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Recycling of plaster of Paris

SHIYO, Servas
NAGELS, Joseph
SHANGALI, Harold G.
May 2020

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Background: Plaster of Paris (POP) is being used in different ways in the field of medicine, dentistry and rehabilitation. One of its uses is in the manufacture of models of body segments in prosthetics and orthotics. It is used as a one-off procedure in which the used material is dismantled and discarded. The disposal of discarded materials does not allow easy decomposition which then pollutes the environment. It is not known whether this material could be reused if recycled.

 

Objectives: The main objective of the study was to recycle POP models and determine its reuse in producing models with identical qualities, and thus reduce environmental pollution.

 

Method: The procedure adopted was to break discarded models into small pieces, remove impurities and dirt; then the sample models were milled, washed, dried and pulverised. The POP models were heated to evaporate crystalline water in order to determine for how many times it could be recycled while retaining the desired strength, setting time and working characteristics.

 

Results: The recycled POP reached higher setting temperatures and was stronger in terms of compressive strain and strength than the virgin POP. The highest temperature recorded for recycled POP was 40°C, which was higher than that for virgin powder (32.5°C). Testing compressive strength of all cylinders in all groups showed that the average compressive strength of the recycled powder mixed with water in a ratio of 1:1 was 2407 KN/m² and the ratio of 2:3 resulted in a compressive strength of 1028 KN/m², whereas the average compressive strength of virgin POP powder mixed with water in a ratio of 1:1 was 1807 KN/m² and the ratio of 2:3 resulted in a compressive strength of 798 KN/m². There were no differences in working properties between the recycled POP and the virgin POP.

 

Conclusion: It was therefore concluded that under controlled conditions, such as grinding size, heating temperature, time and avoidance of contamination, used POP could be continuously recycled, resulting in stronger and workable casts.

 

 

African Journal of Disability, Vol. 9, 2020

Human Rights

www.macao-tz.org
December 2014

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Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania.  Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods.  In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.

Review of leprosy research evidence (2002-2009) and implications for current policy and practice

VAN BRAKEL, Wim
et al
September 2010

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"The ILEP Technical Commission (ITC) advises ILEP member associations on technical aspects of leprosy. A major review of research evidence in leprosy was published prior to the International Leprosy Congress in 2002. This current report updates that review based on research published between 2002-2009 and focuses on interventions for prevention, early diagnosis, chemotherapy, reactions, prevention of disability, stigma measurement and reduction and rehabilitation in leprosy"
Leprosy Review, Vol 81, Issue 3

Testing treatments : better research for better healthcare

EVANS, Imogen
THORNTON, Hazel
CHALMERS, Iain
2010

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This book highlights issues that are fundamental to ensuring that research into the effects of treatments is soundly based and designed to answer questions that matter to patients and the health professionals to whom they turn for help in critically assessing treatment options

Community-based surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance in resource-constrained settings|Report on five pilot projects

HOLLOWAY, Kathleen A
2009

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This document describes five pilot surveillance projects that were set up in India (three sites) and South Africa (two sites) with the aim of developing a model for undertaking integrated community-based surveillance in resource-constrained settings and generating baseline data. The methodology used in each area aimed to collect antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and use data from the same geographical area over time, but was modified to suit the particular characteristics of each site

South African national HIV prevalence, incidence, behavior and communication survey 2008 : turning a tide among teenagers ?

SHISANA, O
et al
2009

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"South Africa has the largest burden of HIV/AIDS and is currently implementing the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme in the world. It is therefore fitting that South Africa is the first in the world to conduct three repeated national HIV population-based surveys to help monitor our response as a nation to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This report is the third in a time series of population-based HIV seroprevalence surveys which started in 2002 and were repeated in 2005 and again in 2008"

Paediatric ARV roll-out in South Africa

HORIZONS PROGRAM
CAPE TOWN UNIVERSITY
2005

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The Horizons Program of the Population Council and the University of Cape Town are conducting a study to identify successful programme strategies in paediatric HIV treatment in South Africa and to determine priority knowledge gaps to be addressed by operations research. This report summarises key findings from the initial consultative workshop of expert practitioners and stake-holders, focusing on the status of providing antiretroviral therapy to children in South Africa and strategies to expand and improve services. It includes providing services to under six year olds

Antiretroviral therapy in primary health care : experience of the Chiradzulu programme in Malawi. Case study

MEDECINS SANS FRONTIERES (MSF) MALAWI
July 2004

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The Chiradzulu programme is one of MSF's largest. MSF currently provides HAART to more than 13,000 patients in 56 projects spread across 25 countries. These programmes provide a continuum of care, including prevention efforts (health education, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV), voluntary counselling and testing, prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, HAART and nutritional and psychosocial support. Although the Chiradzulu project is still evolving, and treatment systems and point of care continue to be modified, the project has already shown that when treatment is adapted to local conditions and is supported by human and financial resources, rural health systems can effectively provide comprehensive HIV/AIDS care

Prevalence, severity and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

THE WHO WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEY CONSORTIUM
June 2004

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This article provides estimates of the prevalence, severity, and treatment of mental disorders from the WHO World Mental Health Survey which included data from 14 countries (six less developed, eight developed) by conducting 60,463 face-to-face interviews with adult individuals representing the general population. The article concludes by recommending careful consideration of mild cases and a reallocation of treatment resources; however, it also acknowledges that structural barriers may exist to this reallocation
The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol 291, No 21

Palliative care in Sub-Saharan Africa : an appraisal

HARDING, Richard
HIGGINSON, Irene
2004

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This report was written from the belief that palliative care is, and will be for the forseeable future, an essential component in the continuum of managing HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. There is now a wealth of experience in sub-Saharan Africa about the ways in which palliative care can be delivered both affordably and effectively. However, there remains a lack of properly documented evidence and research to demonstrate the importance of this work and promote its development. This report provides a review of existing evaluations of palliative care projects in sub-Saharan Africa with an emphasis on isolating the factors that lead to sustainability, local ownership and scaling up; the role of palliative care in the management of HIV/AIDS and how to integrate palliative care and Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART); primary health based care projects in two countries, Kenya and Malawi, that could provide lessons for the implementation of palliative care; lessons from other parallel programmes which mirror palliative care delivery, for example, tuberculosis programmes, and primary care programmes with good links to local clinics and hospitals, and community mobilization and empowerment projects linked to health facilities. In this way it contributes to the effort of providing an evidence base to demonstrate the importance of palliative care and provides a source of reference for policy makers, practitioners, donors and researchers

Stepping back from the edge : the pursuit of antiretroviral therapy in Botswana, South Africa and Uganda

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2004

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This report looks at what is being done to challenge the pace of progress on access to antiretroviral medicines in three very different African countries - Botswana, South Africa and Uganda. It describes who is driving these initiatives at grass-roots level and how. It offers insights and draws on lessons from firsthand experiences that can help those already working towards better access to antiretrovirals, and encourages others to embark on similar initiatives. It is intended for all those with an interest in this issue, from policy- and decision-makers with the power to create a favourable environment for antiretroviral treatment, to those working on the front line in health services, NGOs and AIDS service organizations, as well as those living with HIV, whose role in the battle for wider access is vital

Involvement of people living with HIV/AIDS in treatment preparedness in Thailand : case study

KUMPHITAK, Aree
KASI-SEDAPAN, Siriras
WILSON, David
et al
2004

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People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in Thailand are increasingly encouraged to work in partnership with NGOs to improve access to disease prevention and treatment provision. This case study outlines the impact of this collaboration over a period of four years. PLHA have been directly involved in lobbying and advocacy, helping make ART more widely available, but also promoting prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, focusing on the use of co-trimoxazole. Their involvement as co-providers in care has positively changed the attitude of health care staff towards HIV/AIDS patients. The study concludes that a coordinated collaboration between the public health system, NGOs and PLHA would have important spin-offs for both health care providers and PLHA themselves

Liverpool school of tropical medicine : Malaria knowledge programme. Annual report 2003-2004 : reduction in the suffering by improving the management of malaria through better intervention and control of malaria.’

LIVERPOOL SCHOOL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE (LSTM)
2004

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The report shows the overall activities of the Malaria Knowledge Programme during 2003-2004. It initially outlines the research activities and the new knowledge outputs. Using a framework developed by Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine's Vulnerability and Health Alliance the report contains an evaluation of the implications and effects of the research findings on those most vulnerable to the effects of malaria

Working positively : a guide for NGOs managing HIV/AIDS in the workplace

UK CONSORTIUM ON AIDS AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
December 2003

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With HIV prevalence rates of over 20% in many sub-Saharan African countries, and with infection rates rising rapidly in other parts of the world, NGOs are funding that HIV/AIDS is affecting not only programme work but also staff. If NGOs are to be credible in these communities, they need to be seen to be addressing HIV/AIDS internally in a way that is consistent with their external messages. However, developing a workable comprehensive solution that covers policy, education and prevention, and treatment and care is not easy. This guide looks at the key issues involved in developing a workplace strategy and how different NGOs and commercial organisations are approaching these issues through a series of case studies. It also provides a guide to the key components of a successful strategy and a list of useful reference documents

Working positively : a guide for NGOs managing HIV/AIDS in the workplace

UK CONSORTIUM ON AIDS AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
December 2003

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With HIV prevalence rates of over 20% in many sub-Saharan African countries, and with infection rates rising rapidly in other parts of the world, NGOs are funding that HIV/AIDS is affecting not only programme work but also staff. If NGOs are to be credible in these communities, they need to be seen to be addressing HIV/AIDS internally in a way that is consistent with their external messages. However, developing a workable comprehensive solution that covers policy, education and prevention, and treatment and care is not easy. In a series of documents in both PDF and MSWord formats, this guide looks at the key issues involved in developing a workplace strategy and how different NGOs and commercial organisations are approaching these issues through a series of case studies. It also provides a guide to the key components of a successful strategy

Provision of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings : a review of experience up to August 2003

ATTAWELL, Kathy
MUNDY, Jackie
November 2003

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This background paper aims to increase understanding of the requirements for introducing and scaling up provision of antitetroviral therapy (ART) as part of comprehensive HIV/AIDS programmes in resource-poor countries. The paper provides an overview of experience and lessons learned with regard to the feasibility of ART in resource-poor settings, the different approaches being taken to delivery of ART, and the issues to be considered in scaling up ART provision. The review is based on published and unpublished literature, interviews with key informants, web searches and country information

Antiretroviral therapy in primary health care : experience of the Khayelitsha programme in South Africa. Case study

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2003

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This case study outlines and assesses the Khayelitha programme, which focused on ART provision and aimed to document the feasibility of low-cost treatment and primary health care provision in developing countries. The document details the clinical outcomes of the programmes, the strategy used to ensure adherence and the contribution made by Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) to raise awareness and pressurise the government to develop an adequate response to the epidemic. The provision of ART in Khayelitsha had also a positive impact on prevention, making more HIV-positive people aware of their status, reducing stigma, being the catalyst of educational initiatives, improving the morale of health workers and keeping families intact and less at risk. The case study concludes with a comprehensive list of lessons learned and with key recommendations for the future, which include consolidation of nurse-based care, more training activities, integration of HIV/AIDS and TB services, educational programmes aimed at improving adherence to ART and a greater focus on paediatric AIDS and ART provision in rural remote areas

We miss you all. Noerine Kaleeba : AIDS in the family

KALEEBA, Noerine
RAY, Sunanda
2002

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An updated version of the 1991 book. It tells the story of Noerine Kaleeba, one of the founders of the The AIDS Support Organisation in Uganda, whose husband died of AIDS. The book includes testimonies from Noerine's daughters about their father's death and their mother's 'going public'. It also tackles emerging issues such as access to antiretroviral drugs

Brazil's HIV/AIDS treatment programme

TREATMENT ACTION CAMPAIGN (TAC)
February 2001

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It is estimated that 540,000 Brazilians have HIV/AIDS, with the highest prevalence among the poor. However, Brazil treatment programmes have been comparatively successful and AIDS mortality rates have decreased significantly. This fact sheet attempts to explain the reasons for the success but also assesses weaknesses and unresolved issues of the Brazilian programme

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