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Expanding access to HIV treatment through community-based organisations

SIDACTION
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
July 2005

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This UNAIDS Best Practice Collection document aims to highlight and advocate for the work of civil society, community based organisations in particular, in responding to the AIDS epidemic in Africa. The paper describes a ground breaking survey by Sidaction, a Paris based treatment rights group, which supports community responses to AIDS in low and middle income countries. In 2004, Sidaction, in cooperation with the UNAIDS secretariat and WHO mapped treatment and care efforts by community based organisations in Africa. Many community based organisations are already dispensing ARVs on a significant scale. The survey confirmed that community efforts to provide treatment represent an important opportunity to enrol more people in antiretroviral therapy. To seize this opportunity, national governments and the international community need to quickly provide support to expand the coverage and impact of community based treatment. The aim is for CBOs to work closely with the public sector so that each reinforces the efforts of the other

Mainstreaming of disability and HIV/AIDS : a double challenge

DE GREVE, A
2005

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This paper describes how organisations take into account, or mainstream, disability and/or HIV and AIDS in their work. In the introduction, guest writer Nora Groce discusses the link between disability and HIV/AIDS and the similarities between the issues. The next chapters examine different forms of mainstreaming, and then discuss the arguments for and against mainstreaming disability and/or HIV/AIDS. Chapter 3 deals with the basic principles of the mainstreaming process. Chapter 4 discusses the integration of the disability and/or HIV/AIDS factor in development activities. This includes activities of and with partners in the South, ie socio-economic projects, awareness raising and training activities in the South. It discusses how mainstreaming implicates the representation and participation of persons with a disability and/or living with HIV or AIDS, and the relevant interest organisations representing both groups, in the initial phases of the project as well in implementation. Chapter 5 deals with mainstreaming in organisational policy. There is a need for Northern NGOs as well as Southern partners to actively adapt their policy to take into account disability and/or HIV/AIDS. Both themes should be integrated into the whole organisational structure, and taken into account when setting up activities and in workplace policy

HIV-related stigma, discrimination and human rights violations: case studies of successful programmes

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
2005

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This report is a collection of case studies of projects, programmes and activities around the world that have used innovative methods to challenge HIV-related stigma, discrimination and human rights violations. The case studies are grouped under stigma-reduction approaches; anti-discrimination measures; and human rights and legal approaches. They are followed by some cross-project/activity analysis that identifies common elements and a number of key principles of success, each of which offers an entry point for innovative and potentially effective work

Analysis of aid in support of HIV/AIDS control, 2000-2002

DAC
JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
June 2004

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This report is a review of statistical data on aid to HIV/AIDS control. It was compiled by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Secretariat in collaboration with the members of the DAC Working Party on Statistics (WP-STAT) and UNAIDS between February and May 2004. The key findings are presented concerning total official development assistance commitments for HIV/AIDS control, and bilateral aid. It also includes contributions to the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The report notes that larger donors especially multilaterals are the main funders of treatment programmes, which require substantial funding and long term commitments. Smaller donors tend to concentrate on HIV prevention, but also support home-based care and social mitigation activities

World health report 2004 : changing history

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2004

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This report argues that a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy linking prevention, treatment, care and support for people living with the virus could save the lives of millions of people in poor and middle-income countries. At present, almost six million people in developing countries need treatment, but only about 400 000 of them received it in 2003. The World Health Report 2004 argues that a treatment gap of such dimensions is indefensible and that narrowing it is both an ethical obligation and a public health necessity. In September 2003 WHO, UNAIDS and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and their partners launched an effort to provide three million people in developing countries with antiretroviral therapy (ART) by end 2005 - the 3 by 5 initiative. This World Health Report shows how a partnership linking international organizations, national governments, the private sector and communities is working simultaneously to expand access to HIV/AIDS treatment, reinforce HIV prevention and strengthen health systems in some of the countries where they are currently weakest

Interim policy on collaborative TB/HIV issues

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Stop TB Department and Department of HIV/AIDS
2004

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This policy responds to a demand from countries for immediate guidance on which collaborative TB/HIV activities to implement and under what circumstances. It is complementary to and in synergy with the established core activities of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes. Implementing the DOTS strategy is the core activity for tuberculosis control. Similarly, infection and disease prevention and health promotion activities and the provision of treatment and care form the basis for HIV/AIDS control. This policy does not call for the institution of a new specialist or independent disease control programme. It rather promotes enhanced collaboration between tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS programmes in the provision of a continuum of quality care at service-delivery level for people with, or at risk of tuberculosis and people living with HIV/AIDS

Ethiopian strategic plan for intensifying multi-sectorial HIV/AIDS response 2004-2008

NATIONAL HIV/AIDS PREVENTION AND CONTROL OFFICE (HAPCO)
FEDERAL MINISTRY OF HEALTH (FMOH)
2004

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This document sets out the strategic issues facing Ethiopia as it plans its response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Issues include capacity, community mobilisation, mainstreaming HIV in health programmes, coordination and networking, and targetting vulnerable groups. This document lists objectives under each of these headings, and strategies that will be used to achieve them. Each strategy is then listed with corresponding 'major activities' (milestones), indicators, verification method, and responsible bodies (mostly regional health bureaux, Ministry of Health, HAPCO and other stakeholders). The report includes a statement about budget requirements and allocations, governance, monitoring and evaluation, the roles of the different stakeholders, and a list of relevant documentation (manuals, guidelines, policy documents)

National monitoring and evaluation framework for the multi-sectoral response to HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia

HIV/AIDS PREVENTION AND CONTROL OFFICE (HAPCO)
December 2003

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In 1998 the Ethiopian government scaled up the response to HIV/AIDS by forging a multi-sectoral and multi-level partnership with various stakeholders. A national policy on HIV/AIDS was enacted in August 1998. This resulted in a Strategic Framework for the National Response to HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia for 2001-2005. This monitoring and evaluation framework was developed to strengthen the multi-sectoral response to HIV/AIDS, to systematically track progress and evaluate the effects of the national response, and to meet the international reporting requirements for funds secured to fight HIV/AIDS in the country. It covers basic monitoring and evaluation concepts, an implementation strategy, national level indicators and resource requirements

Multisectoral programs link intervention efforts : Haiti project addresses multiple needs of young people

TIPTON, M
et al
March 2003

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This paper examines the Bassin Bleu Youth Development Initiative in Haiti, which takes a cross-secotral approach, coordinating activities in different sectors in a geographical project area, linked by a set of youth reproductive health goals. The activities cover the health, agriculture, education and income generation sectors, thus responding to the concerns of young people and the community about jobs and income, as well as HIV and education. While the project addresses the four sectors seperately, it also coordinates its efforts through a team of peer educators trained in all four sectors and through community-wide advocacy projects. The paper concludes that the project could serve as a useful model for other projects seeking ways to work with youth.

Operational guidelines for supporting early child development (ECD) in multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS programs in Africa

SEIFMAN, Richard
SURRENCY, Amber
2003

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The document suggests how services that address young children's needs might be fully integrated into a national multisectoral HIV/AIDS programme. It gives advice on developing national ECD policies, programmes and interventions, multisectoral ECD approaches, and ways to advocate, implement, monitor and evaluate these efforts. It makes suggestions of interventions for very young children and is a resource for other national HIV/AIDS programme topics

South African health review 2001

HEALTH SYSTEMS TRUST (HST)
March 2002

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This is a comprehensive, authoritative and independent review of the South African health system. It is published annually and this year's edition is is made up of 17 chapters grouped into four themes: listening to voices, equity, information for health, accountability and transformation. The review acts as a barometer for assessing the transformation processes and their impact on provision of equitable health care to all in South Africa

CBR : a participatory strategy in Africa

HARTLEY, Sally
Ed
2002

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This resource provides an important contribution and understanding of how community-based rehabilitation (CBR) operates in Africa. It contains the experiences and reflections of key stakeholders within CBR from 14 African countries. It will contribute to a more mutual and holistic understanding of the concept of CBR and bring about the development of new initiatives. This book is useful tool for CBR planners, policy-makers and managers

Making health communication programs work

NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE
2002

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This handbook presents key principles and steps in developing and evaluating health communication program for the public, patients, and health professionals. It expands upon and replaces two earlier publications titled Pretesting in Health Communications and Making PSA's Work. Referring primarily to the context of the United States, the guide discusses specific steps in program development and includes examples of their use. Sources of additional information on each subject are included at the end of the chapters

Meeting the needs of people with disabilities : new approaches in the health sector. A technical note

WIMAN, Ronald
HELANDER, Einar
WESTLAND, Joan
2002

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Today many people with disabilities tend to be disempowered and deprived of economic and social opportunities and security because they are excluded from areas of social life. Furthermore, they are also underserved by most public and private institutions and services. As a result, people with disabilities tend to be the poorest of the poor and their health is vulnerable.
The role of the health sector in the prevention of disabling conditions, in addressing disabling diseases and limiting their effects, as well as in rehabilitation is central. Therefore, health sector interventions should address the disability dimension to best facilitate poverty reduction.
In order to provide disabled people with a health care system that addresses their needs, several steps are needed. Governments must support equal opportunities for all and the disability dimension must be included into economic and social life

Sector-wide approaches for health develpment : a review of experience

FOSTER, M
BROWN, A
CONWAY, T
2000

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[Publisher's abstract:] Summarizes lessons learned in five countries which are attempting to implement a sector-wide approach to health development. The sector-wide approach is a comparatively recent mechanism for coordinating the roles of governments and donors. A significant characteristic of this approach is the use of all significant funding to support a single sector policy and expenditure programme, under government leadership, with eventual reliance on the government to disburse and account for all funds. The approach also involves a transition of donor contributions away from project-funded vertical programmes and towards a single budget administered by the government. Case studies of the successes and failures of this approach were conducted in Cambodia, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, and Viet Nam. Although these countries represent a range of different stages of implementing the approach, the review reached a number of conclusions about shared problems and impediments to progress. These include weaknesses in government monitoring procedures and a corresponding reluctance of donors to relinquish control, increased demands on staff within ministries of health, and a management complexity that can overwhelm government capacity. On the positive side, the review found evidence of greater agreement on a more restricted range of priorities, better integration of individual programmes within the budget planning process, better links between policy and implementation, and improved understanding of barriers to service utilization, including the role of corruption and incentive problems. On the basis of this assessment, the review issues six key recommendations for improved sector-wide management of projects and resources

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