

WLEDENMAYER, Karin
et al
2006

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This handbook outlines the role of pharmacists in the context of greater availability of a complex range of medicines and suggests good pharmacy practices. Effective pharmaceutical care entails a patient-centred approach that should encourage adherence to prescribed medicines, through a close relationship between patient and pharmacist and follow-up on health outcomes. 'Adherence to long-term therapy for chronic conditions in developed countries averages 50%, with even lower rates for developing countries'. The handbook looks at pharmacists and patient care both from a policy and from a practical perspective

HIV/AIDS, stigma, denial, fear and discrimination: experiences and responses from African and Caribbean communities in Toronto

The African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario (ACCHO)
HIV Social, Behavioural and Epidemiological Studies Unit, University of Toronto
2006

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This is the report of a study which explores the experiences of HIV positive people from Africa and the Caribbean who are living in Toronto; and the experiences and perspectives of people from these communities at large, through interviews and focus groups. The study seeks to understand HIV-related stigma, discrimination, denial and fear, and how these impact on responses to HIV, including testing, treatment and support. Recommendations from participants include, the need for greater sensitivity and knowledge among health care providers, more ethnoculturally-appropriate services, education campaigns and community development measures. The report would be of interest to people living with HIV and AIDS, physicians, policy makers, service providers, family members, friends and the general public

WMF 2006 : WHO Model Formulary

MEHTA, Dinesh K. RYAN, Rachel S.M. HILL Suzanne R.
Eds
2006

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This is a resource is for countries wanting to develop a national formulary. This edition is fully compatible with the 14th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines as recommended by the WHO Expert Committee on the Selection and Use of Essential Medicines at its meeting of March 2005

Measuring transparency in medicines registration, selection and procurement : four country assessment studies

BAGHDADI-SABETI, Guitelle
WONDEMAGEGNEHU, Eshetu
2006

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This report summarises the findings of the transparency assessments carried out in the first four countries participating in the WHO-initiated Good Governance for Medicines Project, which offers a technical support package for tackling unethical issues in the public pharmaceutical sector. It provides a comprehensive picture of the level of transparency and potential vulnerability to corruption in three essential functions of the public pharmaceutical sector - registration, selection and procurement of medicines. The methodology provides both qualitative and quantitative information. In each country two national investigators collected data, conducting a series of interviews with carefully selected key informants

Medicine prices in Ghana : a comparative study of public, private and mission sector medicine prices

GHANA HEALTH SERVICE, MINISTRY OF HEALTH
2006

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The results of this survey are intended to be used to advocate for policy development, future policy review or policy change that will result in making medicines more affordable and available to the majority of the population. It was conducted collaboration with the World Health Organization and Health Action International, using a standard list of medicines, a systematic sampling process, international reference prices, comparison of innovator brand and generically equivalent medicines and the identification of the components making up the final price. It is one of more than 40 studies conducted worldwide

Medicine prices surveys and proposed interventions to improve sustainable access to affordable medicines in 6 sub-Saharan African countries|Etudes des prix des medicaments et interventions proposeees pur ameliorer durablement l'acces aux medicaments dan

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2006

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This document brings together the outcomes of six surveys into medicine prices - for Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Tanzania, Chad and Uganda - and one for the East African Community (Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania) . The reports for Mali and Chad are written in French and the others in English

Price, availability and affordability : an international comparison of chronic disease medicines

GELDERS, Susanne
et al
2006

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This is an analysis of the data collected in recent surveys of originator and generic medicines used to treat chronic diseases, and demonstrates that the price, availability and affordability are optimal for neither product types in most of the countries surveyed. The report is intended to be used by policy-makers and programme managers responsible for pricing, price regulation, procurement and other regulatory affairs related to chronic diseases, and can also be used for civil society groups wanting to advocate for pricing policies to make medicines more affordable and available

Pneumonia : the forgotton killer of children

WARDLAW, Tessa
WHITE JOHANSSON, Emily
HODGE, Matthew
2006

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This report examines the epidemiological evidence on the burden and distribution of pneumonia and assesses current levels of treatment and prevention. The report aims to raise awareness of pneumonia and to serve as a call to action to reduce child deaths from pneumonia

Relevant health information for empowered citizens

HEALTH ACTION INTERNATIONAL (HAI)
2006

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Information is an integral part of healthcare: the need for patients to give informed consent is the basis of all care and treatment. For patients to be able to make informed choices they need information that is reliable, comparative and adapted to users, and that is not linked to advertising and drug promotion

Advancing sustainable safety : national road safety outlook for 2005 - 2020

WEGMAN, Fred
AARTS, Letty
Eds
2006

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This document on developing sustainable safety in the Netherlands "starts with a section comprising theoretical backgrounds and analyses. The reader will, firstly, find a chapter with general theoretical backgrounds to the Sustainable Safety vision (Chapter 1), followed by analyses of road safety problems in the Netherlands (Chapter 2). The final chapter of Part I (Chapter 3) discusses an evaluation of what has been learned during a decade of Sustainable Safety - about implementation and the effects of measures based on that vision. Part II and III discuss the elaboration in the content of the advanced Sustainable Safety vision. Part II focuses on various types of measures in the field of infrastructure (Chapter 4), vehicles (Chapter 5), Intelligent Transport Systems (Chapter 6), education (Chapter 7) and regulation and enforcement directed at road user behaviour (Chapter 8). Part III focuses on specific problem areas or groups within road safety....(identified) as speed (Chapter 9), drink and drug driving (Chapter 10), young and novice drivers (Chapter 11), cyclists and pedestrians (Chapter 12), motorized two-wheelers (Chapter 13) and heavy goods vehicles (Chapter 14).... (T)his book (concludes) with a fourth part that sets out in one chapter (Chapter 15) implementation aspects and opportunities to advance Sustainable Safety"

Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd edition. Chapter 2. Intervention cost-effectiveness: overview of main messages.

LAXMINARAYAN, Ramanan
et al
2006

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Drawing from the collective knowledge and analytical work of the many experts who have contributed to this volume, this chapter provides a broader perspective on the relative efficiency and effect on health of a number of interventions than is possible in a single, condition-specific chapter. The objective is to provide information on the cost-effectiveness estimates for 319 interventions covering nearly every disease condition considered in the volume, and the resulting avertable burden of disease. This chapter provides broad conclusions on the economic efficiency of using these interventions to improve health.

 

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