This article presents research which assessed the contributions of rising mortality, falling HIV incidence and sexual behaviour change to the decline in HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe. It comprised of a comprehensive review and secondary analysis of national and local sources on trends in HIV prevalence, HIV incidence, mortality and sexual behaviour in the period 1985 - 2007. The findings provide the first convincing evidence of an HIV decline accelerated by changes in sexual behaviour in a southern African country, nevertheless, in 2007 one in seven adults in Zimbabwe was still infected by a life-threatening virus and mortality rates remained at crisis point
This report looks at the progress some countries have been able to make towards achieving the millennium development goals relating to health by the target date of 2015, as well as factors that have limited progress in others, as well as global factors that could have an impact on health
This manual is intended to help network support agents and other community workers be more effective in disseminating standardised information about HIV and AIDS. It "...emphasises the importance of the acquisition of knowledge, skills and the right attitude needed to identify the psychosocial needs of people of people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS and address these needs by giving information, counselling and appropriate referrals. Knowledge of counselling and psychosocial care, is combined as much as possible with prevention activities such as adopting HIV basic care positive prevention and adherence to treatment"
Originally published in 1995, A Book for Midwives has been a comprehensive resource for practicing midwives and midwifery training programmes around the world. This new edition has been extensively updated and revised to reflect new WHO/UNICEF guidelines and standards for mothers and newborn children.This book covers the essentials of care before, during, and after birth, providing a variety of designs for low-cost equipment and training materials. It includes new information on helping women stay healthy during pregnancy; helping mothers have safer labors and births; preventing, managing, and treating obstetric emergencies; breastfeeding; the health needs of new babies; and involving the community in improving the health of mothers and pregnant women. It also includes new information about treatment and medications for HIV and other sexually transmitted infectons; vaccinations, medicines, and drug interactions; infection prevention; improved methods for dealing with complicated deliveries; and new and updated information on family planning
This handbook highlights the factors responsible for the spread of HIV, methods of preventing it within persons with disabilities and how they can be reached and integrated into HIV and AIDS programmes and activities, so as to cause a reduction within its communities and in the general population. It is premised on the fact that many programmes and activities on HIV and AIDS in developing countries especially Sub-Saharan Africa have not realised the need to include persons with disabilities
"This manual was created as a practical resource for persons with disabilities and health care clinicians who work with these clients. It includes research, clinical expertise, and product information to aid with dialogue surrounding sexual and reproductive issues and disabilities. The information presented here is not prescriptive, and the specific products not recommended per se, but are meant to provide examples and illustrations of some of the potential options that can be introduced into the sexual practices of the individual or be used as an adjunct in the discussions of sexuality and disability by the health care clinician. The devices included are a sampling of what is available (in Canada) in 2009"
The active community engagement continuum (ACE) provides a framework for analysing community engagement in reproductive health and family planning and the role the community plays in institutionalising lasting behaviour and social change. It involves a process that includes the sharing of information with stakeholders and the local community
This research looks at the influence of family size and composition on reproductive behaviour in three South Asian countries - Nepal, India, and Bangladesh - that are known for strong son preference. Data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys, was analysed to see whether the choice of contraceptive method adopted (modern versus traditional; temporary versus permanent) and desire for another child differed by parity and sex composition of surviving children
This report presents survey findings on HIV prevalence in Haiti and other related results, including knowledge of HIV and AIDS, attitudes toward people living with HIV, and sexual behaviour. The survey was undertaken by the Mortality, Morbidity, and Utilization of Services Assessment Survey (EMMUS-IV) [Enquête Mortalité, Morbidité et Utilisation des Services] conducted between October 2005 and June 2006. The French version of this report follows the English version
‘Progress for Children’ is a series that monitors progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. This edition focuses on maternal health and, in particular, maternal mortality. It considers general progress and then examines particular regions. The report card acknowledges progress in improving maternal health, but argues that it is not sufficient to meet the MDG target of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015
This publication is the report of a project to scale-up a community-based model, in Kenya, that enabled women to give birth safely at home or be referred to a hospital when attended by a self-employed skilled midwife living in the community. The findings of the project were that community midwifery contributed to increasing the proportion of women assisted by skilled attendants during birth in the four districts in which the scheme was trialed, amounting to just under half of all skilled attended births in the districts. Although the skilled birth attendant rate in these districts was well below the national average of 42 percent, there was a steady increase in the proportion of attended deliveries since CMs were introduced in 2005. The districts also reported an increase in postnatal assessments in the first 48 hours and increase in immunization coverage
This report arose from recognition of the need to provide better care and follow up of mothers and infants in the postnatal period in order to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes in Swaziland. The objectives of the study were to determine if changes to the guidelines on postnatal care would result in improvements to provision of of maternal and newborn care in the postnatal period, increase utilization of postnatal care services among all postpartum (PP) women, and improve the care and follow up of HIV-positive postpartum women and their infants. The study confirmed that the introduction of an improved postnatal package with revised timing and content provided key components of maternal, newborn, and HIV care, and increased the utilization of services among postpartum women and their infants. An assessment of the quality of care during client-provider interactions for all postpartum women demonstrated a fourfold increase in the proportion that included all aspects of care: maternal and newborn health, counseling for HIV, family planning, and improved provider-client relationships
This interagency list is a tool to support planning for the selection, quality assurance and procurement of medical devices to implement Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) interventions, which are defined as the "Essential care to women and their newborn during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period: up to six weeks after delivery." The objective is to propose an international consensus on a rational selection of essential medical devices for reproductive health according to their public health relevance based on efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness. Published by the WHO on behalf of John Snow Inc., PATH, Population Action International, United Nations Population Fund, and the World Bank, in collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund and Medecins Sans Frontieres. The WHO and partnering organisations plan to update this list every two years
This article explores how people with intellectual disability often experience difficulties meeting their sexual needs and desires due to poor education and social isolation. However, the article highlights that people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships with appropriate education and good social support. It emphasises that providing this support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability
Salud Publica Mex, 50 suppl 2
"This paper considers some of the issues around sex and relationships for people with learning disabilities. It is essentially a discussion paper, highlighting previous research, and information about the rights of people with learning disabilities to have sex and relationships. It particularly focuses on concerns for parents and some implications for professional practice that have arisen from a research project that is trying to find out more about the issues. The main messages coming from parents within the research project is that there is a need for clear, concise information about sex and relationships for young people with learning disabilities and there is also a need for professionals to give parents more support"
Mental Health and Learning Disabilities Research and Practice Journal, 5
This report focuses on a 'Women and girls empowerment' project in Ethiopia, which expands the work of an earlier project to include girls and recognises the need for early intervention. Whereas the first project focused on removing obstacles to women's basic rights - both social and economic - and promoting access to reproductive health and family planning services, freedom from sexual exploitation, violence, forced marriage and other harmful traditional practices, this second project focuses on raising awareness and education among girls and women about reproductive health and family planning, personal rights and an emphasis on education, life skills and leadership development
This paper assesses the use of peer education within HIV and AIDS programmes through the case study of Child-Centred Approaches to HIV and AIDS (CCATH) based in Kenya and Uganda
This report looks at factors that reduce women drug users’ access to health care including punitive policies, discrimination by police and health care providers, the intense social stigma attached to drug use by women, a preponderance of harm reduction and drug treatment programmes directed primarily toward men, an absence of sexual and reproductive health services for drug users, and poor access to effective outpatient drug treatment. Pregnant drug users are particularly vulnerable. In too many instances, they receive little or no accurate information about drug use during pregnancy or prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In some countries pregnant drug users are rejected by health care providers, threatened with criminal penalties or loss of parental rights, or coerced into having an abortion or abandoning their newborns to the state. Poor access to medication-assisted treatment jeopardises the pregnancies of opiate-dependent drug users. It includes recommendations for consideration when designing services for women drug users and also examines issues around policies to protect women's health
This report looks at the need for health care providers to understand the impact of HIV on women’s reproductive health, fertility desires, and family planning needs so that they are better prepared to help clients with HIV make informed reproductive decisions
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion