Personal advice from a wheelchair user, designer, and engineer regarding COVID-19 precautions to be taken by wheelchair users concerning clean hands, clean wheelchair and social distancing.
This is a guide to help people with disability to get the facts about Coronavirus (COVID-19) and make a plan for how they will manage the impact of this situation. People with disability need a plan that is tailored to their unique support needs
Purpose: The Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) is an ongoing screening and early intervention programme for children in India. Children with birth defects and developmental disabilities from rural and urban communities are referred for treatment and therapies to early intervention centres located in urban areas. This study primarily aimed at determining caregiver uptake and compliance to referral advice of the RBSK, with the larger goal of determining the utility of the community-based screening and district-based intervention service model for caregivers of children with disabilities.
Method: Three administrative blocks and one municipal corporation area of Pune district, in Maharashtra, were randomly selected. The sample consisted of 115 caregivers of children with disabilities. They were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire that investigated uptake of referral advice, treatment outcome, current health status of the child and reasons for noncompliance, three to nine months after the first referral by the RBSK team.
Results: Sixty-four caregivers were aware of their child’s disability, but most children remained untreated. After screening and referral by the RBSK team, compliance was high for treatable conditions like congenital heart defects. Treatment was discontinued for 83% (24 out of 29) of children with developmental disabilities. Reasons for discontinuation included lengthy waiting time, distance to facility, difficulty in transporting the child, loss of wages, and denial of the child’s disability.
Conclusion and Implications: The results indicated that the RBSK programme provides treatment opportunities for children who are left undiagnosed and untreated in the community. Providing rehabilitation services at district centres is a barrier for service uptake. Alternative models such as early childhood development screening and integrating rehabilitation services at the primary healthcare level may be more feasible to provide services for children with disabilities in India.
Purpose: Existing physical activity interventions do not reach a considerable proportion of physically disabled people. This study assessed feasibility and short-term effects of Activity Coach+, a community-based intervention especially targeting this hard-to-reach population.
Methods: Feasibility was determined by reach, dropouts, and compliance with the protocol. Physical activity was measured with the Activ8 accelerometer and the adapted SQUASH questionnaire. Health outcomes were assessed by body composition, blood pressure, hand grip force, 10-metre walk test, 6-minute walk test, and the Berg Balance Scale. The RAND-36, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, and IMPACT-S were administered. Measurements were performed at baseline and after 2 and 4 months. Changes over time were analysed by Friedman tests.
Results: Twenty-nine participants enrolled during the first 4 months, of whom two dropped out. Intervention components were employed in 86–100% of the participants. Physical activity did not change after the implementation of Activity Coach+. Body mass index (p = 0.006), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.032), walking ability (p = 0.002), exercise capacity (p = 0.013), balance (p = 0.014), and vitality (p = 0.049) changed over time.
Conclusions: Activity Coach + is feasible in a community setting. Indications for effectivity of Activity Coach + in hard-to-reach people with a physical disability were found.
Purpose: To examine current practices of occupational health professionals in assessing significant others’ cognitions and behavioral responses that may influence work outcomes of workers with a chronic disease.
Methods: A survey study among occupational health professionals, focusing on the assessment of illness perceptions, work-related beliefs and expectations, and behavioral responses of significant others of workers with a chronic disease. We performed linear regression analyses to investigate which factors are related to occupational health professionals’ assessment practices. We used thematic analysis to analyze qualitative data on occupational health professionals’ reasons to assess or overlook significant others’ cognitions and behavioral responses.
Results: Our study sample included 192 occupational health professionals. Most seldom asked about significant others’ cognitions and behavioral responses. Organizational norms and occupational health professionals’ self-efficacy were related to reported assessment practices. Reasons to assess significant others’ cognitions and behavioral responses included recognizing their influence on work participation, and occurrence of stagnation. However, occupational health professionals indicated some doubt whether such assessment would always contribute to better care.
Conclusions: It is not common practice for occupational health professionals to assess significant others’ cognitions and behavioral responses, although they recognize the influence of these factors on work outcomes. More research is needed as to how occupational health professionals can best address the role of significant others, and apply these new insights in their daily practice.
Purpose: The prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms among clients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus is in the range of 30%. Since these conditions are often under-diagnosed and under-treated in clinical practice, they negatively affect functional recovery, adherence to treatment, and the quality of life. Despite the large body of evidence regarding the effects of exercise training on different aspects of diabetes, no updated conclusive article that reviews depression is available. This article aims to review the current literature on exercise training and its effect on depression in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Method: An electronic search of literature from 2010, highlighting the effects of exercise on depression among Type 2 diabetes mellitus clients, was conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed. Relevant articles were utilised for this review. The selected studies are based on relational and rehabilitative exercise training approaches.
Results: While most of the studies support the efficacy of exercise training, study settings and described models are not conclusive. No single clearly defined model exists for exercise training for depression among people with diabetes. There is evidence for the efficacy of supervised aerobic exercise in the treatment of depression, when undertaken three times weekly at moderate intensity, for a minimum of eight weeks. Further research is required to develop specific exercise training models that can be tested in experimental studies for this client group.
Conclusion: The current review showed that exercise training can be used to alleviate depression among people with diabetes. Future studies should adopt rigorous methodological criteria to back up the present findings.
This brief is for policy-makers in any ministry involved in designing assistive technology policies and programmes (such as ministries of health, finance and social welfare), especially those involved in designing universal health coverage programmes. It is also relevant for all stakeholders working in these areas. The brief highlights key challenges in ensuring equitable access to high-quality, affordable assistive technology and suggests actions to improve access within universal health coverage or any other national health/welfare programme.
1 – To explore the knowledge and competencies of teachers in carrying out visual acuity testing.
2 – To investigate how visual acuity testing practices were applied.
3 – To determine teachers’ motivations and attitudes towards carrying out school-based visual acuity testing.
Although the school-based vision screening programme was well received and supported by the schools and health providers, limited time allocated for training and practice; limited supervision and the lack of refresher training; trainers insufficiently experienced in training non-health staff and teachers’ involved had many other responsibilities and could not allocate sufficient time to conduct the activity properly which undermined the effectiveness and efficiency of the programme.
United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) adopts a twin-track approach to ensure the full inclusion of Palestine refugees with disabilities. This entails ‘disability mainstreaming’, whereby all UNRWA programmes and services are universally designed to ensure that they are usable by and/or reach beneficiaries with disabilities, coupled with the provision of ‘targeted/tailored interventions’. During 2019, UNRWA implemented the following activities to address the specific needs of Palestine refugees with disabilities:
- Direct Specialized Services for Persons with Disabilities
- Disability Inclusion through Programmes
- International Cooperation
This product narrative was developed to support the identification of activities that will increase and sustain access to appropriate, affordable hearing aids
Five strategic objectives (SO) that can strengthen the market in both the near and longer-term are identified
Motor activation is rarely integrated into the support of people with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), which might be the result of the limited evidence-based knowledge in this ﬁeld. Practitioners have recently been developing several motor initiatives for people with PIMD, but it remains unclear about what core elements the motor initiatives actually consist of and to what level of quality it is implemented in practice. This study aims to offer an overview and analysis of the content and quality of motor initiatives actually in use for people with PIMD. Motor initiatives were explored by asking practitioners to complete an online inventory form. Documents, expert knowledge, and observations were used to collect data about the characteristics of the motor initiatives. The quality of the motor initiatives which met our eligibility criteria, was analyzed on the basis of the level of evidence for their effectiveness. The inventory yielded 118 motor initiatives of which 17 met the eligibility criteria. We identiﬁed four motor initiatives reﬂecting an approach to motorically activate people with PIMD within various activities, three including power-assisted exercises, three with aquatic exercises, two frameworks which integrated motor activities into their daily programs, two methods which included small-scale activities, two rhythmic movement therapies, and one program including gross motor activities. We found limited indications for descriptive evidence from 17 initiatives, limited or no indications for theoretical evidence from 12 and ﬁve initiatives respectively, and none of the initiatives provided a causal level of evidence for effectiveness. A wide variety of motor initiatives is used in current practice to activate persons with PIMD, although their effectiveness is actually unproven. Science and practice should cooperate to develop an evidence-based understanding to ensure more evidence-based support for the motor activation of people with PIMD in the future.
This is a first exercise to connect different areas of debate, looking at the key trends of the future of work from a disability perspective and seeking to identify specific action needed in order to shape the future of work in a more disability-inclusive way.
Chapters include: Work and disability - overview of current situation; megatrends of future work and persons with disability (technological revolution, skills revolution, cultutral change, demographic change and climate change); and Roadmap for an inclusive future of work.
The following five key objectives for the inclusion of persons with disabilities in the future of work have been identified:
1. New forms of employment and employment relations integrate disability inclusion
2. Skills development and life-long learning made inclusive of persons with disabilities
3. Universal Design embedded in development of all new infrastructure, products and services
4. Assistive technologies, existing and newly developed, to be made affordable and available
5. Measures to include persons with disabilities in growing and developing areas of the economy
Governments, companies, disability NGOs, trade unions and academia must be encouraged to commit and contribute towards achieving these objectives through different actions. An inclusive future of work can be reached through coordination and alliances among the different stakeholders
This research article focuses on optimising the performance of frontline implementers engaged with NTD programme delivery in Nigeria. Three broad themes are examined: technical support, social support and incentives
Qualitative data was collected through participatory stakeholder workshops. Eighteen problem-focused workshops and 20 solution-focussed workshops were held in 12 selected local government areas (LGA) across two states in Nigeria, Ogun and Kaduna States
Human Resources for Health, 2019 Nov 1;17(1):79
Building on the main findings emerging from comparative studies - iFAR (improve Financial Access to Rehabilitation services) studies carried out by Humanity & Inclusion - on the financial accessibility of rehabilitation services in 9 low and middle income countries, this factsheet contains recommendations to guide effective actions that can improve access to rehabilitation for everyone
Introduction: The main idea underlying this paper is that impairments such as deafness are particularly relevant to the extent that they lead to deprivation of capability. Likewise, the impact of healthcare services such as cochlear implants and subsequent rehabilitation can best be inferred from the extent that they protect or restore capability of those affected.
Methods: To explore children’s post-implant capabilities, we tested two newly developed digital, adaptive child self-report and parent-report questionnaires in 19 deaf children (aged 8–12 years) and their parents during rehabilitation, as well as in 23 age peers with normal hearing.
Results: Despite the impressive speech-language results that were recorded with cochlear implants, the post-implant capabilities of the deaf children we evaluated differed from those of their hearing peers, with the cochlear implant group appearing particularly disadvantaged in areas such as accessing information, communication, social participation, and participation in school.
Conclusion: Deaf children with cochlear implants who are performing well on linguistic and auditory tests can still experience serious limitations in desired functioning. Our findings suggest that a capability approach may reveal aspects of what is being achieved through rehabilitation that might otherwise remain unnoticed, and that could help to further improve the well-being of our patients.
Purpose: Employment of young adults with chronic physical conditions entering the labor market after finishing post-secondary education remains behind compared to typically developing peers. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes in their paid employment levels after following a vocational rehabilitation intervention (‘At Work’).
Materials and methods: Participants aged between 16 and 27 years (n = 90) were recruited via rehabilitation physicians and a jobcoach agency and participated in a vocational rehabilitation program. Cochran’s Q and McNemar tests served to test the development of intervention participants’ paid employment over time. Chi-square tests were used to compare intervention participants’ paid employment level with national reference data selected on age and having a self-reported chronic physical condition.
Results: Paid employment level of the intervention cohort significantly increased from 10.0% at baseline to 42.4% at 2-years follow-up (p < 0.001). At 2-years follow-up, their employment rates approached the employment rates of national reference data (42.4% versus 52.9%, p = 0.17).
Conclusion: Starting from a disadvantaged position, the paid employment rate of the intervention cohort substantially increased over time, approaching the employment rate of reference data. ‘At Work’ seems to be appropriate for supporting this specific group who face obstacles to enter the labor market, to find competitive employment.
The 17th ISPO Congress was held in Kobe, Japan 5-8 Oct 2019.
A book of abstracts is freely available to download.
PTSD in veterans is a serious issue, but many former service members and their loved ones do not know how to identify the condition or seek treatment. Because PTSD affects mental health and can be hidden, it can be difficult for health practitioners and other individuals to gauge its severity. Additionally, PTSD in veterans is often misunderstood by the public to be a condition that only affects combat veterans or those who have encountered violence firsthand. And even those who understand PTSD in veterans and its potential long-lasting harms still may not know all of its wide-ranging symptoms.
Included here are tips, tools and resources that can help friends and families of veterans who may be suffering from PTSD.
Background: The South African Department of Health identified the need to train a new cadre of community health worker (CHW) in the field of rehabilitation as part of their 2030 Health Plan that aims to improve primary healthcare (PHC) and community-based rehabilitation (CBR). Community health workers can be effectively utilised in CBR if their role is understood and their potential is not limited by professional protectionism and scepticism. A clear understanding of the scope of practice of a new cadre will minimise resistance by health professionals.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore rehabilitation health professionals’ perception of the role of the new cadre, called rehabilitation care workers (RCWs), in South African healthcare.
Methods: Q-methodology was used to gather and interpret the data. A convenient sample of 16 health professionals participated in the study. Participants ranked statements about the role of the RCWs from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were entered into PQMethod software program for statistical and factor analysis.
Results: Two factors emerged. Participants loading onto Factors 1 and 2 were of the opinion that RCWs’ role would be to strengthen PHC and CBR and to promote participation of people with disabilities (PWD) in intermediate care and community.
Conclusion: Rehabilitation health professionals’ positive perception of the new cadre is encouraging so that it could ensure their effective utilisation in CBR. Rehabilitation care workers were perceived as capable of enhancing the lives of PWD by ensuring inclusive development.
African Journal of Disability, Vol 8, 2019
This case study highlights refugees with disabilities’ access to mobile services and the benefits and challenges associated with using these services in three different humanitarian contexts. The analysis is based on a representative survey of refugees in three contexts: Bidi Bidi refugee settlement (Uganda), Kiziba refugee camp (Rwanda) and with urban refugees in Jordan. It also includes qualitative data drawn from two focus groups conducted with refugees with disabilities in Bidi Bidi and Kiziba. The survey used the Washington Group Questions (WGQs) to assess prevalence of disability amongst the refugee population
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion