This situational analysis (SITAN) addresses the question: “what is the current situation for persons with disabilities in Jordan?”. It has been prepared for the Disability Inclusive Development programme (which works on access to education, jobs, healthcare, and reduced stigma and discrimination for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania), to better understand the current context, including COVID-19, and available evidence in Jordan. It will be helpful for anyone interested in disability inclusion in Jordan, especially in relation to stigma, employment, education, health, and humanitarian issues.
This situational analysis (SITAN) addresses the question: “what is the current situation for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh?”. It has been prepared for the Disability Inclusive Development programme (which works on access to education, jobs, healthcare, and reduced stigma and discrimination for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania), to better understand the current context, including COVID-19, and available evidence in Bangladesh. It will be helpful for anyone interested in disability inclusion in Bangladesh, especially in relation to stigma, employment, education, health, and humanitarian issues.
This situational analysis (SITAN) addresses the question: “what is the current situation for persons with disabilities in Nigeria?”. It has been prepared for the Disability Inclusive Development programme (which works on access to education, jobs, healthcare, and reduced stigma and discrimination for persons with disabilities in Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania), to better understand the current context, including COVID-19, and available evidence in Nigeria. It will be helpful for anyone interested in disability inclusion in Nigeria, especially in relation to stigma, employment, education, health, and humanitarian issues.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, schools around the world experience extraordinary times and as education moves online, those who have historically faced marginalisation find themselves facing new challenges to access education. The situation is disproportionately affecting those within marginalised communities in India and across the globe. In education, these disadvantages are amplified for learners with disabilities belonging to low socio-economic backgrounds. Lessons to be learned from schools that are incorporating the principles of inclusion and social justice while approaching these challenges are highlighted.
Question & problem
The COVID-19 pandemic and strategies essential for its containment are resulting in severe strains on economies, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). These impacts will be felt most by groups already in or at risk of poverty, including the estimated 1 billion people with disabilities globally. Interventions to address the short- and long-term economic effects of the pandemic are urgently needed. Some countries have begun implementing or announced plans for interventions addressing the economic impacts of COVID-19, such as food assistance, emergency cash transfers, unemployment assistance or expansions to existing social protection programmes. As these programmes are developed, it is important to consider the extent to which their design and delivery is inclusive of people with disabilities. Failure to adequately include people with disabilities in this process will lead to widening inequalities.
In order to investigate whether people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are at higher risk of severe outcomes from COVID-19, the COVID-19 outcomes among people with IDD living in residential groups homes in the state of New York and the general population of New York State were compared. Data for people with IDD are from a coalition of organizations providing over half of the residential services for the state of New York, and from the New York State Department of Health. Analysis describes COVID-19 case rates, case-fatality, and mortality among people with IDD living inresidential group homes and New York State through May 28, 2020
Disability and Health Journal, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2020.100969
This paper tackles several critical elements required for social protection systems and programs to adequately consider disability related extra costs. In the first part, it will explain the diversity of disability related costs. The second part will present current methods to assess and measure disability related costs and the issues they raise. The last part will present how social protection systems can take into account and tackle those different disability related costs.
This background paper is a part of a series produced in the frame of a project led by ILO and UNICEF in close collaboration with the International Disability Alliance (IDA) and supported by the UN Partnership on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. It has been co-financed by Leonard Cheshire in the frame of the DFID funded I2I project. The UNPRPD project aims at developing practical guidance for countries, development agencies and DPOs for reforms towards inclusive social protection systems fostering empowerment of persons with disabilities across the life cycle. The papers summarize key issues and present policy recommendations and proposal to build inclusive social protection systems supporting empowerment and participation of persons with disabilities across the life cycle
The on-going struggles of disability movements worldwide have been examined from multiple perspectives. As of yet, however, research into this topic has largely overlooked experiences on the African continent. This article seeks to address this gap by presenting a case study of the disability movement in Sierra Leone, West Africa. The study finds that on the one hand the Sierra Leonean disability movement is fragmented (referring to the tendency of groups to work individually as opposed to operating in a collective manner), thus limiting synergy. Three main ‘centrifugal’ forces underlying fragmentation are identified: resource scarcity, impairment specific interests and capacity differences between impairment types. On the other hand, the movement somehow manages to survive and even achieve modest successes. The research shows that interdependence, shared experiences of marginalization, and a clear identification of the ‘other’ have a unifying effect.
- The disability movement in Sierra Leone is fragmented, meaning it struggles to formulate a unified position and act collectively, yet somehow survives and even manages to achieve some successes;
- The fragmentation is fueled by competition between groups, a hierarchy between impairment types and interests that are impairment specific.
- The movement is kept together by mutual dependence to achieve key goals and raise funds, shared experiences of marginalization and negative experiences with ‘outsiders’.
- The research offers recommendations to disability groups and donors to mitigate fragmenting forces while strengthening unifying forces.
As COVID-19 crosses the globe, disabled people are subject to new medical and discursive realities. Focusing on the consequences of the latter, we utilize news reports from Canada and the UK to argue the current language of pre-existing conditions represents disability as non-life, explaining away the material realities facing disabled persons. This language ignores the distribution of care work in our societies, poverty, and other forms of exclusion facing disabled people and the population more generally. Work on ventilator users points to these existing inequalities, obscured as they may be. This story is not new. Outlining existing narratives within disability studies challenging disability as deadly biological and economic deficiency and situating the ‘pre-existing’ terminology therein, we look to work in disability studies and bioethics to challenge the disability–death equation. We end reviewing counter-narratives by and for disabled people, highlighting the ongoing and life-affirming resistance throughout the disability rights movement.
Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 22(1), pp.168–174.
According to the World Health Organization, in 2018, about 29 million of the 195 million people who comprise Nigeria’s national population were living with a disability. Data from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey reveal that an estimated 7 percent of household members above the age of five (as well as 9 percent of those 60 or older) have some level of difficulty in at least one functional domain, seeing, hearing, communication, cognition, walking, or self-care; and 1 percent either have a lot of difficulty or cannot function at all in at least one domain. These estimated rates, while significant, are probably even higher because currently available data likely underestimate the prevalence. This rapid social assessment was undertaken to document the current socioeconomic status of persons with disabilities in Nigeria. Findings indicate that persons with disabilities lack access to basic services and that attitudinal barriers represent a major impediment to their socioeconomic inclusion. Inclusive policies are either nonexistent, weak, or inadequately implemented.
While Fiji only had 18 cases of COVID-19, all of whom have recovered, the economic and social outcomes are significant and will be felt for years to come. The closure of international borders led to visitor arrivals contracting significantly by 43.5 percent up to April and the economy is projected to decline by 4.9% in 2020 under COVID-19. The impacts will extend to government revenue, which is expected to decrease by almost 50% in the next financial year.
In addition to the pandemic, Fiji was also struck by Severe Tropical Cyclone Harold on 08 April, causing States of Natural Disaster to be declared for COVID-19 and for TC Harold within the same week. Although Fiji is used to cyclones, prevention and movement restriction measures in place for COVID-19 made it difficult to respond to the trail of destruction left by the Category 4 cyclone. A total of 250 evacuation centers were opened in all four divisions and around 10,000 people were displaced.
The objectives of the Gender, Disability and Inclusion Analysis are:
- To analyse and understand the different impacts that the COVID-19 pandemic and TC Harold potentially have on women, men, girls and boys, people with disabilities and people of diverse SOGIESC and other marginalised groups in Fiji;
- To inform humanitarian programming in Fiji based on the different needs of women, men, boys and girls, people with disabilities and people of diverse SOGIESC with a particular focus on Gender Based Violence (GBV), Health, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), Education in Emergencies, Food Security and Livelihoods, and Coping Strategies; and
- To provide recommendations for organisations responding to COVID-19 and TC Harold.
This survey handbook provides guidance for planning and implementing hearing loss surveys, including information on possible data collection tools. The survey handbook aims to enable countries – particularly low- and middle-income countries – to gather data by planning and implementing population-based epidemiological surveys.
The main uses of data collected by such surveys are:
- to provide an accurate picture of hearing loss prevalence in a given area, which could be a country or an area within the country (e.g. district or state);
- to provide an overview of the most common probable causes of deafness and hearing loss in the study area;
- assess global and regional prevalence and trends
Using this survey handbook for data collection will help to ensure comparability of data collected through studies conducted in different countries and by different investigators. This will facilitate the estimation of global prevalence and the examination of hearing loss trends over time.
Led by The Asia Foundation (the Foundation) in Kabul, Afghanistan, the WHO’s and World Banks’ Model Disability Survey (MDS) was implemented in Afghanistan in 2019 to provide rigorous and current data for policy and action. Using an adapted MDS, the MDSA 2019 was designed and implemented to generate representative data at nationally and regionally representative levels.
A complex survey using multistage sampling was administered respectively to adult (18+ years) and child (2–17 years) populations; a total of 14,290 households were surveyed, representing 111,641 Afghans across the country. Separate survey tools were implemented for adults (157 questions) and children (53 questions). Three core tools were developed covering: 1) household characteristics; 2) adult disabilities (related to functioning, health conditions, personal assistance, assistive products and facilitators, health care utilization, well-being and empowerment); 3) child disabilities (related to functioning and health conditions)
A campaign Led by International Disability Alliance (IDA) and International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) that calls for more leadership from the United Nations to ensure COVID-19 measures include people with disabilities.
This ‘tips sheet’ provides an insight to Gender-based violence (GBV) practitioners, on the risks and barriers that persons with disabilities, in particular women and girls may face during response for COVID 19, and practical action for gender-based violence (GBV) practitioners to integrate attention to disability into GBV prevention, risk mitigation and response efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic. This note draws on the IASC Guidelines on Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action, applying these to the COVID-19 pandemic, response and practical tips from experience of HI and collaborating partners in South Sudan
Summaries on the findings from the following queries:
Is there evidence that suggests children with disabilities are more/less vulnerable to child marriage than children without disabilities? If yes, what are the driving factors for this?
What are some of the evidence-based interventions we could think about to ensure that children with disabilities affected by child marriage are not left behind? How can we better mainstream disability inclusion in the programme?
Background: Despite a global commitment to the right to education for persons with disabilities, little is known about how to achieve inclusive education in practice, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the majority of the world’s people with disabilities reside. Moreover, although exclusion from education is magnified by intersecting gender and socioeconomic inequalities, there is especially little knowledge regarding what approaches to inclusive education are effective amongst girls with disabilities living in resource-poor settings.
Objectives: The objective of this article was to assess the impact of an inclusive education intervention led by a non-governmental organisation (NGO) on the educational attainment of girls with disabilities in the resource-poor Lakes region of Kenya.
Method: A quasi-experimental design was employed, where the literacy and numeracy educational attainment of the intervention and control groups was compared over two time points a year apart (Time 1 and Time 2; total matched N = 353). During this period, activities pertaining to six core components of a holistic inclusive education model were implemented.
Results: Relative to the control group, girls with disabilities in the intervention group reported a greater increase in literacy and numeracy attainment, adjusted for grade and level of functional difficulty.
Conclusion: Findings suggest that the intervention was successful in engendering additional improvements in the educational attainment of girls with disabilities from the resource-poor Lakes region of Kenya. Results highlight both the applicability of NGO-led interventions in settings, where national implementation of inclusive education is constrained, and the potential of taking such interventions to scale.
African Journal of Disability, Vol 9, 2020
This report is based on the results of a global survey conducted in March and April 2020, targeted at the personal experiences of women, girls, non-binary, trans, and gender non-conforming persons with disabilities and COVID-19. This survey, which was intended to be primarily qualitative, asked respondents to provide narrative information about the following topics: access to health services, including sexual and reproductive health services; rationing of healthcare; personal safety and violence; access to support services to meet daily living needs; and access to education, employment, and other income. The results are based on 100 respondents. Recommendations are given.
Purpose: Translating the Neck Disability Index (NDI) into the Malay language (NDI-M); evaluation of psychometric properties in patients with neck pain.
Methods: The NDI-M was translated according to established guidelines. In the first visit, 120 participants completed the NDI-M, visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and demographic details. 98 participants returned to complete similar questionnaires and the Global Rating of Change (GRoC) scale. The NDI-M was evaluated for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, content validity, construct validity and responsiveness.
Results: The NDI-M demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.84) and good test-retest reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.79). Content validity was confirmed with no floor or ceiling effects. Construct validity was established revealing three-factor subscales explaining 68% of the total variance. The NDI-M showed a moderate correlation with VAS (Rp = 0.49, p < 0.001). Regarding responsiveness, a moderate correlation between NDI-M change scores and VAS change scores was found (Rp = 0.40, p < 0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between NDI-M with GRoC (Rs = 0.11, p = 0.27).
Conclusions: The NDI-M is a reliable and valid tool to measure functional outcomes in patients with neck pain. It is responsive in detecting changes in pain intensity during a patient’s rehabilitation journey.
There is currently very limited data and evidence on the impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities and pre-existing health conditions, with no disability-disaggregated data on mortality rates available in the public sphere. However, reports from the media, disability advocates and disabled peoples’ organisations (DPOs) point to several emerging impacts, including primary and secondary impacts including on health, education, food security and livelihoods. Most of the available data is from high income countries (HICs) though reports from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are likely to emerge. Evidence was gathered by a rapid desk based review. Gaps are identified.
The section concerned with lessons drawn from similar epidemics draws heavily on lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2016, and touches on lessons from the Zika outbreak in 2015-2016 and the SARS pandemic in the early 2000s.10 It also touches briefly on SARS, MERS and H1N1 (swine flu).
Primary and secondary impacts of COVID-19 on people with disabilities are reviewed.
People with disabilities are disproportionately impacted by COVID-19 not only because it can exacerbate underlying medical conditions, but because of attitudinal, environmental and institutional barriers to their participation in and benefit from the pandemic response. For example, inaccessible public health messaging and healthcare facilities, and stigma and discrimination.
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