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A comparison of routine and case-managed pathways for recovery from musculoskeletal disorders in people in employment

BERGMAN, Beverly P
DEMOU, Evangelia

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Purpose: To compare outcomes in employed people from an enhanced routine management pathway for musculoskeletal disorders within National Health Service Scotland with an existing active case-management system, Working Health Services Scotland.

Materials and methods: The study comprised a service evaluation using anonymised routinely collected data from all currently employed callers presenting with musculoskeletal disorder to the two services. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected. EuroQol EQ-5DTM scores at the start and end of treatment were compared for both groups, overall and by age, sex, socio-economic status, and anatomical site, and the impact of mental health status at baseline was evaluated.


Results: Active case-management resulted in greater improvement than enhanced routine care. Case-managed service users entered the programme earlier in the recovery pathway; there was evidence of spontaneous improvement during the longer waiting time of routine service clients but only if they had good baseline mental health. Those most disadvantaged through mental health co-morbidity showed the greatest benefit.


Conclusions: People with musculoskeletal disorders who have poor baseline mental health status derive greatest benefit from active case-management. Case-management therefore contributes to reducing health inequalities and can help to minimise long-term sickness absence. Shorter waiting times contrib- uted to better outcomes in the case-managed service.

Investing in human potential

BROWN, Simon

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This document gives methods to amplify the impact of your corporate social responsibility strategy and how it is possible to influence labour markets to be more inclusive for persons with disabilities.

Key issues on promoting employment of persons with disabilities

FREMLIN, Peter Torres
et al
April 2020

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This document brings together the technical advice of the disability team at the Gender, Equality and Diversity branch (GED) in the ILO. The information in this document is pragmatic guidance, rather than statement of institutional position. ILO positions can be found in the statements and standards that are linked to throughout

Preferences regarding the way of use and design of a work ability prognosis support tool: a focus group study among professionals

ANEMA, Johannes R
November 2019

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Purpose: To explore the preferable way of use and design of a work ability prognosis support tool for insurance physicians (IPs) and labour experts (LEs), based on a prediction model for future changes in work ability among individuals applying for a work disability benefit.


Methods: We conducted three focus groups with professionals of the Dutch Social Security Institute (17 IPs and 7 LEs). Data were audio recorded and qualitatively analysed according to the main principles of thematic analysis.


Results: Clarity and ease of use were mentioned as important features of the tool. Most professionals preferred to make their own judgement during the work disability assessment interview with the claimant and afterwards verify their evaluation with the tool. Concerning preferences on the design of the tool, dividing work disability claimants into categories based on the outcome of the prediction model was experienced as the most straightforward and clear way of presenting the results. Professionals expected that this encourages them to use the tool and act accordingly.


Conclusions: The tool should be easy to access and interpret, to increase the chance that professionals will use it. This way it can optimally help professionals making accurate prognoses of future changes in work ability.

Balancing care and work: a case study of recognition in a social enterprise


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This paper discusses a case study of a Dutch work-integration social enterprise (WISE) to add to the debate on the contribution of employment to the citizenship of intellectually disabled people and those experiencing mental health conditions. In current welfare state policies, the value of labour market participation is narrowed down to regular employment, as workplace support and care provisions are seen as stigmatising and segregating. We argue that a more nuanced understanding is needed of the intersection of support arrangements with the benefits of employment. Building on ‘recognition theory’ by the German philosopher Honneth, our findings show that the work-integration social enterprise under study is successfully balancing the contrasting demands of logics of care and work, leading to experiences of ‘recognition.’ However, this balance is fragile and does not undo the misrecognition of disabled people as unable to live up to the productivity norms of a capitalist labour market.

Work Ability of Employees with Disabilities in Malaysia

Lavasani, Sobhan
Wahat, NorWahiza Abdul
Ortega, Adriana

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Purpose: Based on a sample of employees with disability, this study aimed to: (1) evaluate the construct validity of work ability index (WAI), core self-evaluation scale (CSES) and job in general index (JIG), in order to make a valid and reliable assessment of their work ability, job satisfaction and core self-evaluation; (2) assess their levels of work ability, job satisfaction, and core self-evaluation; (3) investigate the associations of work ability with job satisfaction and core self- evaluation among them; and, (4) determine which demographic characteristics significantly affect the work ability of employees with disability.


Methods: The sample consisted of 275 employees with disability. Data was collected using a self-administered survey.The analysis focussed on: (1) CFA- for evidence of the construct validity of the employed scales; (2) Descriptive analysis - for evaluating the variables of the study; (3) Pearson correlation analysis – for understanding the simple correlation between variables of the study; and, (4) One-way ANOVA- for identifying the demographic factors that influence the work ability of employees with disability.


Results: The findings indicated that 29.5% of the participants had poor levels of work ability, while 35.3% reported moderate levels of work ability. Also, 49.1% of the participants reported moderate levels of core self-evaluation, and 70.5% exhibited high job satisfaction. In this study, work ability was found to be associated with core self-evaluation and job satisfaction. Significant differences in work ability levels were found in terms of age, level of education and employment status of the respondents.


Conclusion: Work ability among employees with disabilities did not seem to be influenced merely by individual health status. Attitudinal and dispositional factors appeared to have a significant impact on their levels of work ability. Thepotential positive impact of education and employment status on employees’ levels of work ability are highlighted in this study.

Wage subsidies and hiring chances for the disabled: Some causal evidence

BAERT, Stijn
July 2014

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The effectiveness of wage subsidies as a policy instrument to integrate disabled individuals into the labour market was investigated. To identify causal effects, a field experiment was carried out in Belgium. Two applications for male graduates, identical except that one reveals a disability, were sent out to 768 vacancies in the Flemish labour market.


IZA Discussion Paper No. 8318

Assistive Technologies in a Workplace Environment: Barriers for the Employment of People with Disabilities


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Purpose: The employment equity policies and implementation of technology- specific guidelines within the South African ‘Code of Good Practice on the Employment of People with Disabilities’, was created to encourage employment equity for employees with disabilities, by companies in Johannesburg.


This study reports on the results of the investigation in assistive technologies in a workplace environment, and barriers for the employment of persons with disabilities in the South African environment.


Method: Qualitative data, collected from two retail and service companies in the form of semi-structured individual and focus group interviews, was analysed using a constant comparative method, identifying major themes and sub-themes.


Results: A surprisingly small number of persons with disabilities were found to be employed by participating companies, which tended not to focus on these people when formulating their policies and plans. In addition, technological aspects of the Code were largely unacknowledged, with little effort being made to accommodate the needs of persons with disabilities. An even lower incidence of assistive technology usage was found, along with a large number of conceptual and perceived barriers that hinder the employment of persons with disabilities and the implementation of appropriate technology.