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The essentials of antiretroviral therapy for health care and program managers

HOPE, Ruth
ISRAEL, Ellen
April 2007

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This book provides health care workers and mangers with information and practical guidance relating to antiretroviral therapies (ART). It also considers wider care and treatment issues such as; opportunistic infections, the integration of ART with antenatal and midwifery services, the particular needs of children and young people, support relating to nutrition, spiritual needs, psycho-social and economic issues. In addition, the need for community level support to help with adherence to treatment and address stigma and discrimination are also considered, as is end-of-life care for people whose disease does not respond to treatment

Let's talk about HIV counselling and testing : facilitators' guide

International HIV/AIDS Alliance
December 2006

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This is a toolkit to help NGOs and community-based organisations working to mobilise communities to improve their awareness of HIV counselling and testing and to improve the up-take of HIV counselling and testing; advocating for increased access to quality HIV counselling, testing, care, treatment and prevention; or interested in providing HIV counselling and testing services. It is divided into eight sections: What is HIV and what is AIDS?; what is involved in HIV counselling and testing; who is providing these services in the community and who they are for; the advantages and barriers of counselling and testing; stigma, discrimination and confidentiality; the needs of people after being tested and ideas for community activities. Each section has an accompanying information sheet

Expanding access to HIV treatment through community-based organisations

SIDACTION
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
July 2005

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This UNAIDS Best Practice Collection document aims to highlight and advocate for the work of civil society, community based organisations in particular, in responding to the AIDS epidemic in Africa. The paper describes a ground breaking survey by Sidaction, a Paris based treatment rights group, which supports community responses to AIDS in low and middle income countries. In 2004, Sidaction, in cooperation with the UNAIDS secretariat and WHO mapped treatment and care efforts by community based organisations in Africa. Many community based organisations are already dispensing ARVs on a significant scale. The survey confirmed that community efforts to provide treatment represent an important opportunity to enrol more people in antiretroviral therapy. To seize this opportunity, national governments and the international community need to quickly provide support to expand the coverage and impact of community based treatment. The aim is for CBOs to work closely with the public sector so that each reinforces the efforts of the other

Analysis of aid in support of HIV/AIDS control, 2000-2002

DAC
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
June 2004

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This report is a review of statistical data on aid to HIV/AIDS control. It was compiled by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Secretariat in collaboration with the members of the DAC Working Party on Statistics (WP-STAT) and UNAIDS between February and May 2004. The key findings are presented concerning total official development assistance commitments for HIV/AIDS control, and bilateral aid. It also includes contributions to the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The report notes that larger donors especially multilaterals are the main funders of treatment programmes, which require substantial funding and long term commitments. Smaller donors tend to concentrate on HIV prevention, but also support home-based care and social mitigation activities

Helping children who are deaf : family and community support for children who do not hear well

NIEMANN, Sandy
GREENSTEIN, Devorah
DAVID, Darlena
2004

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This book was written primarily for parents and other caregivers of young children. It provides a wealth of well-illustrated practical information. The book gives a thorough overview of the different ways to communicate with hearing impaired children. It is written in an easy-to-read style with lots of illustrations and examples from Southern countries.

Palliative care in Sub-Saharan Africa : an appraisal

HARDING, Richard
HIGGINSON, Irene
2004

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This report was written from the belief that palliative care is, and will be for the forseeable future, an essential component in the continuum of managing HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. There is now a wealth of experience in sub-Saharan Africa about the ways in which palliative care can be delivered both affordably and effectively. However, there remains a lack of properly documented evidence and research to demonstrate the importance of this work and promote its development. This report provides a review of existing evaluations of palliative care projects in sub-Saharan Africa with an emphasis on isolating the factors that lead to sustainability, local ownership and scaling up; the role of palliative care in the management of HIV/AIDS and how to integrate palliative care and Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART); primary health based care projects in two countries, Kenya and Malawi, that could provide lessons for the implementation of palliative care; lessons from other parallel programmes which mirror palliative care delivery, for example, tuberculosis programmes, and primary care programmes with good links to local clinics and hospitals, and community mobilization and empowerment projects linked to health facilities. In this way it contributes to the effort of providing an evidence base to demonstrate the importance of palliative care and provides a source of reference for policy makers, practitioners, donors and researchers

Matrix of five types of ECD HIV/AIDS interventions, suggested outcome indicators, and comments

WORLD BANK
2004

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This is a matrix of the five recommended types of Early Childhood Development (ECD) and HIV and AIDS interventions. It includes suggestions of delivery services to young children, education and support for families and caregivers, training and support of care providers, sensitisation through the mass media and community mobilisation. It provides indicators and comments for each of these categories and is a useful overview of the key interventions which could take place in this field

Interim policy on collaborative TB/HIV issues

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Stop TB Department and Department of HIV/AIDS
2004

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This policy responds to a demand from countries for immediate guidance on which collaborative TB/HIV activities to implement and under what circumstances. It is complementary to and in synergy with the established core activities of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes. Implementing the DOTS strategy is the core activity for tuberculosis control. Similarly, infection and disease prevention and health promotion activities and the provision of treatment and care form the basis for HIV/AIDS control. This policy does not call for the institution of a new specialist or independent disease control programme. It rather promotes enhanced collaboration between tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS programmes in the provision of a continuum of quality care at service-delivery level for people with, or at risk of tuberculosis and people living with HIV/AIDS

Gender mainstreaming in health : the possibilities and constraints of involving district-level field workers

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This policy brief concerns the involvement of district-level workers in local-level practical approaches to mainstreaming gender. This involvement is central to facilitating change and informing health strategies. MKP led a project in Ghana to facilitate district-level health management teams and district-level field workers to conduct qualitative and participatory research on gender aspects of access to health care for malaria. The results have informed strategies to improve gender equity in health at the community level

Palliative care in Sub-Saharan Africa : an appraisal

HARDING, Richard
HIGGINSON, Irene J.
2004

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This review identifies and appraises activities, opportunities and evidence of the status of palliative care in Africa. It reviews the context of palliative care in Sub-Saharan Africa, the role of palliative care in HIV management, including antiretroviral therapy, current models of care and issues of quality assurance and offers recommendations for practitioners, funders, policy makers and researchers

Antiretroviral therapy in primary health care : experience of the Khayelitsha programme in South Africa. Case study

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2003

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This case study outlines and assesses the Khayelitha programme, which focused on ART provision and aimed to document the feasibility of low-cost treatment and primary health care provision in developing countries. The document details the clinical outcomes of the programmes, the strategy used to ensure adherence and the contribution made by Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) to raise awareness and pressurise the government to develop an adequate response to the epidemic. The provision of ART in Khayelitsha had also a positive impact on prevention, making more HIV-positive people aware of their status, reducing stigma, being the catalyst of educational initiatives, improving the morale of health workers and keeping families intact and less at risk. The case study concludes with a comprehensive list of lessons learned and with key recommendations for the future, which include consolidation of nurse-based care, more training activities, integration of HIV/AIDS and TB services, educational programmes aimed at improving adherence to ART and a greater focus on paediatric AIDS and ART provision in rural remote areas

AIDS : palliative care

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
October 2000

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This update explains what palliative is and describes the types of palliative care that are available. It sets out what governments will need to do to ensure effective palliative care is provided for people living with HIV/AIDS

Assessment and improvement of care for AIDS-affected children under age 5

LUSK, Diane
HUFFMAN, Sandra L
O'GARA, Chloe
June 2000

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Firstly statistical information about children under five affected by HIV/AIDS is documented along with the consequences of inadequate care for under five year olds. The special problems facing vulnerable children are addressed using age specific categories, including health and psychosocial concerns. Also examined are some cultural beliefs and traditions that impact upon children under five living in AIDS affected communities, including how orphans are perceived and treated. Who cares for under fives is also addressed, along with a critique of orphanages and alternative programmatic suggestions. The authors also review some assessment tools for the care of vulnerable children for feeding, health care and childrearing practices, and the time restraints of caregivers. There are some useful practical questions that can be put to communities and households in AIDS affected areas to assess the impact upon young children. Recommendations are then made as to appropriate strategies

Improving provider-client communication : reinforcing IPC/C training in Indonesia and self-assessment and peer review

KIM, Y M
et al
2000

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Report of a study that tested the effectiveness of two low-cost alternatives to supervision (self-assessment and peer review) that may reinforce providers' skills after training. The performance of 3 groups of providers, who attend family planning clients was compared. Provider-client interactions were improved in the groups undergoing peer review or self-assessment, as was the level of facilitative communication. The level of information-giving was not improved in the control group or the groups undergoing peer review or self-assessment

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