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Guidelines on policies that affect medicine prices

HEALTH ACTION INTERNATIONAL (HAI)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION(WHO)
2008

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At a time when over 50 medicines pricing surveys had been completed around the world using the HAI/WHO methodology, the lead article to this edition of the medicines pricing survey bulletin considers the need for guidelines to assist in the creation of policy changes that will help to reduce the price of essential medicines

Interagency list of essential medical devices for reproductive health

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2008

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This interagency list is a tool to support planning for the selection, quality assurance and procurement of medical devices to implement Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) interventions, which are defined as the "Essential care to women and their newborn during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period: up to six weeks after delivery." The objective is to propose an international consensus on a rational selection of essential medical devices for reproductive health according to their public health relevance based on efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness. Published by the WHO on behalf of John Snow Inc., PATH, Population Action International, United Nations Population Fund, and the World Bank, in collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund and Medecins Sans Frontieres. The WHO and partnering organisations plan to update this list every two years

PMI communication and social mobilization guidelines

PRESIDENT'S MALARIA INITIATIVE (PMI)
2008

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These guidelines are help in the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of programmes to influence behaviours and mobilise communities to create long-term normative shifts towards desired behaviours and to sustain enabling behaviours around the four interventions of the Presidents Malaria Initiative. These are: * Increased demand for malaria services and products; * Acceptance of indoor residual spraying; * Improved adherence to treatment regimens and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy during pregnancy; * Regular insecticide-treated nets use by the general population, focusing on vulnerable groups including pregnant women and children under five; * Prompt, appropriate treatment with Artemisinin-based combination therapies for children under five within 24 hours of onset of symptoms; and * Community involvement in malaria control

Social enterprise as market regulation : non-governmental interventions in essential medicines wholesaling to low income countries

MACKINTOSH, Maureen
2008

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"This paper explores the under-studied role of social enterprise as traders and regulatory actors in the international wholesale markets for essential medicines and their impact on accessibility, quality and prices in these perverse markets, drawing on an interview survey of European-based socially oriented wholesalers supplying the medicines market for sub-Saharan Africa. The paper argues that these enterprises play an important role in regulating price and quality and hence in improving access to medicines by the poor. However they face challenging market and political conditions. The paper analyses the motivations and organisational structures that sustain social and ethical commitment in this market, drawing on theories of social enterprise and non-profit business, and surveys the challenges and constraints. It then examines the formal international and national regulatory interventions in the international markets and their effects on social enterprise, in the context of a substantial institutional divide between the medicines-related campaigning of the large international NGOs and the activities of these market-oriented social enterprises"

Fight AMR : save medicines for our children : call for action

ECUMENICAL PHARMACEUTICAL NETWORK (EPN)
2008

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This leaflet has been produced to raise awareness about antimicrobial resistance and possible areas of intervention including infection control, promoting effective diagnosis, improving prescribing practices and encouraging optimal use of antimicrobial agents. It is targeted at all the different groups of stakeholders who are in position to contribute to implementation of the containment actions that have been defined in the WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance

Missing the target #5 : improving AIDS drug access and advancing health care for all

INTERNATIONAL TREATMENT PREPAREDNESS COALITION (ITPC)
December 2007

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This report documents how the mobilisation around AIDS is driving health systems advancement in China, Dominican Republic, Zimbabwe, Russia, Kenya, India, Cameroon, Zambia and Cambodia, and it highlights the need for improvements in broader systems of care and services to meet the needs of people living with HIV & AIDS and the communities in which they live. It also considers ARV procurement, registration and stock-outs in Argentina, Belize, Cambodia, China, Dominican Republic, India, Malawi, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Russia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Early infant diagnosis of HIV through dried blood spot testing

PATHFINDER INTERNATIONAL / KENYA
October 2007

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Until recently the test used to diagnose HIV in babies under one-year has required sophisticated and expensive equipment. A new test has now been developed - dried blood spot testing which can be used to diagnose HIV as early as six weeks after a baby is born and has the advantage of being easy to prepare in a resource-limited setting and shipped to testing facilities without refrigeration. If a baby is given prophylactic antibiotics, such as cotrimoxazole, soon after birth and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) as soon as is medically indicated, it has a good chance of surviving childhood and living a long, healthy life

Positive prevention : HIV prevention with people living with HIV. A guide for NGOs and service providers

INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
September 2007

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This guide is intended as a resource to help nongovernmental organisation (NGO) staff and HIV service providers working across the spectrum of HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services to take steps towards integrating HIV prevention for, by and with people living with HIV. It is hoped it will also be of use both to individual people living with HIV and to their partners. The guide does not intend to discuss or review all HIV prevention strategies. Rather, it is a starting point from which to consider different strategies to assist NGO staff and HIV service provider organisations to support HIV positive people to live well with HIV and have safer sexual relationships within a full and healthy life. This guide focuses largely on the sexual transmission of HIV

Women, harm reduction, and HIV

PINKHAM, Sophie
MALINOWSKA-SEMPRUCH, Kasia
September 2007

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This report looks at factors that reduce women drug users’ access to health care including punitive policies, discrimination by police and health care providers, the intense social stigma attached to drug use by women, a preponderance of harm reduction and drug treatment programmes directed primarily toward men, an absence of sexual and reproductive health services for drug users, and poor access to effective outpatient drug treatment. Pregnant drug users are particularly vulnerable. In too many instances, they receive little or no accurate information about drug use during pregnancy or prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In some countries pregnant drug users are rejected by health care providers, threatened with criminal penalties or loss of parental rights, or coerced into having an abortion or abandoning their newborns to the state. Poor access to medication-assisted treatment jeopardises the pregnancies of opiate-dependent drug users. It includes recommendations for consideration when designing services for women drug users and also examines issues around policies to protect women's health

Human rights guidelines for pharmaceutical companies in relation to access to medicines

HUNT, Paul
September 2007

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These draft guidelines consider human rights and the right to the highest attainable standard of health; how to manage their implementation; public policy influence; advocacy and lobbying; research and development for neglected diseases; patents and licensing; quality and technology transfer; pricing, discounting and donations; ethical promotion and marketing; clinical trials; public private partnership; corruption; associations of pharmaceutical companies; and monitoring and accountability

Measuring transparency in the distribution of pharmaceuticals : assessment instrument

DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINES POLICY AND STANDARDS, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
September 2007

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Distribution is an important activity in the management of pharmaceuticals involving a number of steps between arrival in the port of entry to the point of supply to health establishment, each of which can present various opportunities for lack of transparency and invites corruption. Published standard operating procedures which specify the roles and responsibilities of all staff involved in each of these steps are important tools that promote transparency and accountability

Shadow report : Review of country coordinating mechanism proposals with SRH-HIV/AIDS integration submitted to the Global Fund round 7

DALY, M. Felicity
SCHECHTMAN, Lisa
August 2007

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This report considers efforts to integrate sexual and reproductive health (SRH) in the HIV & AIDS components of country coordinated proposals submitted in July 2007 by Country Coordinating Mechanisms (CCM) for the 7th Round of funding by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund).

Promoting safety of medicines for children

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
2007

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These guidelines are intended to improve awareness of medicine safety issues among everyone who has an interest in the safety of medicines in children and to provide guidance on effective systems for monitoring medicine safety in the paediatric populations. The document will be of interest to all healthcare professionals, medicine regulatory authorities, pharmacovigilance centres, academia, the pharmaceutical industry and policy-makers

Our future : sexuality and life skills education for young people. Grades 6 - 7

INTERNATIONAL HIV/AIDS ALLIANCE
March 2007

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To help support young people, the Government of Zambia has a comprehensive strategy for sexual and reproductive health and HIV education in and out of school. This is the first in a series of three books which focus on young people of different ages. Each book contains learning activities and illustrations, which engage young people in understanding themselves and their world. They reflect on the virtues and skills needed to develop caring and loving relationships, make good decisions, solve problems and seek help. The topics and activities are designed to fit into the national curriculum or to be used in extra curricula activities in or out of school. The books are accompanied by a Teachers’ Guide

WHO model list of essential medicines

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
March 2007

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This is a guide for the development of national and institutional essential medicines lists. It aims to identify cost-effective medicines for priority conditions, together with the reasons for their inclusion. The list has two sections; the first is the core list, and represents the minimum medicine needs for a basic health care system; and the second is a complementary list, presenting essential medicines for priority conditions

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