This article offers an analysis of four Norwegian policy documents on inclusion of minority language pupils. The main concepts of this policy will be reconstructed and re-described, applying Niklas Luhmann’s systems theory at different levels of the analysis. Luhmann’s theory about society as a conglomerate of self- referential social systems investigates how these systems construct meaning and what consequences these constructions have for inclusion and exclusion processes. This article will focus on the Norwegian educational policy towards minority language pupils, defined by the policy as pupils who have a different mother tongue than Norwegian and Sami language. It is argued that this inclusion policy is excluding in its social form, and that it exhibits an increased emphasis on education when it comes to inclusion in society. Re-descriptions based on logic of forms will show how binary distinctions such as ‘inclusion/ exclusion’, ‘majority language pupil/minority language pupil’ and ‘early intervention/wait and see’ emerge in the timespan of 2004–2012. Based on this, it is claimed that descriptions of inclusion and exclusion are mutually constituted in the policy, thus giving rise to the question of whether the policy goal – ‘full’ inclusion in society – is realisable. A paradox will be uncovered: minority language pupils are being included as excluded as well as excluded as included in the documents, displaying how inclusion and exclusion are two sides of the same coin. The strategy early intervention is introduced to remedy exclusions, thus converting the problem of inclusion into a problem of time.
Research and Humanities in Medical Education (RHiME) is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal with the vision to blend humanities with the sciences in medical education. It aims to encourage contributions from and discussion between teachers and students, doctors and patients, the sick and their care-providers, and between health policy makers and policy users
This report reveals a major gap between DFID’s inclusive education policy and practice, with weak implementation, as a result of a lack of resources and capacity. GCE UK’s report highlights that there is an urgent need for a significant increase in policy attention and resources to address the major structural and social barriers that children with disabilities currently face in accessing education. It concludes by making key recommendations. It finds that the issue needs much greater prioritisation within DFID, and that there is an urgent need for DFID to develop a systematic approach towards the issue, both directly within its education portfolio, and by mainstreaming the issue across other areas of DFID operations. It recommends that it is critical that DFID works to embed disability throughout its development programmes to achieve long-term change, even as governments change and key individuals move on
This video highlights some of the challenges faced by deaf children and young people, and the opportunities sign language education offers them
All children in Australia have the right to an inclusive education. However, there are many barriers to the realisation of this right in the lived experience of children and families. Current efforts towards upholding the rights of all children are impeded by a lack of understanding of inclusive education and misappropriation of the term. Additional barriers include negative and discriminatory attitudes and practices, lack of support to facilitate inclusive education, and inadequate education and professional development for teachers and other professionals. Critical to addressing all of these barriers is recognising and disestablishing ableism in Australia.
This paper draws from recent research in addressing gaps in current understanding to provide a firm basis from which to inform research based policy development. Taking a rights-based approach, the paper focuses on developing a clear understanding of inclusive education and identifying strategies to enhance the education of all children in Australia
Students with profound intellectual disabilities disorders (IDDs) have the right to participate in educational opportunities that recognize their unique resources and needs, as do all children. Because of their specific communication challenges, positive relationships with attentive communication partners are critical for success. In fact, the power of positive relationships in schools is recognized to be connected to student well-being more broadly. This article examines the case of one young man with profound IDD and his relationship with his music therapist using a duo-ethnographic informed paradigmatic case study. Video analysis based on multi-voice perspectives is used to generate hermeneutic phenome- nological findings to closely examine the relationship between a young man with profound IDD and a music therapist. The voices of four allied health researchers were also gathered to inform the authors’ construction of an informed commentary on the phenomenon. The results suggest that the essence lay in a combination of attentive, responsive and creative being with the other person over time. Four principles of musical engagement were identified in the video footage as critical to the meaningful relationships through music: the music therapist listens; the music therapist takes responsibility for structure; spontaneous initiation is sought from the young person; and the relationship is built over time. These concepts are contextualized within a discussion of student well-being that is underpinned by positive relationships and leads to students achieving their full potential within diverse school contexts.
This paper provides detail about the context and scale of the challenges of the global shortage of inclusive teachers for children with disabilities. It then outlines five broad issues that need addressing if we are to prepare, recruit and support enough teachers, with appropriate skills, to educate every child, including those with disabilities
A practical guideline for Vocational Education and Training (VET) school teacher to initiate inclusive VET in Kyrgyzstan.
The main objective of this manual is to build capacities to Vocational Education and Training (VET) school teachers and social workers to facilitate inclusive VET. It targets actors working in the disability, education or VET arena to improve their knowledge on disability and inclusive education, so they can advocate for and technically support inclusive VET and general education.
More specifically, the manual will enable stakeholders to:
- Identity people who are excluded from VET ,
- Identify capacities and specific needs of persons with disabilities,
- Share common understanding on Inclusive VET
- Provide basic support to persons with disabilities with appropriate teaching methods
- Facilitate physical accessibility at school,
- Minimize barriers to promote inclusive education
- Planning and setting-up inclusive VET supported by social workers
The manual is designed to be utilized by VET school teachers, Social Workers, Inclusive Educator and Development workers.
"This Fact Sheet on children with disabilities provides a global snapshot of the key issues affecting the lives of children with disabilities and an overview of evidence currently available. It is not a comprehensive review, but rather is intended to provide a starting point for approaching policies and programmes that can make a difference in the lives of these children, their families and their communities. Knowledge and understanding of the barriers and challenges faced by children with disabilities is essential if their rights are to be realised"
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine pre-service special education (PSpE) teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education (IE) for students with special educational needs (SEN) in Bangladesh.
Method: 100 PSpE teachers from a leading teacher education institute in Bangladesh were purposively sampled. A 20-item based survey questionnaire was used to measure participants’ attitudes. Items of the survey were developed from a literature review in which Attitudes Towards Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) by Wilczenski (1992), Concern about Inclusive Education Scale (CIES) by Sharma and Desai (2002), and Interaction with Persons with a Disability (IPD) Scaled by Gething (1994) were considered as the key specialist resources. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were utilised in the analysis.
Results: The results revealed that while the PSpE teachers hold favourable attitudes towards students with SEN, they are concerned about some basic issues of inclusion. Practicum and close contact with children with SEN were found to be important variables which shaped the attitudes of the PSpE teachers. Implications of the findings are discussed and further suggestions are made as to how teacher education institutes may engage PSpE teachers more effectively with their programmes to promote better inclusive practices.
Conclusion: The study suggests that there is a need for providing PSpE teachers with experiential learning prior to school practicum.
Purpose: This paper attempted to profile the contemporary grade level academic performance as well as the frequency, spread and intensity of problem behaviour in relation to a few associated variables, of children adjudged as juvenile delinquents in India.
Method: A cross-sectional exploratory survey design was employed, with randomised convenience sampling of 66 inmates, between 9 and 18 years of age, from two representative Observation Homes. To ascertain their current grade levels, a criterion referenced ‘Grade Level Assessment Protocol’ was prepared exclusively for this study. Another standardised ‘Behaviour Assessment Scale for Indian Children with Mental Retardation, Part B’ was used to profile their problem behaviour.
Results: The contemporary academic performance results satisfy the conventional two-grade discrepancy criteria, usually postulated for identifying children with learning disabilities. Among the associated variables examined in this study, inmates who were booked under sections of the Indian Penal Code showed significantly greater academic grade discrepancy compared to the other children. Similarly, poorer academic performance, greater grade discrepancy, as well as higher frequency, spread and intensity of reported problem behaviour were found among children from intact family backgrounds, where parents were illiterates or educated below primary school level, and more among boys than girls, and among those in the 10-12 year age group.
Conclusions: While these are tentative findings, they call attention to the need for extensive research on the possible links between academic performance, under achievement and learning disabilities, and juvenile delinquency in this country.
“This publication set is a series of five guides designed for anyone who wants to do advocacy to bring about improvements in pre-service teacher education towards more inclusive education. They discuss challenges and barriers to inclusive education in different areas of teacher education and outline ideas for advocates to consider and adapt according to their specific contexts for effective advocacy towards more inclusive practices.” The five guides promote inclusive teacher education outlined in introduction, policy, curriculum, materials and methodology booklets
"This training manual 'Sport and Play for All' provides tips, guidance and advice on disability and inclusion, with the primary aim of enhancing users’ knowledge and practice on inclusion. It brings together many training materials used during the Sports for All Project in Sri Lanka, including materials on disability, social inclusion and models of inclusive sport. It features many games and sports which have been field tested and adapted to enable children with disabilities to participate"
"This paper provides an analysis of the synergies of three human rights treaties from the perspective of the rights of children with disabilities: the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. It has been developed to encourage understanding of how the three treaties mutually reinforce each other, and can be used to strengthen advocacy in respect of children with disabilities"
This report synthesises current evidence on the policy responses which can help bring down the common barriers faced by disabled children in gaining a quality education, across seven inter-dependent strategies – from the family, local communities and national government, through to the international community.
The strategies are: create appropriate legislative frameworks, and set out ambitious national plans for inclusion; provide the capacity, resources and leadership to implement ambitious national plans on inclusion; improve data on disability and education, and build accountability for action; make schools and classrooms accessible and relevant for all; ensure there are enough appropriately trained teachers for all; challenge attitudes which reinforce and sustain discrimination; create an enabling environment to support inclusive education, including through cross-sectoral policies and strategies that reduce exclusion.
Actions to be taken by national governments to achieve these strategies are presented.
Case studies in India, Italy, Ethopia, Bolivia, Bangladesh, Mozambique, Gambia, Burkino Faso and Palestine are provided.
Purpose: Inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classrooms has become the focus of extensive research in education. It has both academic and social benefits for all students, such as providing opportunities for communication and social interaction. The evaluation of teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion appears to be a good method to determine the success of the programme. Although this has been widely researched in many countries, the available evidence is not consistent. This study was undertaken in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India, to measure and compare teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with hearing impairment in schools.
Method: A questionnaire developed by Giles and Tanner (1995) measuring three domains - (1) effective strategies for meeting the needs of all students, (2) the support for educational change in their district, and (3) inclusive education - was modified in keeping with cultural and geographical variations and used as the test tool. A hundred teachers of various Government and non-Government schools in 2 districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, participated in the study.
Results: Higher scores on domain 1 indicate that teachers feel effective strategies to benefit students with disabilities should be implemented in schools. The results also indicate that most teachers are agreeable to the inclusion of students with disabilities in their classrooms. Significant difference in attitudes was observed, based on the teachers’ qualifications, teaching experience, gender, level of teaching and management.
Conclusion: The study concludes that there is a need for intervention to foster more positive attitudes among teachers, if the implementation of inclusive education is to succeed. It also has implications for the framing of laws and policies for children with hearing impairments.
South Africa has adopted an inclusive education policy in order to address barriers to learning in the education system. However, the implementation of this policy is hampered by the lack of teachers’ skills and knowledge in differentiating the curriculum to address a wide range of learning needs. In this paper we provided a background to inclusive education policy in South Africa and a brief exposition of an instructional design approach, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) that addresses a wide range of learning needs in a single classroom. We reported on a workshop conducted with teachers and therapists in South Africa as a first attempt to introduce UDL in this context. Knowledge of UDL was judged to be appropriate and useful by the course participants in the South African context as a strategy for curriculum differentiation in inclusive classrooms. Furthermore, knowledge of the UDL framework facilitates dialogue between teachers and therapists and provides a relatively simple and comprehensive approach for curriculum differentiation. We therefore conclude that there is potential for this approach that can be expanded through further teacher training.
Background: Empirical evidence abounds showing the impact of perceived control on subjective well-being in several spheres of functioning, including academic performance. At tertiary institutions, such as the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana, little is known about the needs of students with disabilities, as very few persons with disabilities attend institutions of higher learning.
Objectives: This study examined the relationship between perceptions of control and the academic and subjective well-being of students with disabilities.
Method: A total of 69 students with disabilities participated in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Using trusted control and subjective well-being scales, data were subject to descriptive analyses.
Results: Consistent with previous works, perceived control increased with increased subjective well-being, moderated by gender. In addition, forms of secondary control appeared to aid primary control in the tenacious pursuit of goals. However, neither perceived control nor self-esteem was predictive of academic performance.
Conclusion: Limitations of sample size notwithstanding, the findings of the study can be considered provocative. Implications for clinical utility in facilitating context-specific interventions for this marginalised group are discussed. Replication with a larger sample size in other tertiary institutions is suggested for future work.
This policy brief provides an overview of Handicap International’s 2012 policy paper on inclusive education which explains Handicap International’s current work on inclusive education and offers perspectives for the period 2011-2015
PP Brief No 8
One Woman’s journey through the Trials and Triumphs of Disability, Disabled Peoples International 8th World Assembly 2011 Durban, South Africa, October 10–13, 2011. When embarking on my career as a teacher at a special school in South Africa, I never thought that a motor vehicle accident would place me in the position where my learners with disabilities suddenly saw me as an ally. Little did I realise the chasm that exists between able-bodied people and people with disabilities, or the remarkable role I would find myself in whilst actively addressing disability and Inclusive Education issues. My experiences with disability in South Africa drew encouraging attention from delegates at the Disabled People’s International 8th World Assembly when I shared my story. The resounding positive response affirmed that my experiences are not unique to nationality, gender, race or age, and are typical of the time and country in which I live, where people with disabilities are considered to have little potential, and woman with disabilities are further marginalised. In the infancy of our democracy, we are still in the early days of attending to equity amongst all South Africans. This story comprises both a narrative and a graphic presentation which run parallel, although not always telling an identical story; they complement one another and should be experienced simultaneously. Ultimately, it relates the success that can be achieved by pro-active people with disabilities as members of the South African society within their own spheres of knowledge and skill to change attitudes and practices of people without disabilities in education and local communities.
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion