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Community-based social services : practical advice based upon lessons from outside of the World Bank

MCLEOAD, Dinah
December 2003

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The purpose of this paper is to gather information outside of the Bank, in both developed and developing countries, on design and delivery of community based social service initiatives. Recommendations are provided for practical advice on project design and to enhance the sub-project cycle for social service-type projects
Social Protection Discussion Paper Series

Evaluation and utilization of traditional methods of communication in Cameroon's central, southern, eastern and extreme northern regions : case study 20

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO). Communication for Development Group
August 2003

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This study's main objectives are to evaluate traditional means of communication; to note their constraints; to select the traditional methods which can best be used for the diffusion of information and to devise a strategy for implementing the selected method of traditional communication. The methodology of this survey is based on the Active Method of Participative Research.
The study illustrates that the traditional media for communication in Cameroon are: the gong and songs accompanied by dances (in all of the surveyed provinces); the xylophone (in the center and south); griot [travelling poet] and balafon (in the east); colleagues of the traditional chiefs (Lawanes, Djaoros); and messengers of traditional chiefs or muezzins (extreme north).There are numerous constraints to using individuals in devising communications strategies: a lack of trained musicians, the lack of initiative on the part of the village elders, the disinterest of the youth, conflict among the different generations, the proliferation of modern communications technologies, the complexity of training in various methods, the possible alteration of messages, a lack of motivation and the slow speed of transmission. The study notes that the best methods for the diffusion of information in the regions surveyed in Cameroon are: the gong, the colleagues and messengers of traditional chiefs to organize village meetings in which reproductive health issues could be raised, singing and dancing, travelling poets and xylophones.
In order to devise effective strategies for conveying messages about reproductive health through these traditional methods of communication, traditional authorities must be engaged early on in the process and informed of the importance of these means of communication; qualified individuals must be identified as resources and others trained; and a training of trainers must be conducted

Comunicación sin fronteras : un proyecto de universalización de las tecnologías de información y comunicación en Costa Rica

CAMACHO, Kemly
HIDALGO, Christian
April 2003

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The document analyses the 'Communication Without Borders' programme - a proposal developed in the Republic of Costa Rica in 2003 to incorporate new technologies into the life of the citizens. It examines the programme as it works in reality, showing the difference between the ideal model and the one executed. It makes recommendations around policy issues, institutional change and infrastructure development

Learning to share learning : an exploration of methods to improve and share learning

CHETLEY, Andrew
VINCENT, Robin
March 2003

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This is a report, commissioned by the UK Commission for Health Improvement (CHI) in March 2003, which provides a literature review looking at the sharing of learning in different sectors. A key aim of CHI’s approach is to encourage NHS organisations to embed learning in their work to help them improve their practice. The report draws on studies in the fields of education, psychology, organisational learning, personal learning, and participatory approaches to explore understanding of good learning practice. It includes more than 15 case studies that illustrate methodologies and approaches used to share learning in the business, public, and voluntary sectors, paying particular attention to the types of processes that encourage engagement with diverse communities of interest or multiple stakeholders

Case study : the SATELLIFE PDA Project

March 2003

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The article describes the SATELLIFE Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Project that explored questions related to the selection and design of appropriate, affordable technology and locally relevant content for use in African healthcare environment. The project was specifically targeted at assessing the usefulness of the PDA for (1) data collection and (2) information dissemination. This report describes a number of valuable lessons leaned from the project that can be applied to further deployment of PDAs in developing countries. A number of obstacles to technology use have also been identified, which will need to be overcome in order to promote the widespread adoption of the technology in this context

Twenty five years of primary health care : lessons learned and proposals for revitalisation

SANDERS, David
2003

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This report highlights the lessons learned from 25 years of primary health care. It highlights the gains that there have been in health status, but also looks at the setbacks, for example the increased gap between the health of rich and poor, and the resurgence and spread of old communicable diseases and new epidemics. It highlights the mixed progress in implementing primary health care and makes proposals for the revitalisation of primary health care

Disability, equality and human rights : a training manual for development and humanitarian organisations

HARRIS, Alison
ENFIELD, Sue
2003

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This manual is based on Oxfam's experience working with local disabled people's organisations before, during and after the recent crisis in Kosovo. Case studies from West Africa and South and East Asia also show how the principles and training can be translated to a wide range of political and social contexts. It suggests practical materials useful for trainers working in geographically isolated areas without access to sophisticated equipment. Most of the activities and exercises can be adapted for use in groups of people with a wide range of impairments and educational levels. The text is written in clear and simple language

Catalogue of DFID evaluation studies

DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID)
January 2003

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A catalogue of all United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID) evaluation studies, and their corresponding evaluation summaries, through 2002. Listed by report number, country, sector or theme, and year

Education and HIV/AIDS : a sourcebook of HIV/AIDS prevention programmes

WORLD BANK. Education Team
2003

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Education sectors of affected countries are playing an increasingly important role in the fight against HIV/AIDS. This sourcebook aims to support efforts by countries to strengthen the role of the education sector in the prevention of HIV/AIDS. It provides concise summaries of programmes around Africa, highlighting the main elements of the programme as well as what lessons can be learned from them

Sustaining community-based health initiatives

SOHANI, Salim
FOX, John
Eds
2003

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This policy briefing is based on a review of reports of the Kisumu Primary Health Care project that ran from 1983 to 1997. It sets out to answer three questions around the sustainability of primary health care projects after donors withdraw: how and why do communities carry on the activities after the donor has withdrawn; what can programmes do to encourage such persistence; and what lessons from the Kisumu project can be applied elsewhere?

Building a dispensary health management information system

SOHANI, Salim
SHARIF, Shanaaz
FOX, John
Eds
2003

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This policy brief focuses on the outcomes of the Kwale Health Systems Strengthening Project (KHSSP), which aims to improve the quality of health care at the dispensary level. The project increased the participation of the local community in the running of the dispensaries and in the development and operation of the health information system that was used. This brief outlines the projects work and lessons that can be learned from it

Speak for the child : community care for orphans and affected children. Case study Kenya

LUSK, Diane
et al
2003

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This is a rare case study of a pilot project to address the specific needs of children under 5 affected by HIV/AIDS who are typically ignored at the programming level and often miss the benefits of general HIV/AIDS interventions. The project operated in Western Kenya and the study contains evidence of the work carried out, a lessons learned catalogue of the processes and tools developed, and a set of suggestions of how the tools and processes might be adapted to other groups in other contexts. It is an excellent example of a community based response to the needs of very young children and addresses the key challenges faced in attempting to do so

HIV and infant feeding : a report of a WABA-UNICEF Colloquium

GREINER, Ted
Ed
2003

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This report covers the main dilemmas and debates around HIV/AIDS and infant feeding practices. There is some focus on antiretrovirals and prevention of mother to child transmission, but sessions featured in the report mainly cover technical and progammatic issues, and the sharing of field experiences. The key themes are the issues of if and how to breastfeed, and confusion over unclear messages about infant feeding practices. Increasing access to information and voluntary counselling and testing is covered as well as community involvement and the perspective and role of breastfeeding supportive NGOs. Lessons learned are drawn upon and details of each working group on various subjects are documented. Research, monitoring and evaluation priorities are looked at, and there is a presentation of knowledge gaps and challenges for the future

Health : an ecosystem approach

LEBEL, Jean
2003

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Can people remain healthy in a world that is sick? Many ecological disasters can be directly traced to careless exploitation of the environment, with human beings as first perpetrator and then victim. Our health closely mirrors the health of our surroundings: this is the basis of the Ecohealth approach. It recognizes the links between humans and their biophysical, social, and economic environments, and that these links are reflected in the population's state of health. This is a new area of research, requiring input from scientists, community and interest groups, and decision-makers. This book describes this new approach, providing lessons and recommendations from various IDRC-supported research activities. It demonstrates how decision-makers, in particular, can use the ecohealth approach to formulate policies and solutions that are both immediately visible and sustainable over the long term

Communication and natural resource management : experience/theory

FEEK, Warren
MORRIS, Chris
et al
2003

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This book has been written as a tool for people involved or interested in communication and natural resource management who seek a better understanding of how different theories and strategic change principles relate to actual practise. It relates a variety of theories and change principles in simplified, almost schematic form, to a series of real initiatives in the field through interactive 'experiences'. Each 'experience' is organised around a theme, a learning objective, a description of an actual natural resource management and communication initiative, and one or two theoretical lenses through which to analyse the initiative. The idea is not to 'discover' the right approach but rather to create an interactive space that enables you to reflect on what might work in your own context and also on how different contexts may require different approaches, principles and theoretical frameworks. People working in development fields other than natural resource management will also find this book very useful

Impact assessment : measuring what matters

SARMA, Jaisankar
VICARY, Bernard
2003

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In program assessment, impact can refer to outcomes that are shown to be caused by a program, and which would not have occurred in the absence of the program. Evaluation of impact in this sense involves analysis of causal relationships. This has been most successfully accomplished when assessing empirical indicators, in comparison to other social and cultural indicators associated with development. Assessing causal relationships when evaluating community development programs remains very challenging. Evaluations often have credible conclusions about results, but only provide hints about impact, in this sense.
The concepts and principles in this paper apply more to long-term community based development programs rather than disaster response programs. They are written from the perspective of an NGO practitioner, where evaluation is seen as part of the overall program cycle and normal program activities

Case study : the Tygerberg Children's Hospital and Rotary Telemedicine Project

2003

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The article describes the Tygerberg Children's Hospital and Rotary Telemedicine Project in South Africa which links specialists from Tygerberg Hospital to doctors at regional community or district hospitals to improve healthcare in rural areas. The initiative has assembled its own telemedicine system using off-the-shelf computer equipment and software that is more affordable than commercial telemedicine systems. It describes the local context, how the system was set up and how it works. It outlines the challenges faced by the project

Peer approach in adolescent reproductive health education : some lessons learned

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
2003

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This document pulls together what research and experience tell us about the peer education in promoting attitude and behaviour change in adolescents around sexual and reproductive health. It also offers guidelines for policy makers and programme implementers to learn from others and to adapt strategies that will be most effective in their setting. Chapter one defines peer education, and explains some of the theoretical models. Chapter two justifies using peer education and discusses advantages and benefits of this approach. Chapter three synthesizes research on the impact of peer education in the Asian region. Chapter four compiles lessons learned from many research studies, to show what makes a peer education programme work. Chapter five presents a series of guidelines for planning and implementing adolescent reproductive health interventions, including tips for working with youth and adults

Antiretroviral therapy in primary health care : experience of the Khayelitsha programme in South Africa. Case study

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2003

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This case study outlines and assesses the Khayelitha programme, which focused on ART provision and aimed to document the feasibility of low-cost treatment and primary health care provision in developing countries. The document details the clinical outcomes of the programmes, the strategy used to ensure adherence and the contribution made by Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) to raise awareness and pressurise the government to develop an adequate response to the epidemic. The provision of ART in Khayelitsha had also a positive impact on prevention, making more HIV-positive people aware of their status, reducing stigma, being the catalyst of educational initiatives, improving the morale of health workers and keeping families intact and less at risk. The case study concludes with a comprehensive list of lessons learned and with key recommendations for the future, which include consolidation of nurse-based care, more training activities, integration of HIV/AIDS and TB services, educational programmes aimed at improving adherence to ART and a greater focus on paediatric AIDS and ART provision in rural remote areas

Evaluating computerised health information systems : hard lessons still to be learnt

LITTLEJOHNS, Peter
WYATT, Jeremy C
GARVICAN, Linda
2003

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This article discusses the implementation of a hospital information system in Limpopo Province, South Africa and describes how it failed because of inadequate infrastructure and problems with the functioning of the system itself. Furthermore, users were not made sufficiently aware of the purpose of a computerised system and failed to appreciate the complexity of implementation and of the healthcare process. The paper calls for a better understanding of the unique nature of hospital information systems and for well designed evaluation to be built into the contracts from the beginning

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