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HIV transmission through breastfeeding : a review of available evidence

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND
2004

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This book presents a summary of the available scientific evidence on the transmission of HIV infection through breastfeeding. It briefly describes the benefits of breastfeeding for both mothers and infants; and summarizes evidence on the relative risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding.
Contents: 1. Executive Summary 2. Introdution 3. Background 4. Mother-to-child transmission 5. HIV transmission through breastfeeding 6. Preventing transmission through breastfeeding 7. Current or planned research 8. References

World report on road traffic injury prevention

PEDEN, Margie
et al
2004

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"This joint WHO/World Bank report on road traffic injury prevention is an important part of the response to the world’s road safety crisis. It is directed at international, regional and national policy-makers, international agencies and key professionals in public health, transport, engineering, education and other sectors, and aims to stimulate action for road safety. It sets out universal principles rather than a ‘blue print’ for worldwide application, recognizing fully the need to identify local needs and the adaptation of ‘best practices’ accordingly"
Note: a summary of the report and a report factsheet are also available

Orphans and vulnerable children in India : understanding the context and the response

GOLDMAN, Judith
ANASTASI, Marie-Christine
June 2003

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A report from a meeting for exchange and learning between organisations working with orphans and vulnerable children in India, looking community responses to working with this group. The experience of Plan International, Palmyrah Workers Development Society and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance was presented to the meeting. Specific responses to working with orphans and vulnerable children discussed in the report include lessons from a child participatory approach, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and the development of community action

Where there is no psychiatrist : a mental health care manual

PATEL, Vikram
2003

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This is a practical manual about mental health care, aimed at community health workers, primary care nurses, social workers and primary care doctors. It describes more than 30 clinical problems associated with mental illness, using a problem-solving approach to guide the reader through their assessment and management. It addresses the lack of understanding of mental health among many health workers

Sight and life

SIGHT AND LIFE
January 2003

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This is a CD-ROM version of the Sight and Life website, a task force established and financed by Roche to combat nutritional blindness. The CD-ROM (and website) include several books by Sight and Life in PDF format, including their manual and guidebook, as well as various materials on food fortification, a slide set, video, and downloadable Vitamin A intake calculator

The behavioural and social aspects of malaria and its control : an introduction and annotated bibliography

HEGGENHOUGEN, H Kristian
HACKETHAL, Veronica
VIVEK, Pramila
2003

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This publication highlights the importance of sociocultural factors in malaria control and makes clear that the fight against malaria and other infectious diseases is inseparable from the striving for socioeconomic and political equity. The authors show that human behaviour is related to risk for malaria, and that such behaviour is influenced by a range of cultural and social factors. It provides a valuable social science starting point for the design and evaluation of anti-malaria interventions. It provides a thorough analysis of the perception of malaria as a disease, then looks at the effect of human movement on malaria. A considerable gap remains between 'correct scientific knowledge' and the accepted practices and beliefs about malaria held by different groups of people, and one section discusses the difficulties imposed by the clash between 'northern' and traditional ways of responding to disease episodes, and demonstrates that the 'North' has much to learn from the 'South'. Also covered are attitudes towards the use of insecticide-impregnated bednets, gender issues such as the invisible role of women in determining the health-related practices of a household, and the manner in which people interact with each other, identify needs, and make decisions. Finally there is an extensive annotated bibliography of the social science literature on malaria

HIV-infected women and their families : psychosocial support and related issues. A literature review

LINDSEY, Elizabeth
2003

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This review looks at global literature from academic institutions and UN agencies on psychosocial support and counselling, to HIV infected pregnant women and their families (from pre-conception to 2 years old). It also contains information about the efficacy of practices and projects that care for infected women and their families, especially methods used in relation to mother-to-child transmission during the perinatal period. There are also interesting examples of such projects from around the world. The final section of the review makes recommendations on psychosocial support and counselling for HIV infected women and families

HIV and infant feeding : a report of a WABA-UNICEF Colloquium

GREINER, Ted
Ed
2003

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This report covers the main dilemmas and debates around HIV/AIDS and infant feeding practices. There is some focus on antiretrovirals and prevention of mother to child transmission, but sessions featured in the report mainly cover technical and progammatic issues, and the sharing of field experiences. The key themes are the issues of if and how to breastfeed, and confusion over unclear messages about infant feeding practices. Increasing access to information and voluntary counselling and testing is covered as well as community involvement and the perspective and role of breastfeeding supportive NGOs. Lessons learned are drawn upon and details of each working group on various subjects are documented. Research, monitoring and evaluation priorities are looked at, and there is a presentation of knowledge gaps and challenges for the future

Early childhood development and children with disabilities in developing countries

SIMEONSSON, Rune J
2003

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This paper aims to review and synthesise literature on the nature, distribution, and associated aspects of disability among children under 8 in developing countries. It examines existing services and practices providing care and education, and identifies approaches that promise to address the children's developmental needs.
Such a review may also serve as a resource for governmental and nongovernmental entities involved in the development of policies and implementation of services for children with disabilities and their families in developing countries. Finally, it may be of interest to foundations and funding organisations seeking to make investments in early childhood intervention programs in those countries

AIDS in China : an annotated chronology 1985-2003

SETTLE, Edmund
2003

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This publication compiles Chinese and international open source information since China's first reported AIDS case in 1985. The objective of the report is to increase overall awareness and provide a historical foundation to China's HIV crisis among policy makers, international organisations, professional stakeholders and the general population

HIV and infant feeding : guidelines for decision-makers

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNFPA)
2003

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Contents: 1. Overview 2. Protecting, promoting and supporting appropriate feeding practices for infants and young children in the context of HIV 3. Supporting HIV-positive women in their infant-feeding decisions 4. Monitoring and evaluation

Ndola demonstration project : a midterm analysis of lessons learned

HORIZONS PROGRAM
November 2002

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This report summarises baseline and midterm findings of an intervention pilot study conducted in Ndola District, Zambia. The aim of the research was to investigate how integrating services for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMCT) of HIV into low-resource maternal and child health (MCH) and antenatal care (ANC) settings influences women’s ability to make and implement informed decisions about HIV. The intervention strengthened routine services and introduced HIV voluntary counselling and testing and PMCT counselling and services into the MCH/ANC setting. Exclusive breast feeding was promoted for all mothers with infants below 6 months old

Paediatric HIV infection and AIDS

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
September 2002

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Provides information about how HIV is transmitted to children, and guidelines on prevention of mother-to-child-transmission and reducing the impact of HIV on children

Criminal law, public health and HIV transmission : a policy options paper

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
June 2002

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A number of cases have been reported in which people living with HIV have been criminally charged for a variety of acts that transmit HIV or risk transmission. To assist in the development of sound public policy, this paper proposes principles to guide thinking about, and development of, law and policy on this issue; identifies a number of policy considerations; considers alternatives to criminalisation presented by public health laws; and discusses how the criminal law might be justifiably applied

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Asia : a practical guidance for programs

PREBLE, Elizabeth A
PIWOZ, Ellen G
June 2002

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This paper focuses on mother to child transmission of HIV in the five most affected countries in Asia -- Cambodia, China, India, Myanmar, and Thailand. The technical background and lessons learned, however, are relevant for the rest of the region. It discusses risk factors, issues of diagnosis and treatment of pediatric AIDS and experiences of prevention in Asia and elsewhere. In particular it looks at issues of: comprehensive maternal and child health (MCH) services; voluntary counselling and testing (VCT); antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis; counselling and support for safe infant feeding; optimal obstetric practices. This document is intended as a technical resource and a basis for discussion and it is aimed at governments, NGOs and other stakeholders working in HIV prevention in Asia

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