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World report on vision

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2019

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This report makes the case that integrated people-centred eye care is the care model of choice and can help meet the challenges faced. Chapter 1 highlights the critical importance of vision; describes eye conditions that can cause vision impairment and those that typically do not; reviews the main risk factors for eye conditions; defines vision impairment and disability; and explores the impact of vision impairment. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the global magnitude of eye conditions and vision impairment and their distribution. Chapter 3 presents effective promotive preventive, treatment, and rehabilitative strategies to address eye care needs across the life course. Chapter 4 starts by taking stock of global advocacy efforts to date, the progress made in addressing specific eye conditions and vision impairment, and recent scientific and technological advances; it then identifies the remaining challenges facing the field. Chapter 5 describes how making eye care an integral part of universal health care (including developing a package of eye care interventions) can help address some of the challenges faced by countries. Chapter 6 presents IPEC and explains the need for engaging and empowering people and communities, reorienting the model of care based on a strong primary care and the need for coordinating services within and across sectors; and creating an enabling environment. The report ends with five recommendations for action that can be implemented by all countries to improve eye care. 

Where there is no psychiatrist A mental health care manual

PATEL, Vikram
HANLON, Charlotte
March 2018

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This is a practical manual about mental health care, aimed at community health workers, primary care nurses, social workers and primary care doctors, particularly in low resource settings. It describes more than 30 clinical problems associated with mental illness, using a problem-solving approach to guide the reader through their assessment and management. It addresses the lack of understanding of mental health among many health workers. Mental health issues as they arise in specific contexts are described - in refugee camps, in school health programmes, as well as in mental health promotion. The final section helps the reader to personalise for a particular location, for example, by entering local information on voluntary agencies, the names and costs of medicines and words in the local language for symptoms.

 

This product is an update of the first edition 2003. It is also available as Open Access.

Standard school eye health guidelines for low and middle-income countries

GILBERT, Clare
MINTO, Hasan
MORJARIA, Priya
KHAN, Imran
February 2018

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The purpose of these best practice guidelines is to provide direction to those planning and implementing eye health initiatives for schools, including policy makers, health care and educational authorities, health planners, eye care delivery organizations and professionals, in partnership with teachers, parents and children. In situations where resources for eye health are limited, decisions need to be made to ensure that programs not only address public health problems but are also implemented in a way that is effective, efficient and, wherever possible, sustainable. Systems for monitoring and plans for evaluation should also be developed at the outset. These practice guidelines provide an excellent learning resource for a module on school eye health that can be incorporated in optometry and ophthalmology residency curricula.  A section highlights some of the challenges in current school eye health initiatives and provides a framework in which school eye health is integrated into school health programs. Case studies are provided to emphasise the integrated approach and a 15-step approach, from situation analysis to monitoring and evaluation, is suggested. Practical recommendations for implementation are provided, including information on the equipment and technology required

 

This evidence-based document is based on best practice guidelines initially developed through a joint collaboration between Sightsavers International, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Brien Holden Vision Institute

Autism spectrum disorders

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION
April 2017

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This fact sheet provides key facts and an overview about autism spectrum disorders. Associated epidemiology, causes, assessment and management, social and economic impacts are briefly covered. The human rights of people with ASD are discussed and the WHO Resolution on autism spectrum disorders (WHA67.8) is introduced.

Human Rights

www.macao-tz.org
December 2014

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Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania.  Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods.  In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.

Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women : WHO clinical and policy guidelines

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2013

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"The guidelines aim to raise awareness of violence against women among health-care providers and policy-makers, so that they better understand the need for an appropriate health-sector response. They provide standards that can form the basis for national guidelines, and for integrating these issues into health-care provider education...The guidelines are based on systematic reviews of the evidence, and cover: identification and clinical care for intimate partner violence; clinical care for sexual assault; training relating to intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women; policy and programmatic approaches to delivering services; mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence"

Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women : summary

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2013

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"This document summarizes ‘Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines’, the World Health Organization (WHO), 2013 publication, developed by an international group of experts following a thorough review of evidence. It contains evidence-based recommendations for the introduction of policies into health services and programmes to improve responses within the health sector to violence against women. Each recommendation is classified as either "strong" or "conditional", on the basis of the generalizability of benefit across different communities and cultures, the needs and preferences of women to access services, as well as taking into consideration the level of human and other resources that would be required"
WHO/RHR/13.10

HIV and AIDS strategy for older people

HELPAGE INTERNATIONAL
2011

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This resource presents an HIV and AIDS strategy for older people. The impact of HIV and AIDS on older people and the challenges for older carers are described. Recommendations are provided for HIV and AIDS prevention, care and support, and treatment strategies for older people

Preterm-associated visual impairment and estimates of retinopathy of prematurity at regional and global levels for 2010

BLENCOWE, Hannah
LAWN, Joy E
GILBERT, Clare
December 2010

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This article presents the systematic reviews and meta-analyses undertaken to estimate the risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and subsequent visual impairment for surviving preterm babies by level of neonatal care, access to ROP screening, and treatment. A compartmental model was used to estimate ROP cases and numbers of visually impaired survivors.  The authors conclude that improved care, including oxygen delivery and monitoring, for preterm babies in all facility settings would reduce the number of babies affected with ROP. They recommend that improved data tracking and coverage of locally adapted screening/treatment programs are urgently required

Pediatr Res, Vol 74, Suppl 1

Early childhood stimulation interventions in developing countries : a comprehensive literature review

BAKER-HENNINGHAM, Helen
BOO, Florencia Lopez
September 2010

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"This report reviews the effectiveness of early childhood stimulation interventions in developing countries. The report aims to answer the questions: What works in terms of early stimulation for young children in developing countries? For whom and under what conditions do these programs work and why do they work. The report is divided into several sections. Firstly, a brief discussion of the importance of early stimulation for young children in developing countries is provided. Secondly, the methods used to identify and characterize studies are provided and a review of randomized or quasi-experimental trials is presented. Thirdly, a review of the evidence for who benefits most from early interventions is presented followed by a review of program characteristics that affect the success of interventions and an examination of potential mechanisms through which interventions achieve their effects. Finally, recommendations for practice and future research are provided"
IDB working paper series

Packages of care for epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries

MBUBA, Caroline K
NEWTON, Charles R
October 2009

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This article focuses on the management of epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries and recommends a package of care - a combination of interventions aimed at improving the recognition and management of conditions to achieve optimal outcomes - for epilepsy, that is sustainable

Integrating gender into HIV/AIDS programmes in the health sector : tool to improve responsiveness to women’s needs

AMIN, Avni
et al
2009

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The purpose of this operational tool is to: raise awareness of how gender inequalities affect women’s access to and experience of HIV and AIDS programmes and services; and offer practical actions on how to address or integrate gender into specific types of HIV and AIDS programmes and services. The vulnerability of women, their risk of HIV infection and the impact of the epidemic on them are heightened by many factors, including: the low status accorded to women in many societies, their lack of rights, their lack of access to and control over economic resources, the violence perpetrated against them, the norms related to women’s sexuality, and women’s lack of access to information about HIV. This tool is primary aimed at primarily programme managers and health-care providers involved in setting up, implementing or evaluating HIV and AIDS programmes

Does shortening the training on integrated management of childhood illness guidelines reduce effectiveness? results of a systematic review|Final report

ROWE, Alexander K
et al
2008

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This comprehensive report presents the findings of a systematic review of the effectiveness of shortening Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy training. The results are useful for NGOs and other national and international bodies working in the field of childhood illness
Health Policy and Planning (in press)

The essentials of antiretroviral therapy for health care and program managers

HOPE, Ruth
ISRAEL, Ellen
April 2007

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This book provides health care workers and mangers with information and practical guidance relating to antiretroviral therapies (ART). It also considers wider care and treatment issues such as; opportunistic infections, the integration of ART with antenatal and midwifery services, the particular needs of children and young people, support relating to nutrition, spiritual needs, psycho-social and economic issues. In addition, the need for community level support to help with adherence to treatment and address stigma and discrimination are also considered, as is end-of-life care for people whose disease does not respond to treatment

Let's talk about HIV counselling and testing : facilitators' guide

International HIV/AIDS Alliance
December 2006

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This is a toolkit to help NGOs and community-based organisations working to mobilise communities to improve their awareness of HIV counselling and testing and to improve the up-take of HIV counselling and testing; advocating for increased access to quality HIV counselling, testing, care, treatment and prevention; or interested in providing HIV counselling and testing services. It is divided into eight sections: What is HIV and what is AIDS?; what is involved in HIV counselling and testing; who is providing these services in the community and who they are for; the advantages and barriers of counselling and testing; stigma, discrimination and confidentiality; the needs of people after being tested and ideas for community activities. Each section has an accompanying information sheet

Comprehensive cervical cancer control : a guide to essential practice

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
2006

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"This publication - produced by WHO and its partners - is designed to provide comprehensive practical advice to health care providers at all levels of the health care system on how to prevent, detect early, treat and palliate cervical cancer. In particular, the Guide seeks to ensure that health care providers at the primary and secondary levels will be empowered to use the best available knowledge in dealing with cervical cancer for the benefit of the whole community."

Developing pharmacy practice : a focus on patient care

WLEDENMAYER, Karin
et al
2006

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This handbook outlines the role of pharmacists in the context of greater availability of a complex range of medicines and suggests good pharmacy practices. Effective pharmaceutical care entails a patient-centred approach that should encourage adherence to prescribed medicines, through a close relationship between patient and pharmacist and follow-up on health outcomes. 'Adherence to long-term therapy for chronic conditions in developed countries averages 50%, with even lower rates for developing countries'. The handbook looks at pharmacists and patient care both from a policy and from a practical perspective

Pneumonia : the forgotton killer of children

WARDLAW, Tessa
WHITE JOHANSSON, Emily
HODGE, Matthew
2006

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This report examines the epidemiological evidence on the burden and distribution of pneumonia and assesses current levels of treatment and prevention. The report aims to raise awareness of pneumonia and to serve as a call to action to reduce child deaths from pneumonia

Guidelines for inclusion of individuals with disability in HIV/AIDS outreach efforts

GROCE, Nora
TRASI, Reshma
YOUSAFZAI, Yousafzai
2006

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The strategies for interventions proposed here can provide a framework upon which disability advocates and HIV and AIDS advocates, educators and policy makers can begin to build interventions and support mechanisms for ‘at-risk’ disabled populations. To date, there have been few HIV and AIDS interventions that have directly targeted (or indirectly included) individuals with disability and almost none of these interventions have been systematically monitored or evaluated. The framework proposed here therefore, is intended only as a ‘first step’ in a series of publications on various aspects of disability-inclusive HIV and AIDS interventions and tool kits

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