"This volume is a compilation of recent thinking on the issue of child poverty and inequalities. It draws on over two years of UNICEF’s collaboration with innovative and leading thinkers on these matters. Papers in this volume discuss child poverty measurement, trends in global poverty and inequality, outcomes for children, and policies to address them"
This book presents the discussion and analysis of existing practices in how rights to water and sanitation should be implemented to inspire policy- and decision makers, practitioners, activists and civil society in general to engage with the rights to water and sanitation to assist in the process of ensuring that everyone has access to safe drinking water and sanitation services for all daily personal and domestic purposes.
The practices were taken from submissions, consultations and meetings with a range of actors and have been organised into four main types: State actions and the legal and institutional frameworks that promote the realisation of the rights to water and sanitation; financing for the sector; non-State stakeholder practices to promote and protect the rights to water and sanitation; and practices that demonstrate how States and other actors can be held accountable through the monitoring of water and sanitation services
"Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is an evolving concept. Its effectiveness depends on continuous reflection, debate and learning. This book aims to facilitate this process through the stories of five CBR programmes in Africa, told by those involved with the programmes and reflected on with honesty...Each of the five programmes has been invited to document their work, describing how its programme started and assessing the effectiveness of the approach it has chosen. They were asked to identify their successes and challenges, and to reflect on how difficulties are being overcome. Life stories illustrate the impact each approach can have on individual lives. The book offers itself as a reflective tool, to be used by practitioners. Each chapter asks specific questions of its readers, inviting them to draw comparisons with their own programme. The concluding section of the book outlines ideas for evaluating and developing their CBR programmes"
"Traditionally, faith-based health organisations have been important health care providers in many remote and other under-serviced areas. Currently, these facilities bear the brunt of the competition for scarce human resources. It is important for faith-based organisations to learn from recent experiences and from the creative ways in which colleagues seek to retain their health workers and improve quality of human resource management. [As part of a]"...linking and learning programme, some faith-based umbrella organisations in Tanzania, Ghana, Uganda, and Malawi have joined forces to share their experiences in confronting the human resources crisis: by developing retention schemes, offering in-service training, task shifting, developing the planning and management skills of their staff, better coordination of salary and incentive structures with the public systems, and the development of lobbying instruments for national and international use"
This is an introduction to accountability in the context of the right to the highest attainable standard of health - the process that provides individuals and communities with the opportunity to understand how governments and others fulfill their right to health obligations. The principle aim is to increase the understanding of government health policy makers and to encourage them to incorporate the right to health in the development and implementation of health plans
This briefing introduces the contribution of the highest attainable standard of health to reducing maternal mortality through providing a framework for the creation of effective policies and through tools and strategies for advocacy and accountability
Describes the process and lessons learned from the Tanzania Essential Health Intervention Project (TEHIP). This intervention used research to support the development of health care interventions aimed at the local burden of disease priorities. Local demographic surveillance helped to establish health intervention priorities in two districts, and then simple, computer-based 'burden of disease profiling tools' were used to help decide the allocation of budgets. The result was a large decrease in mortality rates, particularly among children and an increase in patient satisfaction and attendance at clinics
The main sections fo this report describe how the international child welfare sector and the South African government define and conceptualise the role of residential care in the context of the HIV epidemic; analyse the basic characteristics of children found to be resident in the range of settings identified; and provide a detailed exploration of different aspects of residential care settings in the study sites. The primary conclusions drawn from the findings are grouped into six areas: children in residential care; knowledge and practice regarding HIV and AIDS; policy discourse; complexity of residential care provision 'on the ground'; registration; and the interface between legislation, government practice and residential care provision
These practical guidelines are designed to help policy makers and planners to create an effective national response to HIV prevention, by ensuring that their response matches the epidemic dynamics and social context within their country and the populations who remain most vulnerable to and at risk of HIV infection. The guidelines encourage countries to know the national and local epidemiological scenarios and their current response; to match and prioritise their response; to set ambitious, realistic and measurable prevention targets; to tailor prevention plans to local epidemic scenarios and to use and analyse strategic information
This book is a collection of best practices gathered from an international conference on universal design. It features guiding principles, statistics and examples of universal design. This comprehensive book offers detailed chapters on the following key issues: principles of universal design; inclusive housing and neighbourhoods; architecture and spatial cognition without sight; and research and teaching of accessibility. It features case studies in Brazil, Thailand, Norway and Maryland, USA. This book would be useful for those interested in universal design, accessibility, and disability and development
This book highlights the concerns and needs of developing countries in adapting to the effects of climate change. It outlines the impact of climate change in four developing country regions: Africa, Asia, Latin America and small island developing States; the vulnerability of these regions to future climate change; current adaptation plans, strategies and actions; and future adaptation options and needs
In this resource, intellectually disabled people and their families speak out about social exclusion and poverty. The broader scope of this work is to understand why this group has not managed to benefit from the millennium development goals and examine regional barriers to change. This document concludes with a set of recommendations and best practices from NGOs, civil society members and government officials. This resource would be useful for anyone with an interest in social exclusion disability and development
This paper explores the impact of globalisation and neo-liberalism policies on child care provision, with a special focus on Belgium. It provides an overview of the historical context, and shows how even in Belgium social democratic welfare state globalisation has stimulated privatisation and decentralisation of services, and forced parents to take direct responsibility for the care of their children. The paper suggests that policy makers need to balance competing demands: government responsibility versus autonomy; standardisation versus diversity; inclusion versus exclusion
This "summary" handbook with CD-ROM presents experiences and proposes ideas on how DPOs and people with disabilities can enter and participate in national Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) processes. It provides an overview of the PRSP process and outlines approaches to PRSP and disability, explaining how to include disability issues in national PRSPs. It explains the three main phases of a PRSP (formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation), and suggests how civil society can participate in the process. The CD-ROM contains all this information, as well as extensive information on four case studies including lessons learned, and appendices on stakeholders, process and project management, and influencing policies through lobbying and advocacy
In 2003, The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) launched a joint effort to develop, through multi-site field research in refugee communities in Africa, a set of strategies for using food and nutrition-based interventions to support HIV prevention, care, treatment and support for people living with HIV. This document discusses the process and findings of that initiative, whose value for best practices is found in the collaborative, field-driven methodology as well as in the findings and output
This handbook presents experiences and proposes ideas and comments on how DPOs and people with disabilities can enter and participate in national Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) processes. It provides an overview of the PRSP process and outlines approaches to PRSP and disability, explaining how to include disability issues in national PRSPs. It explains the three main phases of a PRSP (formulation, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation), and suggests how civil society can participate in the process. Addresses issues related to stakeholders, provides information on process and project management and presents ways of influencing policies through lobbying and advocacy. It also includes case studies from four countries. This manual is aimed mainly at people with disabilities, and parents' associations (PAs) which intend to participate in their respective national PRSP process
This paper sets out DFID's Information and Communcation Directorate's understanding of the role of communication in HIV programming. It is intended primarily as a resource for DFID staff; but presents a holistic and engaging framework for HIV communication which will be useful beyond, as well as within, DFID. The paper encourages a shift away from often inappropriate programme targets of individual behaviour change, and toward community participation, access to education, information and dialogue -- processes which acknowledge and harness local community resources and capacities. It also promotes integrated communication around prevention, treatment and care
The 2006 World Development Report focuses on equity and development strategy. It builds on and extends frameworks discussed in the 2004 report. Equity is a potentially important factor affecting both the workings of the investment environment and the empowerment of the poor - the two major lines of the World Bank's poverty reduction strategy. The report describes current levels of and recent trends in inequalities along some key dimensions, both within and across countries; discusses whether such inequalities matter and, if so, how it may be possible to reduce them in ways which, rather than harming economic efficiency and growth, may indeed help promote them; and explores the role of domestic policies and international forces, and the potential for international action to reduce inequalities
These guidelines for delivering anti-retroviral therapy in communities describe a set of principles, based on the Salvation Army's belief that an effective response to HIV relies on a combination of drug treatment administration and human capacity development. A number of agents can be involved in the successful delivery of antiretroviral treatment, and these include patients, families, neighbourhood, religious congregations and clinics. An integrated approach, engaging with all members of the community and committed to the development of human capacity, would ensure equitable access to treatment, support for all people affected by the disease and higher levels of adherence
This short briefing paper gives a critical overview of recent attempts to engage culture in development work, and in HIV and AIDS work in particular. It also outlines a range of insights from anthropological work that relate to understanding and addressing culture in development. Areas covered include moving beyond a focus on the individual in analysis of change, looking beyond the local setting only, considering the role of the organisational culture of development institutions, valuing indigenous knowledge, and looking at the way mobilising culture and cultural resources is intimately linked to power relations
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