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Disability and the League of Nations: the Crippled Child’s Bill of Rights and a call for an International Bureau of Information, 1931

GROCE, Nora
2013

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In Disability Studies the evolution of conceptual models is often portrayed as linear, with a nineteenth-century charity model shifting to the medical model that dominated disability discourse in the twentieth century. This is then assumed to be largely unchallenged until the 1970s, when an emergent Disability Rights Movement re-framed issues into the social model, from which evolved a rights-based model. This paper documents two early efforts to address disability issues submitted to the League of Nations: the Crippled Child’s Bill of Rights in 1931 and a ‘Memorial’ requesting the establishment of an International Bureau of Information on Crippled Children in 1929. Neither submission achieved its stated goals, yet both reflect early attempts to place disability within wider social contexts.

Effect of an Experiential Dysphagia Workshop on Caregivers’ Knowledge, Confidence, Anxiety and Behaviour During Mealtimes

HETTIARACHCHI, S
KITNASAMY, G
2013

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Purpose: Children with cerebral palsy who have associated feeding difficulties are at risk of aspiration and poor nutrition. This study aimed to measure the changes in knowledge, confidence, anxiety and behaviour among 25 Sri Lankan mothers with responsibility for feeding children diagnosed with cerebral palsy, after they attended an experiential workshop.

 

Method: Data collection was done through pre- and post-workshop questionnaires, observations and semi-structured interviews.

 

Results: There was a significant improvement in reported levels of knowledge and confidence and a decrease in the caregivers’ level of anxiety during mealtimes. The qualitative data analysis indicated changes in participant knowledge, particularly about the signs of aspiration and positioning during mealtimes. Observations showed better adherence to recommendations on communication, bolus size and utensils.

 

Conclusion: The findings support the utility of experiential training for caregivers, to ensure that children with cerebral palsy are fed safely.

Knowledge and use of contraceptive methods amongst deaf people in Ghana

MPRAH, Wisdom K
2013

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Background: Persons with disabilities in general face serious barriers to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services due to institutional and attitudinal barriers. However, because deaf people have unique communication and linguistic needs, which are often misunderstood or ignored, they face greater barriers than other persons with disabilities. Whilst available data indicated that there is a wide gap between knowledge and usage of contraceptive amongst Ghanaians, little is known about the level of contraceptive knowledge and usage amongst deaf people.

 

Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate the level of knowledge and use of contraceptive methods amongst deaf people in Ghana with the aim of understanding their contraceptive behaviour and to improve access.

 

Method: The study was a participatory SRH needs assessment utilising a two-phase, sequential, mixed methods design. The study included 179 participants, consisting of focus groups with seven executives of Ghana National Association of the Deaf (GNAD), 10 male deaf adults, and 9 deaf female adults. A total of 152 deaf people, made up of students, women, and men participated in a survey, whilst one hearing person served as a key informant.

 

Results: The findings of the study indicated that of the 13 methods shown in the survey, only three were known to about 70% of the adults and 60% of the students. Level of knowledge of the remaining nine methods was low.

 

Conclusion: Clear and effective policies are needed to guide the provision of SRH information and services for deaf people in Ghana.

Training CBR Personnel in South Africa to contribute to the Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities

RULE, S
2013

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Purpose: Recent conceptualisations of community based rehabilitation include empowerment of persons with disabilities as a key activity. This article reports on a study which explored the training of mid-level CBR workers in South Africa, with a specific focus on the ability of the course participants to address the oppression and empowerment of persons with disabilities.

 

Method: Over a three-year period, one cycle of action research was conducted in a non-government organisation that conducts mid-level CBR training in South Africa. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with staff, students and past graduates of the course, document analysis, participatory rural appraisal techniques and two focus group discussions with the students’ clients.

 

Results: Personnel, who had been trained in CBR before the year 2003, were found to have some difficulty in explaining the social model of disability and the oppression of persons with disabilities at a cultural and structural level. It was noted that after changes were implemented in the CBR course, the students had an orientation to working with, rather than for, persons with disabilities. They began to understand the complexities of empowerment and also engaged in social action to address the oppression of persons with disabilities.

 

Conclusions: The CBR Guidelines require a new skill-mix in mid-level CBR personnel. This study illustrates a possible training approach which can contribute to the development of these skills.

Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among Deaf People in Ghana

MPRAH, W K
2013

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Purpose: By exploring the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards persons with HIV/AIDS among deaf people in Ghana, this article aims to identify and correct possible gaps in awareness.

 

Method: A participatory sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs assessment was conducted, targetting deaf people who were fluent in the Ghanaian Sign Language (GSL). The study design was a two-phase, sequential, mixed methods approach. Three focus groups assisted in the development of a survey, which was then implemented for needs assessment data collection. The 179 study participants consisted of 26 focus group participants, 152 survey respondents and 1 key informant. Of the focus group participants, 7 were executives of Ghana National Association of the Deaf (GNAD), 10 were adult males, and nine were adult females. Apart from the key informant, all the participants were deaf persons.

 

Results: The study indicated that many respondents still had misconceptions about HIV/AIDS and had difficulty identifying preventive methods, but their attitudes towards persons with HIV/AIDS was generally positive.

 

Conclusion: More attention needs to be paid to the requirements of the deaf community and to designing HIV/AIDS programmes and services that are deaf-friendly and accessible.

Social Skills Training of Children with Learning Disability

BHAN, S
FAROOQUI, Z
2013

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Purpose: The ability to recognise emotions in oneself and in others is a fundamental prerequisite to function successfully in the social world. Emotion recognition deficit in people with learning disability may therefore be an important contributory factor to deficits in social skills and poor social adaptation. This study aimed to examine the level of emotional understanding in students with learning disabilities (LD).

 

Method: A pre-test, post-test equivalent groups design was adopted for this study. The focus was on identification of emotions through verbal and pictorial situations, and the appropriate expression of emotions. Training was provided to enhance the emotional understanding of students through the use of ‘I C ME’ module. The 6 emotions addressed in this study were anger, excitement, embarrassment, jealousy, love and anxiety. 30 children with LD, in the age group of 9-12 years, were selected for the study.

 

Results: It was seen that while children with LD had difficulty in the identification of an emotion, they found it more difficult to express the emotion in a socially appropriate way. The post-test results indicated that the training provided to the students significantly improved their emotional understanding.

 

Conclusions: The students learnt about the 6 emotions (anger, excitement, embarrassment, love, jealousy, and anxiety), the vocabulary associated with these emotions, and also the appropriate way to express, self-monitor and self-regulate each emotion.

 

Limitations: Intervention was done for only 6 emotions

Leprosy: Knowledge and Attitudes of Physiotherapists in Nigeria

AYANNIYI, O
DUNCAN, F O
ADENIYI, A F
2013

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Purpose: The objectives of this study were to investigate the knowledge and attitudes towards leprosy of physiotherapists in Nigeria.

 

Method: A cross-sectional survey of 330 physiotherapists, with minimum 1-year work experience in public hospitals in the 6 geo-political zones of Nigeria, was carried out. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire with open and close- ended questions was employed. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics of Chi-square tests with Alpha level at 0.05.

 

Results: The respondents’ mean and range of years of job experience was 8.6 + 5.51 and 1 to 27 years respectively. Close to half (44.5%) of the physiotherapists had only a fair knowledge about leprosy and 165 (50%) had poor attitudes towards leprosy and persons with leprosy. There were significant associations between the schools of training and each level of knowledge (χ2 = 45.04; p = 0.0001) and attitudes of physiotherapists to leprosy and to persons who have suffered from leprosy (χ2 = 20.26; p = 0.009). There was, however, no significant association between years of job experience and each of knowledge (χ2 = 4.76; p = 0. 312), or attitudes of the physiotherapists to leprosy (χ2 = 4.55; p = 0.337).

 

Conclusions and Implications: It was concluded that a substantial number of physiotherapists in Nigeria had fair knowledge but poor attitudes towards leprosy. The institution of training appears to have an influence on their knowledge and attitudes. It is therefore recommended that educational and training programmes on leprosy should be organised and emphasised at the basic training institutions for physiotherapists.

Resilient livelihoods : disaster risk reduction for food and nutrition security framework programme

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
April 2013

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Through its disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) seeks to protect livelihoods from shocks, to make food production systems more resilient and more capable of absorbing the impact of, and recovering from, disruptive events. The FAO Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security Framework Programme (DRR for FNS) serves to support and provide strategic direction, to FAO member countries and partners, for the implementation of Disaster Risk Reduction for Food and Nutrition Security programmes. The goal is to enhance the resilience of livelihoods against threats and emergencies to ensure the FNS of vulnerable farmers, fishers, herders, foresters and other at risk groups

Music as the Means to Stimulate Novelty and Challenge Seeking in Persons with Intellectual Disability

SOLTANI, A
ROSLAN, S
ABDULLAH, M C
JAN, C C
2013

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Purpose: The main aim of the study was to determine whether challenge seeking behaviour could be increased by stimulating persons with intellectual disability with music. The intention was also to evaluate whether the participants would attempt to seek challenges when they felt bored with a music experience.

 

Method: Thirty adolescents and young adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability were randomly selected to take part in a repeated-measure experimental design, under three different conditions. In the first condition, the participants were provided adequate challenges through teaching fundamental musical skills. In the second condition, no optimal challenge was provided, and in the third condition, using special strategies, the participants were stimulated to look for novelty and challenge through involvement in creative musical tasks. Level of innovation, as an index of challenge seeking, was measured during the 8 minutes of free choice interval at the end of each condition.

 

Results: Using Friedman’s ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the findings showed that the low and statistically similar levels of challenge seeking behaviour in conditions 1 and 2 significantly increased to a high level in condition 3. It confirmed that participants with intellectual disability are capable of demonstrating challenge seeking behaviour if they are stimulated to do so. The results also confirmed that the tendency to demonstrate challenge seeking behaviour during a boring musical situation was low.

HIV issues and people with disabilities: A review and agenda for research

GROCE, Nora
et al
January 2013

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The AIDS and Disability Partners Forum at the UN General Assembly High Level Meetings on AIDS in New York in June 2011 and the International AIDS Conference in Washington, DC in July 2012 underscore the attention to the impact of HIV and AIDS on persons with disabilities. However, research on AIDS and disability, particularly a solid evidence base upon which to build policy and programming remains thin, scattered and difficult to access. In this review paper, we summarise what is known about the intersection between HIV and AIDS and disability, paying particular attention to the small but emerging body of epidemiology data on the prevalence of HIV for people with disabilities, as well as the increasing understanding of HIV risk factors for people with disabilities. We find that the number of papers in the peer-reviewed literature remains distressingly small. Over the past 20 years an average of 5 articles on some aspect of disability and HIV and AIDS were published annually in the peer-reviewed literature from 1990 to 2000, increasing slightly to an average of 6 per year from 2000 to 2010. Given the vast amount of research around HIV and AIDS and the thousands of articles on the subject published in the peer-reviewed literature annually, the continuing lack of attention to HIV and AIDS among this at risk population, now estimated to make up 15% of the world's population, is striking. However, the statistics, while too limited at this point to make definitive conclusions, increasingly suggest at least an equal HIV prevalence rate for people with disabilities as for their non-disabled peers.

African indigenous knowledge and research

OWUSU-ANSAH, Frances E
MJI, Gubela
2013

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This paper seeks to heighten awareness about the need to include indigenous knowledge in the design and implementation of research, particularly disability research, in Africa. It affirms the suitability of the Afrocentric paradigm in African research and argues the necessity for an emancipatory and participatory type of research which values and includes indigenous knowledge and peoples. In the predominantly Western-oriented academic circles and investigations, the African voice is either sidelined or suppressed because indigenous knowledge and methods are often ignored or not taken seriously. This paper posits that to be meaningful and empowering, African-based research must, of necessity, include African thought and ideas from inception through completion to the implementation of policies arising from the research. In this way the work is both empowering and meaningful for context-specific lasting impact.

The Role of Community Health Workers in the Mongolian CBR Programme

COMO, E
BATDULAM, T
2012

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Purpose: This article aims to present the role of community health workers in the implementation of a comprehensive CBR Programme in rural Mongolia, and to explore the main challenges that arise in this specific geographical and socio-economic context.

 

Methods: Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with CBR workers from three selected provinces; short meetings and interviews with respective provincial level CBR coordinators complemented the information acquired. Additionally, a workshop with national level CBR stakeholders was carried out in order to review and discuss the findings.

 

Results: The study highlighted a number of practical barriers (including long distances and lack of transportation, low population density, and harsh climate conditions) which constrain the work of community health workers in the areas studied. In relation to disability, the study shed light on the difficulties found by community workers in shifting from a medical approach to disability to a new approach that emphasizes prevention and rehabilitation. Exploring interviewees’ experience in the five areas of CBR (health, education, livelihood, social, empowerment) the authors found that working in the areas other than health is perceived as difficult due to insufficient training as well as objective contextual barriers.

 

Conclusions: Despite many challenges, CBR represents a significant improvement for disability action in rural Mongolia. In this context, the local community health workers are well suited and willing to act as CBR workers; nonetheless, more training and some tailoring work to adapt the Programme to the context is needed if all potential results are to be achieved.

 

Limitations: This study did not include direct observation of CBR activities or consultation of beneficiaries and other stakeholders. Their involvement and consultation would certainly improve the understanding of all the issues raised.

Guidance document : effective use of international human rights monitoring mechanisms to protect the rights of persons with disabilities

THEYTAZ-BERGMAN, Laura
TROMEL, Stefan
May 2010

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This guidance document provides practical strategies and advice to disabled people's organisations (DPOs) and DPO coalitions on the international human rights mechanisms. It provides details on the reporting process of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), raises awareness on the need to establish national DPO coalitions, and offers assistance for DPOs on producing effective reports for submission to the UNCRPD Committee. It also provides guidance on the monitoring process and includes information on the use of other human rights mechanisms. This document would be useful to global, regional and national DPOs engaging in the UNCRPD reporting process

The gender-based violence information management system user guide

GENDER BASED VIOLENCE IMFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (GBVIMS)
2010

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This comprehensive user guide explains what the Gender-Based Violence Information Management System (GBVIMS) is, why it is important and how it works. It is also a training tool on how to use the GBVIMS and related tools through hands-on, self-learning activities. It is intended to be both a reference document and a training manual for both service providers with specific services in place for GBV survivors, such as case management or health services, and agencies or actors coordinating multisectoral GBV interventions within a humanitarian context. This could include local national and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs), state actors, community-based organizations (CBOs) and/or UN agencies operating within a humanitarian context
Note: free registration is required to access the guide
Note: the guide is available as one document, or as individual chapters and annexes. A workbook is also available

Coordination for vulnerable children : Alliance Zambia’s efforts to strengthen government and community OVC systems

ALLIANCE FOR COMMUNITY ACTION ON HEALTH IN ZAMBIA (Alliance Zambia)
2009

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Based on its experience of implementing a programme to strengthen community support systems for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC), Alliance Zambia sees coordination within government, and partnership between government and civil society, as essential building blocks for effective OVC support

Operational guide for implementation of IICCHAA project

INDIAN INITIATIVE OF CHILD CENTRED HIV & AIDS APPROACH (IICCHAA)
2008

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This operational guide provides a broad direction for implementing memory work in India in the field, based on a communication needs assessment carried out as part of the Indian Initiative for Child Centred Approaches to HIV & AIDS (IICCHAA). The guide is divided into two sections: how to roll out the training effectively at field level and some basic information about HIV and AIDS

WHO ethical and safety recommendations for researching, documenting and monitoring sexual violence in emergencies

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
June 2007

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This document builds on previous WHO publications and explores the different reasons for collecting information about sexual violence in emergency situations. It applies to all forms of enquiry about sexual violence and makes a number of recommendations that are intended to ensure that the necessary safety and ethical safeguards are in place at the beginning of any information gathering exercise. The document sets out the key safety and ethical issues that need to be addressed and the questions that need to be asked. There are examples of good practice and details of further information and resources that are available. This document is not intended to be a standalone guidance document but is designed to complement existing internationally-agreed ethical guidelines for research and to inform ethics review processes

Infant and young child feeding in emergencies : operational guidance for emergency relief staff and programme managers

IFE Core Group
February 2007

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This document aims to provide concise, practical (but non-technical) guidance on how to ensure appropriate infant and young child feeding in emergencies. A number of elements are also applicable in non-emergency settings. It is intended for emergency relief staff, programme managers, national governments, United Nations agencies, NGOs and donors, and it applies to all countries. It includes six sections of practical steps, references, key contacts and definitions. Members of the IFE Core Group are: UNICEF, WHO, UNHCR, WFP, IFBAN-GIFA, CARE USA, Fondation Terre des hommes and Emergency Nutrition Network. It is also available in Arabic, Bahasa Indonesian, French, Portuguese and Spanish

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