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Knowledge Management-based Classification Method for Disability-Inclusive Business

SANO, R
CHANDARASUPSANG, T
2014

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Purpose: This study provides evidence to clarify disability inclusiveness in activities of rural business. As an alternative to the analysis method that deals with disability-inclusiveness as a vague concept, knowledge management principles were applied to propose a classification method for disability-inclusive business as an emerging concept at the community level.

 

Methods: The analysis focuses on: 1) productivity of entrepreneurs with disabilities; 2) knowledge of entrepreneurs with disabilities; and 3) understanding of customers. A total of 50 entrepreneurs with disabilities in micro and small businesses in Southeast Asia were identified in this context. Data were collected and analysed according to a story-based knowledge management approach and value chain analysis. Fuzzy logic analysis which exploited domain ontology was utilised to convert knowledge from tacit to explicit, in line with knowledge management principles. A numeric weight based on linguistic variables became available to describe each disability-inclusive business case, as well as the arrangements of fuzzy sets.

 

Results: Out of 50 cases, 7 were classified as fully disability-inclusive while 14 were classified as not disability-inclusive. Productivity of entrepreneurs with disabilities in 3 elements of the value chain, namely procurement, product/service development and distribution, was observed to be significant. The Study showed that disability-related knowledge of entrepreneurs with disabilities could contribute to business performance according to the key success factors to enhance added value. Two elements of the value chain, namely sales/marketing and customer service, are not the decisive factors to define and clarify disability-inclusiveness. 

 

Conclusion: Settings in Southeast Asia are diverse and at varying stages of economic and social development; hence the environment which promotes the disability-inclusive business concept may be inconsistent. Micro and small- scale rural businesses were tackled as a first step to evaluate comparative efforts of each case of disability-inclusive business from the viewpoint of entrepreneurs with disabilities. Therefore, in highlighting the differences, it is recommended that further research should seek to apply weighting factors depending on the individual size, contents and scale of major business areas.

Policy implementation in wheelchair service delivery in a rural South African setting

VISAGIE, Surona
SCHEFFLER, Elsje
SCHNEIDER, Marguerite
2013

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Background: Wheelchairs allow users to realise basic human rights and improved quality of life. South African and international documents guide rehabilitation service delivery and thus the provision of wheelchairs. Evidence indicates that rehabilitation policy implementation gaps exist in rural South Africa.

 

Objectives: The aim of this article was to explore the extent to which wheelchair service delivery in a rural, remote area of South Africa was aligned with the South African National Guidelines on Provision of Assistive Devices, The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and The World Health Organization Guidelines on Provision of Wheelchairs in Less-Resourced Settings.

 

Method: Qualitative methods were used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 22 participants who were identified through purposive sampling. Content analysis of data was preformed around the construct of wheelchair service delivery.

 

Results: Study findings identified gaps between the guiding documents and wheelchair service delivery. Areas where gaps were identified included service aspects such as referral, assessment, prescription, user and provider training, follow up, maintenance and repair as well as management aspects such as staff support, budget and monitoring. Positive findings related to individual assessments, enthusiastic and caring staff and the provision of wheelchairs at no cost.

 

Conclusion: The gaps in policy implementation can have a negative impact on users and the service provider. Inappropriate or no wheelchairs limit user function, participation and quality of life. In addition, an inappropriate wheelchair will have a shorter lifespan, requiring frequent repairs and replacements with cost implications for the service provider.

Closing the gap in a generation : health equity through action on the social determinants of health|Final report of the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2008

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This is the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (2005-2008). The report gives three main recommendations: 1 improve daily living conditions 2. Tackle the inequitable distribution of power, money, and resources 3. Measure and understand the problem and assess the impact of action. The Commission was created to provide evidence on policies that improve health by addressing the social conditions in which people live and work. The report is addressed to WHO, national governments, civil society, and other global organizations

Social movements and chronic poverty across the urban-rural divide : concepts and experiences

MITLIN, Diana
BEBBINGTON, Anthony
September 2006

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"This paper develops a series of arguments regarding the contribution of social movements to the reduction of chronic poverty in both urban and rural social contexts...The summary is divided into three sections addressing: the relevance of social movements to the chronically poor; social movements and the representation of the chronically poor; and the interaction between the state and movements of the poor, with a special focus on the influence of social movements on policy and politics...[the] discussion suggests that the power of social movements lies less in their ability to influence the specifics of policies and programmes, and rather more in their capacity to change the terms in which societies debate poverty and social change, and to influence the types of development and policy alternatives that are considered legitimate in a given social and political context"

FAO working in support of persons with disabilities

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Ed
August 2006

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The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the key linkages between poverty, disability, nutrition and agricultural production. The paper also reports on some of the FAO's work on disability and disability rights and highlights 5 FAO projects / pilot models - ranging from mushroom production to blacksmithing - that target rural people living with disabilities. It would be useful for anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in development policy and practice

Handbook for literacy and non-formal education facilitators in Africa

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION
2006

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"The main objective of this Handbook is to build the capacities of facilitators and other literacy and non-formal education personnel to promote learning and development at the community level. It aims at developing their skills and knowledge in literacy training, while sensitising them to issues that are at the very heart of adult literacy and education in Africa. In this regard, each of the seven modules of the Handbook addresses an essential theme in the context of literacy and non-formal education in Africa"

Need for dedicated focus on urban health within National Rural Health Mission

AGARWALL, S
SANGAR, K
2005

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This article sees the role of the National Rural Health Mission as an important public health initiative to address essential health needs of India’s under served population, but advocates for its expansion to include the needs of the urban population. Health status and access of reproductive and child health services of slum dwellers is poor and comparable to the rural population and public sector urban health delivery system, especially for the poor, is sporadic, far from adequate and limited in its reach. Efforts to improve the conditions of urban poor necessitate strengthening national policy and fiscal mandate, augmenting and strengthening the urban health delivery system, coordinating among multiple stakeholders, involving private sector, strengthening municipal functioning and building community capacities

17 fact sheets on gender-related aspects of HIV/AIDS | Resource pack on gender and HIV/AIDS

UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team on Gender and HIV/AIDS
2005

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These fact sheets aim to provide policy makers with concise information about gender related aspects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. They deal with core facts and issues in thematic areas and are underpinned by an analysis which clarifies how gender issues are fuelling the crisis. Each theme presents a self-contained set of issues and recommendations and many of the themes are interlinked. All of them are connected by a concern to promote a gender-enlightened and comprehensive response to HIV/AIDS and its impacts

Providing low-cost ICT access to low-income communities in developing countries : what works? what pays?

CASPREY, G
O'CONNOR, D
2003

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This Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development report discusses the potential of and need for telecommunications development in rural areas of low-income countries. It outlines the main challenges, and describes sustainable options. The report also reviews low-cost options and summarizes policies that would support the more rapid diffusion especially telecommunications reform

Current issues in sector-wide approaches for health development : Uganda case study

BROWN, Adrienne
2000

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This brief document reports on the broad achievements and constraints faced in the health sector in Uganda. Poverty-reduction funds are being channelled into primary care, and improved management of public funds is helping the situation. However, capacity beyond the Ministry of Health is limited, and decentralization, with unclear policy links in the regions, is a challenge. There is some evidence of success in using funding strategies to reorient services to primary care and prevention

The first mile of connectivity : advancing telecommunications for rural development through a participatory communication approach

RICHARDSON, Don
PAISLEY, Lynnita
Eds
1998

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Begins with the need to work at the 'first mile' of connectivity - essentially the prevailing conditions for rural communities - when discussing the value of new information communication technologies. Emphasises people and the communication process, and the various factors of community dynamics and context that frame any communicaiton initiatives, not the technology . Chapters cover a range of examples of participatory communication methods, such as Participatory Rural Communicaiton Appriasal, and the training of 'community animators'. Looks at examples of rural telephony and radio, telecentres, video and the Internet, and also discusses some issues connected to telecommunications infrastructure and regulation, such as rural networking co-operatives and parterships with the private sector

The International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD)

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This website is a network of organisations and individuals committed to improving access, mobility and economic opportunity for poor and disabled people in developing countries. A key element of the website, is the Opinion's Fair, which is designed to promote dialogue in developing countries by providing an online forum. The website also features resources, postings and "networked research" on: advocacy, governance, interactive dissemination and strategy. This website would be useful for anyone with an interest in rural transport, accessibility, poverty alleviation and disability and development

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