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The impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities: a rapid review. Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Query No: 35

MEANIE-DAVIS, Jessie
LEE, Harri
CORBY, Nick
April 2020

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There is currently very limited data and evidence on the impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities and pre-existing health conditions, with no disability-disaggregated data on mortality rates available in the public sphere. However, reports from the media, disability advocates and disabled peoples’ organisations (DPOs) point to several emerging impacts, including primary and secondary impacts including on health, education, food security and livelihoods.  Most of the available data is from high income countries (HICs) though reports from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are likely to emerge. Evidence was gathered by a rapid desk based review. Gaps are identified. 

 

The section concerned with lessons drawn from similar epidemics draws heavily on lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2016, and touches on lessons from the Zika outbreak in 2015-2016 and the SARS pandemic in the early 2000s.10 It also touches briefly on SARS, MERS and H1N1 (swine flu). 

 

Primary and secondary impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities are reviewed.


People with disabilities are disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 not only because it can exacerbate underlying medical conditions, but because of attitudinal, environmental and institutional barriers to their participation in and benefit from the pandemic response. For example, inaccessible public health messaging and healthcare facilities, and stigma and discrimination.

IASC Guidelines, Inclusion of persons with disabilities in humanitarian action

INTER-AGENCY STANDING COMMITTEE (IASC)
November 2019

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The guidelines set out essential actions that humanitarian actors must take in order to effectively identify and respond to the needs and rights of persons with disabilities who are most at risk of being left behind in humanitarian settings.

The recommended actions in each chapter place persons with disabilities at the centre of humanitarian action, both as actors and as members of affected populations. They are specific to persons with disabilities and to the context of humanitarian action and build on existing and more general standards and guidelines.

These are the first humanitarian guidelines to be developed with and by persons with disabilities and their representative organizations in association with traditional humanitarian stakeholders. Based on the outcomes of a comprehensive global and regional multi-stakeholder consultation process, they are designed to promote the implementation of quality humanitarian programmes in all contexts and across all regions, and to establish and increase both the inclusion of persons with disabilities and their meaningful participation in all decisions that concern them.

Guidelines. Inclusion of persons with disabilities in humanitarian action

IASC TASK TEAM ON INCLUSION OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN HUMANITARIAN ACTION
July 2019

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The guidelines set out essential actions that humanitarian actors must take in order to effectively identify and respond to the needs and rights of persons with disabilities who are most at risk of being left behind in humanitarian settings. The recommended actions in each chapter place persons with disabilities at the centre of humanitarian action, both as actors and as members of affected populations. They are specific to persons with disabilities and to the context of humanitarian action and build on existing and more general standards and guidelines. These are the first humanitarian guidelines to be developed with and by persons with disabilities and their representative organizations in association with traditional humanitarian stakeholders. Based on the outcomes of a comprehensive global and regional multi-stakeholder consultation process, they are designed to promote the implementation of quality humanitarian programmes in all contexts and across all regions, and to establish and increase both the inclusion of persons with disabilities and their meaningful participation in all decisions that concern them. 

 

Chapters include:

  • What to do - key approaches to programming
  • Data and information management
  • Partnerships and empowerment of organisation of people with disabilities
  • Cross cutting considerations
  • Accountability to affected people and protection from sexual exploitation and abuse
  • Humanitarian response options
  • Stakeholder roles and responsibilities
  • What sectors need to do
  • Camp coordination and camp management
  • Education
  • Food security and nutrition
  • Livelihoods
  • Health
  • Protection
  • Shelter and settlements
  • Water, sanitation and hygiene

More at risk: how older people are excluded in humanitarian data

TANYANG, Gaynor
VENTURES, Lumina
2019

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This report evaluates existing policies and practices on how older people have been excluded from data in disaster preparedness and humanitarian responses in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.

In order to evaluate existing policies and practices in the collection of inclusion data, the research employed two main methods: a review of documents and a survey. The review of documents was conducted in three stages: a global literature review, followed by a policy review and a practice review. The survey analysed the responses of 72 respondents from 10 countries .

Saving lives and leaving no one behind - The Gaibandha Model for disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction

ROTHE, Manuel
BROWN, David
NEUSCHAFER, Oliver
October 2018

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"The Gaibandha Model" good practices guide outlines a framework for successful disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction programming. It is based on the experience of CBM and its partners in implementing community-based disaster risk reduction programs in some of the most flood-affected communities in Bangladesh. The model puts people with disabilities at the center of disaster risk reduction. They are the agents for change, working with the community to improve local systems of disaster prevention, preparedness and response to become more accessible and inclusive.

Missing millions: How older people with disabilities are excluded from humanitarian response

SHEPPARD, Phillip
POLACK, Sarah
McGIVERN, Madeleine
July 2018

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The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of older people with disabilities across a range of humanitarian settings, considering:

  • whether older people with disabilities have additional needs and challenges accessing humanitarian assistance and protection
  • what factors facilitate or limit access by older people with disabilities to humanitarian assistance and protection
  • to what extent is humanitarian response inclusive of older people with disabilities

A systematic literature review of published studies was conducted. Key online humanitarian guidelines were explored to review how far they explicitly address older people with disabilities. Data from six population-based disability surveys comparing the living situation of older people with and without disabilities were analysed. These included databases from two crises-affected populations in Haiti (post-earthquake) and Palestine. Data from four non-humanitarian settings was also reviewed to explore more broadly the situation for older people with disabilities – India, Guatemala, Cameroon and Nepal. Interviews were held with older people with disabilities, members of their families and local key informants in two conflict-affected populations in Ndutu and Mtendeli refugee camps in Western Tanzania, and Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Eastern Ukraine to find out about their experiences. Staff of five international agencies working in humanitarian response were also interviewed. 

 

Findings highlight particular issues facing older people with disabilities in humanitarian crises: more risk escaping from danger;  barriers to accessing social protection and work; barriers to accessing health and rehabilitation services; barriers to accessing food and other essentials; unsuitable housing and poor living conditions;  insecurity and discrimination; threats to dignity and independence; social isolation and loneliness; risks to mental health; and missing from humanitarian response.

 

A table brings together the findings from the different components of the research to show the needs, risks, barriers and enablers for older people with disabilities identified in the research. Recommendations are provided to humanitarian donors, policy makers and practitioners

Disability inclusion and accountability framework

McCLAIN-NHLAPO, Charlotte
et al
June 2018

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The main objective of the Disability Inclusion and Accountability Framework is to support the mainstreaming of disability in World Bank activities. It lays out a road map for (a) including disability in the Bank's policies, operations and analytical work, and (b) building internal capacity for supporting clients in implementing disability-inclusive development programs. The primary target audience of the Framework is Bank staff but it is also relevant to the Bank's client countries, development partners and persons with disabilities. The framework provides four main principles for guiding the World Bank’s engagement with persons with disabilities: nondiscrimination and equality, accessibility, inclusion and participation, and partnership and collaboration. 

 

The appendices to this framework highlight key areas in which the Bank can have a significant impact on the inclusion, empowerment, and full participation of persons with disabilities. These areas include transport, urban development, disaster risk management, education, social protection, jobs and employment, information and communication technology, water sector operations, and health care. 


Report No. 126977
 

Disability inclusion in disaster risk management - Promising practices and opportunities for enhanced engagements

GUERNSEY, Katherine
SCHERRER, Valerie
April 2018

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Disaster risk management aims to address vulnerability in order to reduce risk and therefore needs to consider the full range of vulnerability drivers, including those that affect persons with disabilities. This report presents the results of comprehensive review of the state of practice in disability-inclusive Disaster risk management (DRM) undertaken by GFDRR (Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery). The report is intended to help World Bank staff incorporate persons with disabilities and a disability perspective into their ongoing DRM work. The report will also be of interest to other development actors and stakeholders working on DRM.

How law protects persons with disabilities in armed conflict

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC)
December 2017

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This paper identifies commonalities between international humanitarian law (IHL) and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and emphasizes certain specific contributions of IHL to the protection of persons with disabilities in armed conflict.

It is hoped that this legal analysis will contribute to current efforts by the ICRC and the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, as well as other actors, to operationalise better inclusion and participation of persons with disabilities in carrying out humanitarian activities in armed conflict

Including children with disabilities in humanitarian action: Child protection

DINSMORE, Christine
Ed
September 2017

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This guidance is designed for UNICEF field staff – including humanitarian field officers, coordinators, specialist and advisors – as well as UNICEF’s partners and others involved in humanitarian work. It provides practical tips and offers entry points for making sure that humanitarian action takes children with disabilities into account. There are 5 other associated guidelines. 

Chapters include: 

  • impact of emergiencies on the protection of children and adolescents with disabilities
  • why children and adolescents with disabilities are excluded from child protection interventions
  • frameworks and approaches
  • programmatic actions
  • preparedness
  • response and early recovery
  • recovery and reconstruction
  • practical tips
  • accessible infrastructure tips

 

 

Including children with disabilities in humanitarian action: WASH

DINSMORE, Christine
Ed
June 2017

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This guidance is designed for UNICEF field staff – including humanitarian field officers, coordinators, specialist and advisors – as well as UNICEF’s partners and others involved in humanitarian work. It provides practical tips and offers entry points for making sure that humanitarian action takes children with disabilities into account. There are 5 other associated guidelines. 

Chapters include: 

  • impact of emergiencies on children and adolescents with disabilities access to WASH
  • why children and adolescents with disabilities are excluded from WASH interventions
  • frameworks and approaches
  • programmatic actions
  • preparedness
  • response and early recovery
  • recovery and reconstruction
  • practical tips
  • accessible infrastructure tips

Disability and Climate Resilience: A Literature Review

SMITH, Fred
SIMARD, Mathieu
TWIGG, John
KETT, Maria
COLE, Ellie
April 2017

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"This literature review covers a comprehensive body of literature targeting data from 2007 onwards in low and middle-income countries. It presents evidence from a literature review that retrieved and screened 1,011 articles and 546 grey literature sources. A total of 107 relevant sources were selected from the published and grey literature in accordance with the study design, of which 53 were included in the final review. The paper explains the literature review methodology, discusses concepts and definitions of resilience and introduces key global frameworks relating to climate change, disaster risk reduction and development"

Inclusive disaster risk reduction

LAFRENIERE, Annie
WALBAUM, Veronique
2017

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This policy paper defines the themes of inclusive disaster risk reduction and explains how these activities fit into the HI mandate. It also identifies the target population and defines modalities of intervention–standard expected outcomes, standard activities–as well as monitoring and evaluation indicators.

Challenges to principled humanitarian action: Perspectives from four countries.

NORWEGIAN REFUGEE COUNCIL
Handicap International
July 2016

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The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an increased understanding of the perceived and actual challenges humanitarians face in operational contexts as they apply the principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality and independence. A snapshot is provided of four case studies; Colombia, Nepal, northern Syria and South Sudan. Through a combination of field research, headquarters interviews, desk research, and a webinar, views and observations are presented from the humanitarian community. These observations provide a glimpse into the challenges faced by principled humanitarians. As a result the paper puts forward seven recommendations intended to assist humanitarians and states to sharpen tools and strengthen approaches when implementing principled humanitarian protection and assistance. An addendum to this study provides perspectives from selected members of the donor community. This research was conducted through interviews with state representatives in Geneva, aiming to understand how donors perceive their responsibilities in upholding the humanitarian principles and the Good Humanitarian Donorship Principles. This final chapter highlights challenges faced by states while supporting principled humanitarian action, particularly in conflict zones. On the basis of this research, additional recommendations for both states and humanitarians are proposed to strengthen the adherence to the humanitarian principles

Mental health problems in Juba, South Sudan: local perceptions, attitudes and patient care - A socio-anthropological study

LOHINIVA Anna-Leena
May 2016

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Mental health programming is important in post-conflict settings such as South Sudan. Handicap International is currently implementing a project entitled “Touching Mind, Raising Dignity; to stop the stigma toward people with mental health problems” which aims to improve the social and community involvement of people living with mental health problems. This qualitative research study was conducted to understand local concepts linked to mental health problems and health-seeking in order to develop effective mental health interventions in the context of Juba, South Sudan. The study was conducted in four locations in Juba among community members, people with mental health problems, their caregivers and service providers. Focus group discussions & in-depth interviews were conducted with a total of 130 study participants. The interviews were conducted in English or by translating from Juba Arabic. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. Respondents used two wide categories when discussing people with mental health problems: mad (majnun) and sad and tired (mariid= sick). Substance abuse related madness and maratsarra (epilepsy) were genuine community concerns. Mild signs and symptoms were not recognized as mental health problems, the causes of mental health problems were viewed as numerous and complex, and mental health problems were believed to be common in South Sudan. 

Global assessment report on disaster risk reduction 2015

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (UNISDR)
2015

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This report assesses current trends in global Disaster Risk Management (DRM) including strategies adopted by different countries and associated costs/risks. The report concludes by advising that global DRM is strengthened in a number of areas, including improvements in the global governance structure surrounding DRM, a deepening of the global knowledge about DRM techniques and practices, and the development of more robust accountability and assessment methodologies

Technical report 1 : mapping of organisations in Indonesia in disaster risk reduction [MOIDRR]

CENTRE FOR DISABILITY RESEARCH AND POLICY, University of Sydney
ARBEITER-SAMARITER-BUND INDONESIA
June 2015

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This is the first Technical Report in a three part series for the two year DFAT Australian Aid funded project (2013-2015), Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia. This report details the mapping of organisations in Indonesia working in disaster risk reduction (DRR). The two year project was concerned with understanding the gaps between disability inclusive policy and practices in DRR and supporting opportunities to include people with disabilities in all phases of disaster risk management. The premise of this work was that reducing the vulnerability of people with disability during disasters is a key strategy to promote broader community resilience

 

The direct and practical solutions that people with disability can offer to community-level DRR activities should be a key consideration within all phases of disaster risk management. Inclusion of people with disabilities in DRR before, during, and after disasters contributes to the “whole-of-community” approach to disaster resilience advocated in contemporary policy and enacted by DRR agencies. This project was initially framed within an increasing awareness of disability inclusion in DRR globally which is now articulated in the recently issued Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (UNDISR, 2015), and within an increasingly supportive policy environment in Indonesia

Technical report 2 : capacity building for disability inclusive disaster risk reduction in Indonesia

CENTRE FOR DISABILITY RESEARCH AND POLICY, University of Sydney
ARBEITER-SAMARITER-BUND INDONESIA
June 2015

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This is the second Technical Report in a three part series, 'Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia'. This Technical Report details the Capacity Building component of the Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia project. This project was funded by the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Australian Development and Research Awards Scheme 2013-2015. This award scheme promotes research and development programs through collaboration between researchers in Australia and elsewhere and INGOs and NGOs in country

 

Relevant to capacity building, two aims of the Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia project were:

1. To increase the understanding of people with disabilities of Disaster Risk Reduction and their capacity to engage with Disaster Risk Reduction policy; and,

2. To understand and subsequently inform the knowledge base of village volunteers (Kaders subsequently referred to as cadres) and DRR administrators about DiDRR at local and national levels in Indonesia

Supplement to technical report 2 : capacity building for disability inclusive disaster risk reduction in Indonesia : practitioner guidelines for capacity building for disability inclusive disaster risk reduction in Indonesia

CENTRE FOR DISABILITY RESEARCH AND POLICY, University of Sydney
ARBEITER-SAMARITER-BUND INDONESIA
June 2015

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This report is a supplement to the Technical Report 'Capacity Building for Disability Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia'. Disability Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction (DiDRR) is increasingly recognised as an important component of community resilience in the event of a natural disaster as documented in the recent outcome of the 3rd World Conference, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Central to DiDDR is people with disabilities themselves and their capacities to participate in, and contribute to disaster risk reduction policies, practices and programs

 

The Practitioner Guidelines provide orientation to the Work Packages undertaken to build the capacity of people with disabilities in disaster risk reduction in Indonesia as part of the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Australian Development and Research Awards Scheme funded project, 2013-2015, Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia. These Work Packages formed one component of the project with knowledge transfer and capacity building supplemented by other methods within the project, including coaching and sponsoring participation of select trainees at key post-2015 DRR policy events

Technical report 3 : the disability inclusive disaster resilience (DiDR) tool : development and field-testing

CENTRE FOR DISABILITY RESEARCH AND POLICY, University of Sydney
ARBEITER-SAMARITER-BUND INDONESIA
June 2015

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This is the third Technical Report in a three part series for the two year DFAT Australian Aid funded project (2013-2015), Promoting the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in Disaster Management in Indonesia. This report details the development, refinement and field–testing of the Disability Inclusive Disaster Resilience (DiDR) tool. The purpose of the DiDR tool is to identify the resilience and capabilities of people with disabilities to natural disasters in their family and community setting. The tool is designed to be used by people with disabilities, their families or carers and thereby to promote the inclusion of people with disabilities in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) policy making and strategy implementation. The tool assesses the resilience of people with disabilities by bringing together four components known to be fundamental to disaster risk reduction: the individual’s functioning status, their level of participation in their communities, the physical vulnerability of their place of residence, and individual risk predictors known to influence the behaviour of the general population before, during and after a natural hazard emergency. In February and March 2015, the survey teams administered the DiDR Tool by interviewing 289 people with disabilities or their carers in four Indonesian Districts affected by diverse natural hazards 

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