This situational analysis (SITAN) addresses the question: “what is the current situation for persons with disabilities in Jordan?”. It has been prepared for the Disability Inclusive Development programme (which works on access to education, jobs, healthcare, and reduced stigma and discrimination for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania), to better understand the current context, including COVID-19, and available evidence in Jordan. It will be helpful for anyone interested in disability inclusion in Jordan, especially in relation to stigma, employment, education, health, and humanitarian issues.
Summaries on the findings from the following queries:
Define mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) and intended outcomes of these interventions (at the global level).
What is the evidence on the nature of the problem and the scale of need for MHPSS services in Syria?
What is the evidence on effectiveness of MHPSS interventions in Syria?
This report presents key findings from a practical ‘know-how’ query, which included a rapid review of key literature as well as a small set of key informant interviews (KIIs) to help fill gaps and supplement online evidence. This query is based on a rapid review of the available literature to provide a brief overview of the barriers people with disabilities face in Gaza in terms of access to basic services, jobs and social inclusion/participation (Section 2), and the policy framework in Gaza in relation to the rights of people with disabilities(Section 3). The main body of this query comprises a mapping of existing interventions for people with disabilities in Gaza and an analysis of the trends and gaps in programming (Section 4)
The specific goals of this publication are first, to conduct an analysis of 1 year of conflict related trauma in Gaza; second, to highlight the role of the Health Cluster partners, including the World Health Organization (WHO) as the cluster lead agency, in supporting the local health system; and third, to document success stories, challenges and lessons learnt
This report looks at the challenges linked to the use of explosive weapons in the Syrian context for the provision of adequate immediate assistance and to plan for mid- to long-term assistance to the victims of explosive violence, to ensure their full recovery and inclusion into society. It is based on data and testimonies collected from humanitarian agencies, actors and patients across all areas of control in Syria. The testimony of Farah, a Syrian girl injured during the bombing of her school, and of her mother, is shared throughout the report to illustrate the challenges faced by victims.
This report was compiled from June to August 2019 and relies on multiple sources, including review of both gray and academic literature, published and unpublished data from INGOs working in Syria response, firsthand interviews with patients and Syrian humanitarians working both inside Syria and from cross-border locations, and expatriate staff from INGOs and UN agencies. Interviews were conducted at a distance during June and July 2019 with 12 individuals, among which: 2 patients; 3 mine action operators; 4 medical staff, and 3 humanitarian workers
A K4 helpdesk report, commissioned by DFID (UK), provides a rapid review of literature to provide best estimates of psychosocial disability in specific countries in the Middle East.
Topics discussed include:
Prevalence and different forms of mental health conditions and psychosocial disability
Factors influencing prevalence
Differences across demographics
Provision for those with psychosocial disabilities
Purpose: Social inclusion of children with physical disabilities is essential for their mental health. The long-standing conflict and political instability in Palestine since 1948 has resulted in an unprecedented number of children with disabilities. This study aimed to assess social inclusion and mental health of children with physical disabilities in Palestine.
Method: A mixed methods research design was used. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire and a Social Inclusion Questionnaire were administered to 100 children with amputations, 12-18 years of age, in the Gaza Strip. Ten semi-structured interviews were also conducted with personnel working across civil society rehabilitation services in the area, particularly in services that focussed on the physical rehabilitation of children who had lost a limb.
Results: Quantitative findings indicated that 88% of children’s disabilities were caused by war-related incidents. While the sample of children showed on average relatively low levels of psychological distress, males reported feeling more socially included and having better mental health than did females. Furthermore, there was a strong positive correlation between mental health and social inclusion, and a moderate positive correlation between psychological distress and social inclusion. The qualitative data identified different factors that hinder social inclusion, mainly: political instability; under-resourced disability organisations; lack of coordinated efforts; and negative societal attitudes towards disability.
Conclusion: A new questionnaire for social inclusion was developed, which can now be used as a tool to assess social inclusion in similar contexts; as well as a culturally-adapted form of the General Health Questionnaire-12 to assess mental health. There is a clear need for service-providers to move beyond a medical model of care to one that embraces community-based rehabilitation and the realisation of rights, in order to promote the social inclusion and mental health of children with disabilities in Palestinian society.
“This study was conducted with the aim to explore the experiences of mothers in dealing with children having disabilities in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Through random sampling method 154 mothers of physically handicapped children studying in pre-schools and primary schools were selected as respondents…The data highlights that the disability of the children had been unexpected for all the mothers who participated in this research. The mothers reported to have been shocked (56%) and apprehended about the future of the children (41%)… The data demonstrates that measures taken by mothers to facilitate their children included seeking help from internet and engaging with support groups and friends”
European Scientific Journal, Vol.11
This editorial reviews the lessons learned from the 2005 Pakistan earthquake and other lessons learned including the recent Nepal earthquake in order to better understand appropriate disaster response strategies from a disability and rehabilitation perspective
Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, Vol.65, No.10
“The objective of this study was to characterize injuries, deaths, and disabilities arising during 11 years of conflict in Baghdad.” The quantitative study shows the methodology used in the collection of data, the findings discovered through evaluation of the data gathered, and interpretation of how to best use those findings to serve specific populations”
PLOS ONE, 10(8)
This report presents research about efforts to meet the needs and uphold the rights of persons with disabilities in four thematic areas: health care, rehabilitation, work and employment, and accessibility and enabling environments. Research findings are drawn from the experiences of landmine and cluster munition survivors and other persons with similar needs in 33 countries experiencing armed conflict or emerging from armed conflict or political or economic transition. Findings are placed within the context of relevant articles of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the World Report on Disability
This report presents the key findings and recommendations from a four-week field assessment conducted by the Women's refugee Commission in Spring 2013 in northern and eastern Lebanon. Key findings are shared about the situation of Syrian refugees with disabilities, and recommendations are provided to the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and partners.
Shoulder pain among paraplegic persons has negative effects on their lives. The prevalence of shoulder pain among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) varies from 30% to 70% in different studies and may be related to repetitive use of the shoulder during self-care and wheelchair-related activities.
Purpose: This study focused on the prevalence of shoulder pain and examined its effects on activities of daily living and social participation, and on functional, work and recreational or athletic activities. It also aimed to detect the degree ofsatisfaction with shoulder functioning in wheelchair users who were paraplegic due to spinal cord injury, in the Gaza strip.
Methods: Cross sectional study design was used to collect data from 80 persons with paraplegia, post rehabilitation, who were still using manual wheelchairs (MWC) for ambulation. After giving informed consent, the selected persons were interviewed directly in their homes, and filled questionnaires which included demographic data, Wheelchair User’s Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI) and Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ).
Results: The prevalence rate of shoulder pain among paraplegics who use manual wheelchairs was 62%. Pushing a wheelchair for 10 minutes or more, and propulsion up ramps or inclines outdoors were the most common activities that caused and exacerbated shoulder pain. Sixty four percent from among the study sample mentioned that they had no limitation in shoulder-using ability during daily personal and household activities, while the rest experienced different degrees of limitation. Seventy-four percent reported no limitation during recreational or athletic activities, while the rest (26%) agreed that pain has variably limited their participation in these activities. Fourteen percent from the sample rated the overall degree of satisfaction with their shoulder functioning as fair, and the rest rated their satisfaction from good to excellent.
Conclusion: Shoulder pain, ranging from mild to severe, was highly prevalent among SCI paraplegics who use MWCs during their usual activities, and other activities which involve wheelchair propulsion. About two- thirds of the subjectsreported no limitation in shoulder use during daily personal and household activities and in recreational or athletic activities.
"This study aims to understand the links between armed violence and impairments that can lead to disabilities. It focuses on individuals who sustain impairments resulting from incidents of armed violence. The Disability Creation Process is adapted to analyse the combination of health problems, discrimination and socio- economic exclusion that can lead to disability for people who have sustained serious injury and/or lasting impairments as a result of armed violence...This report is written in a linear progression keeping the research project’s goals, objectives and approach as its backdrop. Chapter 1 (introduction) gives an overview of armed violence along with the justification of this research and its methods. Chapter 2 presents the findings from the four case study regions in countries, situated within its contextual analysis. Each case study draws on its discussion and summary of findings. Chapter 3 presents the discussion and lessons learned from this research, placing assistance and people at the centre of armed violence initiatives. Finally, a glossary, Annexes and references as endnotes are at the end of the report with notes at the end of every page"
The focus of this manual is to increase participation of people with disabilities in physical activities and sport. Detailed adapted physical activities are provided with practical guides, group sport guides and assessment tools in order to promote a more inclusive society and enable educators to enrich their creativity and ideas for mentoring any person interested in participating in, advancing through and gaining enjoyment from the practice of a physical activity This guide to useful to all actors such as physical education and sports teachers in all types of schools, sports club coaches, recreational centre educators and facilitators, and even workers in rehabilitation centres or medical and social services centres
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions stroke survivors have of the rehabilitation services received by them in the Jordanian community. A secondary aim was to explore the impact of culture on providing appropriate services for stroke survivors.
Eighteen stroke survivors were recruited from an outpatient stroke rehabilitation programme. All 18 participants had been discharged from hospital for between one and six months. Semi-structured interviews were performed, either in thephysiotherapy outpatient clinic where the affected person was attending a clinic or in their homes. Transcription of interviews carried out in Arabic and thematic analysis was also carried out in that language by transcribers who were fluent in Arabic and English, using a back-translation method. Necessary measures were taken to ensure the accuracy, reliability and validity of the data collection and analysis.
Following thematic analysis, themes arising out of the data included physiotherapy and occupational therapy support in the community, out-patient rehabilitation clinic services, community clinic services and support from families, friends and neighbours. Participants expressed satisfaction with their therapists, but there were large areas of unmet rehabilitation need for stroke survivors in the Jordanian community such as a limited availability of occupational therapy services, insufficient amount of therapy services and poor medical support.
This study presents a unique contribution to knowledge relating to the experiences of stroke survivors in a developing country, and also shows how care systems are very dependent on cultural contexts, cultural beliefs and practices.
"This report adopts a rights-based approach to map the access of persons with physical disabilities to social services in Jordan and assess the extent to which they enjoy equal opportunities and are socially integrated"
This is a cross-sectional study of hospital records of people who were admitted to Rehab Armed Forces Rehabilitation Center, Taif, Saudi Arabia from 1999- 2005. Eight hundred and fifty records were reviewed. Data were collected on age, sex, nationality, data of admission and discharge and type of disability. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine predictors of long stay at the hospital. Trauma as an etiology of disability was more common than non-traumatic incidents among male and middle aged clients (16-45 years). Traumatic accidents mostly result in quadriplegia (72.8%). Male, single, less than 45 years old, people with traumatic accidents and people with paralytic types of disability were significantly more likely to stay longer at the hospital. Home care programme should be expanded to minimize duration of stay at the rehabilitation centres. Health education of the public would help in encouraging disabled people to adapt to daily life activities.
This report provides the rationale and know-how on integrating mental health into primary health care. It outlines primary care for mental health in context and then presents primary care for mental health in practice, highlighting 12 case studies and key lessons learnt from specific countries. A detailed annex on the core functions of primary care workers is provided, as well as 10 core principles of mental health integration. This resource is useful to anyone interested in integrating mental health into primary care
This technical guide provides a reorientation and familiarisation tool for managers of leprosy projects and programmes. The analysis includes an outline of the broad objectives of CBR, the roles and tasks of programme managers, and the responsibilities of community workers. This resource would be useful for anyone with an interest in disability and development
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion