The COVID 19 pandemic crisis is unfolding against the backdrop of several important milestones for equality and the human rights of various marginalized groups including women and girls, indigenous peoples and persons with disabilities in all their diversities and intersections in Nepal. The COVID-19 pandemic has entrenched systemic gaps, underlying structural inequalities and pervasive discrimination, more visible with inadequate healthcare, access to information, employment and livelihoods, and social protection system mainly for marginalized groups. This study aims to understand the challenges and impacts of the COVID 19 on marginalized groups including persons with disabilities in Nepal. Based on qualitative research with primary and secondary information, the paper emphasizes the experiences and realities of marginalized groups during the lockdown and pandemic situations. Some of the existing challenges faced by marginalized groups include access to information and health measures related to COVID 19, access to livelihoods and employment, increasing rates of suicide, violence against women from marginalized groups, women with disabilities, and others. The study will integrate these components and deal with intersections with concrete recommendations.
Health system strengthening refers to initiatives that improve one or more functions of health systems, leading to better health. There is a large body of evidence on what works to strengthen health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), much of which is aligned to the World Health Organization (WHO) health system building blocks (service delivery; health workforce; information; medical products, vaccines and technologies; financing; and leadership/governance). Despite the fact that some people with disabilities have additional health needs, and many face additional barriers to accessing healthcare, inclusion of people with disabilities is largely missing from this evidence base. Separately, a smaller evidence base exists on increasing the effectiveness of specific health-related services targeting people with disabilities, such as health-related Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR), rehabilitation services more broadly, and mental health services. This second evidence base is less closely aligned to the building blocks. Reviewing these outputs in parallel goes some way towards identifying effective strategies for strengthening health systems for disability inclusive development.
Trichiasis (TT) operations are generally conducted in remote and resource-poor settings, which can make it difficult to follow-up and assess surgical outcomes. Sightsavers developed an Android-based mobile phone application, called the TT Tracker, which helps surgeons, assistants and supervisors to collect and analyse information about surgical outcomes and performance, and to determine when and where follow-up appointments are required.
Community Eye Health. 2019; 31(104): 93.
Young people with disabilities have the same right to Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) as their peers without disabilities, but their needs and rights are often overlooked. This study examines the SRH status of young people with disabilities in China. In particular, the study explored the sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of young people with disabilities as well as their access to sexuality-related information, education and services. The findings of the study are intended to provide evidence to support decision-making by government agencies, educators, development workers and other relevant stakeholders regarding developing and implementing disability-inclusive SRH and sexuality education policies and programmes for young people in China.
The study, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2015 among unmarried young persons aged 12 to 24 living with visual, hearing, physical and intellectual disabilities, in both urban and rural areas. The analysis was based on data collected through 707 completed valid questionnaires, 20 group interviews and 35 individual interviews with young people with disabilities, and individual interviews with 60 parents and teachers, along with one case study.
One common denominator of the novels and short stories by Lina Meruane (Chile, b. 1970) is the unconventional representation of illness and disability, and a critique of the connections between illness or disability, medicine and globalization. In this paper, I examine her novel Fruta podrida (2007) (rotten fruit) and the challenge it poses to the globalization of food production and pharmacological research as they affect people living in the Global South. This critique is realized obliquely and disturbingly from three distinct subject positions: a Chilean chemist who works for a fruit company in Chile; her half-sister who has diabetes; and a nurse in a New York City hospital. The linguistic and structural complexity of the narrative discourse demands an engagement with the text that places a further demand on its readers to engage with the inequalities and abuses created under globalization.
Disability & the Global South (DGS), 2019, Vol. 6 No. 1
This leaflet intends to underline the existence of intersectional factors of vulnerability amongst Women with Disabilities with respect to HIV/AIDS and sexual violence in Burkina Faso and Guinea Bissau. The figures presented here are taken from two studies carried out in Burkina Faso and Guinea Bissau in 2017. In Burkina Faso, 28,667 people were interviewed in total, among whom 978 identified themselves as persons with disabilities (using the Washington Group Short Set of Questions). For the biobehavioral study in Guinea Bissau, 17,110 people were interviewed in total, among whom 1,147 identified themselves as persons with disabilities
The manual is structured in three parts.
- Part One “Epidemics of the 21st century” provides vital insights on the main features of the 21st century upsurge and the indispensable elements to manage them.
- Part Two “Be in the know. 10 key facts about 15 deadly diseases” contains key information about 15 diseases (Ebola Virus Disease, Lassa Fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Yellow Fever, Zika, Chikungunya, Avian and Other Zoonotic Influenza, Seasonal Influenza, Pandemic Influenza, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Cholera, Monkeypox, Plague, Leptospirosis and Meningococcal Meningitis). This section provides tips on the interventions required to respond to epidemics of all these diseases.
- Part Three “Tool boxes” gives an overview and summarized guidance on some other important topics, including: the role of WHO, the International Coordinating Group, laboratory diagnosis and shipment of infectious diseases substances, and vector control.
The handbook enables the three levels of WHO – its Headquarters, Regional Offices and Country Offices to work efficiently together by building the foundations of a shared conceptual and thinking framework, which includes common terminology.
- Inclusive Education in the global South? A Colombian perspective: ‘When you look towards the past, you see children with disabilities, and if you look towards the future, what you see is diverse learners
- Services for people with Communication Disabilities in Uganda: supporting a new Speech and Language Therapy profession
- Frida Kahlo and Pendular Disability Identity: A Textual Examination of El Diario de Frida Kahlo
- Health Information-Seeking Behaviour of Visually Impaired Persons in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria
- Online Collective Identities for Autism: The Perspective of Brazilian Parents
- Transnationalizing Disability Policy in Embedded Cultural-Cognitive Worldviews: the Case of Sub-Saharan Africa
- Portrayal of Disabled People in the Kuwaiti Media
Persons living with visual impairments form a major group of people with various types of impairments in African countries. Little has been reported about the means and forms of information they seek to cope with their environment, and studies in Nigeria specifically, have not explored health information-seeking behaviour of visually impaired persons. This paper documents the health information-seeking behaviour of visually impaired persons (VIPs) in Ibadan Metropolis. A standardized questionnaire was administered to 200 VIPs sampled from two health facilities in Ibadan Metropolis. Most (66%) of the VIPs were partially sighted, 43% reported health issues as their most worrying challenge, while 20% reportedly had daily unmet health information needs. VIPs accessed information about medication for ailments from friends (45%), adopted herbal medication (50.5%) and /or indulged in selfmedication (21%). They reportedly had worse health (9.5%) status, while 4.5% reportedly remained worse off emotionally. The study concludes that VIPs considered health challenges and limited access to health information as their major concerns. Care for visually impaired persons should be incorporated in the primary healthcare routine and school health curriculum. Media programmes are also required to sensitise the general public about health information needs of VIPs.
Disability and the Global South, 2018 Vol.5, No. 1
Uganda is among the first to use the Washington Group Short Set of Questions on Disability to identify persons with disabilities in its Demographic and Health Survey. In this paper, we review the HIV Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour component of the 2011 Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey, analysing a series of questions comparing those with and without disabilities in relation to HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices. We found comparable levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS for those with and those without disabilities in relation to HIV transmission during delivery (93.89%, 93.26%) and through breastfeeding (89.91%, 90.63%), which may reflect increased attention to reaching the community of persons with disabilities. However, several gaps in the knowledge base of persons with disabilities stood out, including misconceptions of risk of HIV infection through mosquito bites and caring for a relative with HIV in own household (34.39%, 29.86%; p<0.001; 91.53%, 89.00%; p = 0.001, respectively). The issue is not just access to appropriate information but also equitable access to HIV/AIDS services and support. Here we found that persons with multiple disabilities were less likely than individuals without disabilities to return to receive results from their most recent HIV test (0.60[0.41–0.87], p<0.05). HIV testing means little if people do not return for follow-up to know their HIV status and, if necessary, to be connected to available services and supports. Additional findings of note were that persons with disabilities reported having a first sexual encounter at a slightly younger age than peers without disabilities; and persons with disabilities also reported having a sexually transmitted disease (STD) within the last 12 months at significantly higher rates than peers without disabilities (1.38[1.18–1.63], p<0.01), despite reporting comparable knowledge of the need for safer sex practices. This analysis is among the first to use HIV/AIDS-related questions from Demographic Health Surveys to provide information about persons with disabilities in Uganda in comparison to those without disabilities. These findings present a more complex and nuanced understanding of persons with disabilities and HIV/AIDS. If persons with disabilities are becoming sexually active earlier, are more likely to have an STD within the preceding 12 month period and are less likely to receive HIV test results, it is important to understand why. Recommendations are also made for the inclusion of disability measures in Uganda’s AIDS Indicator Survey to provide cyclical and systematic data on disability and HIV/AIDS, including HIV prevalence amongst persons with disabilities.
PLoS ONE 12(4): e0174877
"In the absence of access to real-time government-reported Zika case counts, we demonstrate the ability of Internet-based data sources to track the outbreak. Our model predictions fill a critical time-gap in existing Zika surveillance, given that early interventions and real-time surveillance are necessary to curb mosquito transmission. Official Zika case reports will likely continue to be delayed in their release; thus, it is important that health and government officials have access to real-time and future estimates of Zika activity in order to allocate resources according to potential changes in outbreak dynamics. The methodologies presented here may be expanded to any country–and perhaps finer spatial resolutions–to identify changes in Zika transmission for public health decision-makers."
"The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in March 2016 that there was a scientific consensus that the mosquito-borne Zika virus was a cause of the neurological disorder Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities based on rapid evidence assessments. Decisions about causality require systematic assessment to guide public health actions. The objectives of this study were to update and reassess the evidence for causality through a rapid and systematic review about links between Zika virus infection and (a) congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, in the foetuses and offspring of pregnant women and (b) GBS in any population, and to describe the process and outcomes of an expert assessment of the evidence about causality."
There currently is a severe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Brazil and other South American countries. Due to international travel, this poses severe public health risk of ZIKV importation to other countries. We estimate the prevalence of ZIKV in an import region by the time a microcephaly case is detected, since microcephaly is presently the most significant indication of ZIKV presence. A mathematical model to describe ZIKV spread from a source region to an import region was established. This model incorporates both vector transmission (between humans and mosquitoes) and sexual transmission (from males to females). Account was taken of population structure through a contact network for sexually active individuals. Parameter values of the model are either taken from the literature or estimated from travel data
BMC Infectious Diseases (2016) 16:754 DOI 10.1186/s12879-016-2076-z
Society at a Glance 2016 aims to address the growing demand for quantitative evidence on the social situation, its trends, and its possible drivers across OECD countries. One objective is to assess and compare social outcomes that are currently the focus of policy debates. Another is to provide an overview of societal responses, and how effective policy actions have been in furthering social development. This edition of Society at a Glance discusses policy actions in response to the situation of youth Neither in Employment, Education, nor Training (NEET). Indicators on youth are therefore a particular focus
Purpose: This article explores the complexities of leprosy-related stigma and the potential effectiveness of a socio-economic intervention in Cirebon District, Indonesia.
Methods: A qualitative approach was adopted. 53 people affected by leprosy were interviewed, and 17 focus group discussions were conducted among people affected by leprosy, community and religious leaders, and health providers and other key persons who were all purposively selected.
Results: People affected by leprosy face major socio-economic consequences. This was confirmed by key persons. Several opportunities for a possible socio-economic intervention were perceived, as also the barriers. People affected by leprosy are constrained by certain aspects of the health system (e.g., the health providers’ negative attitudes), views in society (e.g., misunderstandings about the condition, stigma), and the physical and social consequences of the disease (impairments, feelings of shame). Study participants identified strategies to deal with these barriers, as well as specific activities for a socio-economic intervention; in particular, the training of staff responsible for implementation.
Conclusion and Implications: Socio-economic interventions in the field of leprosy need to anticipate the barriers and develop strategies to deal with them. Cooperation between people working in the health system and those in the welfare / financial system is needed, to improve the quality of life of people affected by leprosy
"We examine the potential associations between self-rated health, employment situation, relationship status and personal wellbeing in young adults with and without a history of language impairment (LI)."
The temporal and geographical distribution of Zika virus infection and associated neurological disorders, from 1947 to 1 February 2016, when Zika became a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) are described following an extensive literature search. During this period a total of 74 countries and territories had reported human Zika virus infections. The timeline in this paper charts the discovery of the virus (1947), its isolation from mosquitos (1948), the first human infection (1952), the initial spread of infection from Asia to a Pacific island (2007), the first known instance of sexual transmission (2008), reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (2014) and microcephaly (2015) linked to Zika infections and the first appearance of Zika in the Americas (from 2015). The paper concludes that the Zika virus infection in humans appears to have changed in character as its geographical range has expanded from equatorial Africa and Asia. The change is from an endemic, mosquito-borne infection causing mild illness to one that can cause large outbreaks linked with neurological sequelae and congenital abnormalities
With increasing evidence of linkages between Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus infection, the importance of enhancing Guillain-Barré syndrome surveillance is highlighted and use of existing surveillance systems like the one for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) used by polio eradication programmes is proposed. A process for using the AFP surveillance system for Zika virus surveillance is outlined. Worldwide distribution maps of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are presented and control measures following Zika infection testing are listed.
"This report provides an overview of who is currently funding mental health and who isn’t, but could be. It is a synthesis of research previously conducted in this field and analyses both existing and new funders. It highlights how little information there is on what donors are spending on mental health globally, what types of activities are funded and why funding mental health delivers a variety of benefits, and it suggests how to frame the issue to encourage more investment".
This study aimed to identify operational issues encountered by study participants in using the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention and to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. ‘Care for Stroke’ is a smartphone-enabled, educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke. It is delivered through a web-based, smartphone enabled application (app). It includes inputs from stroke rehabilitation experts in a digitised format. Sixty stroke survivors discharged from hospital in Chennai, South India, and their caregivers participated in the study. The preliminary intervention was field-tested with 30 stroke survivors for 2 weeks. The finalised intervention was provided to a further 30 stroke survivors to be used in their homes with support from their carers for 4 weeks. Field-testing identified operational difficulties related to connectivity, video-streaming, picture clarity, quality of videos, and functionality of the application. Assessment was carried out by direct observation and short interview questionnaires.
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