"Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in children worldwide, and yet in most low resource settings there are few services available to support children with cerebral palsy or their families. Research is required to understand the effectiveness of community and/or home based programmes to address this gap. This 2-year study aimed to evaluate a participatory caregiver training programme called ‘Getting to know cerebral palsy’ in Ghana. The training programme consisted of a monthly half-day support group with training, and a home visit, delivered across eight sites in Ghana over 10 months. A total of 76 families and children were included at baseline and 64 families followed up one year later at endline. Children were aged between 18months and 12 years with a mean of 3.8 years and a range of severity of cerebral palsy. Nearly all (97%) the caregivers were female and the father was absent in 51% of families. The study was a pre-post intervention design using mixed methods to evaluate the impact. A baseline and endline quantitative survey was conducted to assess caregiver quality of life (QoL) and knowledge about cerebral palsy and child feeding, health, and nutrition outcomes. Qualitative data was collected to explore the impact and experiences of the training programme in more depth".
"Mental illnesses are the largest contributors to the global burden of non-communicable diseases. However, there is extremely limited access to high quality, culturally-sensitive, and contextually-appropriate mental healthcare services. This situation persists despite the availability of interventions with proven efficacy to improve patient outcomes. A partnerships network is necessary for successful program adaptation and implementation."
The burden of epidemics of infectious diseases on the social and economic development of poorer countries is growing, but is not being sufficiently addressed. This paper argues that to reduce the impact of epidemics involves addressing complex issues that include prevention of disease, empowering communities, better access to health services at the community level, availability of health personnel and better infrastructure (especially for water and sanitation)
This report shows which countries are succeeding - and which are failing - to deliver basic health care to the mothers and children who need it most. It examines where the health care gaps between the poorest and best-off children are widest, and where they are smallest. It also looks at the survival gaps between the rich and poor children in developing countries, and shows how millions of children’s lives could be saved by ensuring all children get essential, low-cost health care
This is the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (2005-2008). The report gives three main recommendations: 1 improve daily living conditions 2. Tackle the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources 3. Measure and understand the problem and assess the impact of action. The Commission was created to provide evidence on policies that improve health by addressing the social conditions in which people live and work. The report is addressed to WHO, national governments, civil society, and other global organizations
This open access book charts the spread of AIDS and its impact on people in villages in Uganda, sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world and the unnecessary numbers of deaths, particularly among poor people that it has caused. It also looks at the campaign to gain universal access to anti-retroviral therapy and the limited level of response from the rich world. The author challenges pharmaceutical companies to develop more ethical and humanitarian ways to trade, involving crucial life-saving drugs, and calls for a new world order to ensure entitlement of the poor to rapid humanitarian relief
This guide was developed to help train peer trainers to teach others about how to run a business. It is based on ILO proects and was field-tested in a 2007 project in Cambodia. Key aspects of the peer training method are highlighted with useful steps, illustrations and case studies. This manual is useful for people interested in training peer trainers
The Social Development department of the World Bank has produced this easy-to-use report as a part of a series of guidance notes on social analysis. It offers practical advice on mainstreaming disability-inclusive development into World Bank projects. The report provides a checklist for developing inclusive disability policies and for including people with disabilities in each aspect of the development project cycle. The report does not aim to promote separate disability projects but rather to ensure that people with disabilities are included in all projects. The report would be useful for anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in international development policy and practice
This paper aims to support World Bank staff to mainstream disability issues in their work. The intention is to promote the inclusion of disabled people in all aspects of a project cycle, from design, to implementation, monitoring and evaluation. In particular, the paper provides a practical checklist to address specific actions that promote inclusive development. The paper would be a useful tool for any practitioners working in the field of development
This follow-up publication is intended to be read in conjunction with 'HIV/AIDS prevention and care for especially vulnerable young people: a framework for action', which set out five core principles underpinning effective HIV/AIDS prevention programming with young people: putting the young person first; promoting meaningful participation; a commitment to rights; promoting gender equity; and tackling risk and vulnerability. It outlines five case studies. Each case study describes how these principles have been put into action, through innovative approaches to working with young people who are homeless, using drugs, selling sex or living in deprived communities. Case studies come from Argentina, India, Iran, Kenya and Nigeria. This is a useful resource for policy-makers, practitioners and researchers working to promote young people's sexual health in resource-constrained settings
This report looks at neglected tropical diseases. These diseases particularly affect poor and disadvantaged people with limited access to health services and have a low profile and status in public health priorities. Despite the challenges involved, some progress has been made through interventions around particular diseases in certain countries. This report highlights some of those successes
The GTZ-supported CBD (Community Based Distribution) agents are volunteers at village level in Tanga region of Tanzania, who provide information on sexual and reproductive health topics, and distribute contraceptives in their neighbourhoods, thus increasing access to family planning services and reproductive health information. This study examined whether CBD reached poorer people and whether poverty influences the choice made in sourcing contraceptives. A participatory methodology was used - CBD agents drew maps of their neighbourhood, marking every house, determining the wealth status of each household, and indicating each house using their services. Poorer people are effectively reached by CBD, but the average wealth group makes greater use of it. However, poorer people are more likely to use CBD than to go to the health facilities. CBD agents found the maps a useful tool for monitoring their work, but there were doubts as to their accuracy for this study. CBD agents may have inflated the number of clients, or omitted houses with no clients
This report has been produced by the Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. It identifies technical interventions needed to address the problems of high rates of maternal mortality, continued child deaths due to preventable illnesses, unmet need for sexual and reproductive health services, and weak and fragile health systems. The report also asserts that policymakers must act now to change the fundamental societal dynamics that currently prevent those most in need from accessing quality health care
This document presents the findings and recommendations of the UN Millennium Project, focusing on the work carried out by 10 thematic task forces comprising more than 250 experts from around the world, including scientists, development practitioners, parliamentarians, policymakers, and representatives from civil society, UN agencies, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the private sector. It discusses the world's progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in public, private and civil society sectors. The concluding section discusses 'ways forward'
Every year malaria causes up to three million deaths, and if attempts to control the pandemic fail, drug-resistant malaria will spread even further. This report provides key statistics about the disease and makes a case for an effective and internationally coordinated response to the crisis, which should include drugs development, use of insecticide, increased funding, investment in the delivery systems and human resources and the involvement of the private sector
The paper explores paradigms, arguments and evidence on which international agencies draw in discussing early childhood development (ECD). These include assumptions about poverty and the role of ECD in reducing poverty, assumptions about ‘the robustness’ of ECD and the contexts in which ECD takes place. Two case studies, one from Swaziland and one from Kazakhstan are used to explore strengths and limitations. The paper concludes that almost all the evidence for the effectiveness of ECD in determining cognitive, social and economic outcomes is drawn either directly from the North, particularly from the USA, or relies on assumptions drawn from work carried out in the North as a basis for recommendations in the South. The paper points out that ECD may be a useful form of practical relief to mitigate childhood poverty in particular circumstances and this could include children affected by HIV/AIDS. There is a section on page 35 on early childhood development and HIV/AIDs. Other vulnerable children are noted as those with time poor mothers and those in situations of war and conflict
This document sets out five core principles underpinning effective HIV/AIDS prevention programming with young people: putting the young person first; promoting meaningful participation; a commitment to rights; promoting gender equity; and tackling risk and vulnerability. It also offers a straightforward guide to priority setting, with a focus on action to reduce risk, action to reduce vulnerability and action to mitigate impact. Examples of successful implementation of this framework are presented in 'HIV prevention with especially vulnerable young people: case studies of success and innovation' (2006). This is a useful resource for policy-makers, practitioners and researchers working to promote young people's sexual health in resource-constrained settings
When planning development programmes for children living in poor communities with few services, all aspects of their lives need to be addressed. This report illustrates the difference a comprehensive programme can make in the lives of the children, their families and even the community as a whole. By studying two villages, one with the programme and one without, this report shows far-reaching effects in many areas. The children who took part in the programme felt emotionally secure; they were well-behaved and mixed well with their peers of both sexes; their health was better than the children of the control group. But above all, the programme children had internalised values and a sense of self - and they had hopes and dreams for the future
This report summarises how ICTs can help combat poverty and promote development, how to integrate ICTs in development programmes, how ICTs can be adapted for the needs of the poor in developing countries and what the roles are of donor nations and the OECD/World Summit on Information Society. It specifically stresses the need for ICTs to be incorporated into broader development strategies
This paper reviews the process of developing Uganda's Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP), and specifically considers how HIV and AIDS issues were incorporated into the development of the plan. It describes each of the 'entry points' for HIV and AIDS issues, such as community mobilisation, leadership and advocacy, impact mitigation, and ARVs. The 'lessons learned' section focuses on strategic responses that DFID can support to ensure that HIV is effectively mainstreamed within Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers
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