"Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in children worldwide, and yet in most low resource settings there are few services available to support children with cerebral palsy or their families. Research is required to understand the effectiveness of community and/or home based programmes to address this gap. This 2-year study aimed to evaluate a participatory caregiver training programme called ‘Getting to know cerebral palsy’ in Ghana. The training programme consisted of a monthly half-day support group with training, and a home visit, delivered across eight sites in Ghana over 10 months. A total of 76 families and children were included at baseline and 64 families followed up one year later at endline. Children were aged between 18months and 12 years with a mean of 3.8 years and a range of severity of cerebral palsy. Nearly all (97%) the caregivers were female and the father was absent in 51% of families. The study was a pre-post intervention design using mixed methods to evaluate the impact. A baseline and endline quantitative survey was conducted to assess caregiver quality of life (QoL) and knowledge about cerebral palsy and child feeding, health, and nutrition outcomes. Qualitative data was collected to explore the impact and experiences of the training programme in more depth".
This report examines the abuses—including pasung—that persons with psychosocial disabilities face in the community, mental hospitals, and various other institutions in Indonesia, including stigma, arbitrary and prolonged detention, involuntary treatment, and physical and sexual violence. It also examines the government’s shortcomings in addressing these problems.
Based on research across the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra, Human Rights Watch documented 175 cases of persons with psychosocial disabilities in pasung or who were recently rescued from pasung.
Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania. Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods. In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.
"The guidelines aim to raise awareness of violence against women among health-care providers and policy-makers, so that they better understand the need for an appropriate health-sector response. They provide standards that can form the basis for national guidelines, and for integrating these issues into health-care provider education...The guidelines are based on systematic reviews of the evidence, and cover: identification and clinical care for intimate partner violence; clinical care for sexual assault; training relating to intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women; policy and programmatic approaches to delivering services; mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence"
"This document summarizes ‘Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines’, the World Health Organization (WHO), 2013 publication, developed by an international group of experts following a thorough review of evidence. It contains evidence-based recommendations for the introduction of policies into health services and programmes to improve responses within the health sector to violence against women. Each recommendation is classified as either "strong" or "conditional", on the basis of the generalizability of benefit across different communities and cultures, the needs and preferences of women to access services, as well as taking into consideration the level of human and other resources that would be required"
"This report reviews the effectiveness of early childhood stimulation interventions in developing countries. The report aims to answer the questions: What works in terms of early stimulation for young children in developing countries? For whom and under what conditions do these programs work and why do they work. The report is divided into several sections. Firstly, a brief discussion of the importance of early stimulation for young children in developing countries is provided. Secondly, the methods used to identify and characterize studies are provided and a review of randomized or quasi-experimental trials is presented. Thirdly, a review of the evidence for who benefits most from early interventions is presented followed by a review of program characteristics that affect the success of interventions and an examination of potential mechanisms through which interventions achieve their effects. Finally, recommendations for practice and future research are provided"
IDB working paper series
This article focuses on the management of epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries and recommends a package of care - a combination of interventions aimed at improving the recognition and management of conditions to achieve optimal outcomes - for epilepsy, that is sustainable
This report maps out the various activities in school-based HIV treatment, care and support that are being undertaken in Southern Africa, as a response to the changing needs of teachers, students and local communities. It highlights successful factors and common challenges and suggests five broad principles that help provide a comprehensive response to treatment, care and support,and reinforce prevention messages
This operational guide provides a broad direction for implementing memory work in India in the field, based on a communication needs assessment carried out as part of the Indian Initiative for Child Centred Approaches to HIV & AIDS (IICCHAA). The guide is divided into two sections: how to roll out the training effectively at field level and some basic information about HIV and AIDS
This book provides health care workers and mangers with information and practical guidance relating to antiretroviral therapies (ART). It also considers wider care and treatment issues such as; opportunistic infections, the integration of ART with antenatal and midwifery services, the particular needs of children and young people, support relating to nutrition, spiritual needs, psycho-social and economic issues. In addition, the need for community level support to help with adherence to treatment and address stigma and discrimination are also considered, as is end-of-life care for people whose disease does not respond to treatment
This article considers the impact of AIDS on women’s roles and responsibilities within the household ‘care economy’. In particular, it emphasises that all interventions aimed at reversing the AIDS epidemic need to take into account the excessive work-load that members of the household, usually women, shoulder in responding to the needs of sick family members. Most notably, gender equality and care economy issues need to be identified by development programmes. There is also a need to implement policies that focus on issues such as treatment, prevention, education, economic empowerment and violence against women. The article argues that unless the care economy and the relations of gender inequality within the household are included in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of such interventions, results will be compromised
This handbook outlines the role of pharmacists in the context of greater availability of a complex range of medicines and suggests good pharmacy practices. Effective pharmaceutical care entails a patient-centred approach that should encourage adherence to prescribed medicines, through a close relationship between patient and pharmacist and follow-up on health outcomes. 'Adherence to long-term therapy for chronic conditions in developed countries averages 50%, with even lower rates for developing countries'. The handbook looks at pharmacists and patient care both from a policy and from a practical perspective
This UNAIDS Best Practice Collection document aims to highlight and advocate for the work of civil society, community based organisations in particular, in responding to the AIDS epidemic in Africa. The paper describes a ground breaking survey by Sidaction, a Paris based treatment rights group, which supports community responses to AIDS in low and middle income countries. In 2004, Sidaction, in cooperation with the UNAIDS secretariat and WHO mapped treatment and care efforts by community based organisations in Africa. Many community based organisations are already dispensing ARVs on a significant scale. The survey confirmed that community efforts to provide treatment represent an important opportunity to enrol more people in antiretroviral therapy. To seize this opportunity, national governments and the international community need to quickly provide support to expand the coverage and impact of community based treatment. The aim is for CBOs to work closely with the public sector so that each reinforces the efforts of the other
This report is a review of statistical data on aid to HIV/AIDS control. It was compiled by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Secretariat in collaboration with the members of the DAC Working Party on Statistics (WP-STAT) and UNAIDS between February and May 2004. The key findings are presented concerning total official development assistance commitments for HIV/AIDS control, and bilateral aid. It also includes contributions to the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The report notes that larger donors especially multilaterals are the main funders of treatment programmes, which require substantial funding and long term commitments. Smaller donors tend to concentrate on HIV prevention, but also support home-based care and social mitigation activities
This report was written from the belief that palliative care is, and will be for the forseeable future, an essential component in the continuum of managing HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. There is now a wealth of experience in sub-Saharan Africa about the ways in which palliative care can be delivered both affordably and effectively. However, there remains a lack of properly documented evidence and research to demonstrate the importance of this work and promote its development. This report provides a review of existing evaluations of palliative care projects in sub-Saharan Africa with an emphasis on isolating the factors that lead to sustainability, local ownership and scaling up; the role of palliative care in the management of HIV/AIDS and how to integrate palliative care and Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART); primary health based care projects in two countries, Kenya and Malawi, that could provide lessons for the implementation of palliative care; lessons from other parallel programmes which mirror palliative care delivery, for example, tuberculosis programmes, and primary care programmes with good links to local clinics and hospitals, and community mobilization and empowerment projects linked to health facilities. In this way it contributes to the effort of providing an evidence base to demonstrate the importance of palliative care and provides a source of reference for policy makers, practitioners, donors and researchers
This policy responds to a demand from countries for immediate guidance on which collaborative TB/HIV activities to implement and under what circumstances. It is complementary to and in synergy with the established core activities of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes. Implementing the DOTS strategy is the core activity for tuberculosis control. Similarly, infection and disease prevention and health promotion activities and the provision of treatment and care form the basis for HIV/AIDS control. This policy does not call for the institution of a new specialist or independent disease control programme. It rather promotes enhanced collaboration between tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS programmes in the provision of a continuum of quality care at service-delivery level for people with, or at risk of tuberculosis and people living with HIV/AIDS
This case study outlines and assesses the Khayelitha programme, which focused on ART provision and aimed to document the feasibility of low-cost treatment and primary health care provision in developing countries. The document details the clinical outcomes of the programmes, the strategy used to ensure adherence and the contribution made by Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) to raise awareness and pressurise the government to develop an adequate response to the epidemic. The provision of ART in Khayelitsha had also a positive impact on prevention, making more HIV-positive people aware of their status, reducing stigma, being the catalyst of educational initiatives, improving the morale of health workers and keeping families intact and less at risk. The case study concludes with a comprehensive list of lessons learned and with key recommendations for the future, which include consolidation of nurse-based care, more training activities, integration of HIV/AIDS and TB services, educational programmes aimed at improving adherence to ART and a greater focus on paediatric AIDS and ART provision in rural remote areas
Most CBR experience has come from rural areas in developing countries. However, even in large cities specific population groups - such as people living in slums or low-income areas in the urban peripheries - may face difficulties in accessing rehabilitation services. To address this, the World Health Organization set up a number of pilot consultations and projects in seven countries (Indonesia, India, the Philippines, Brazil, Bolivia, Egypt and Kenya) in 1995. This document gives a report of a final meeting of representatives of these pilot projects.
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion