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Disability and nutrition programming: evidence and learning (Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Report No. 6)

HOLDEN, Jenny
CORBY, Nick
February 2019

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This document provides a rapid review of the evidence on approaches to ensuring people with disabilities are reached through nutrition programming, focusing on children, adolescents, and women of reproductive age in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The purpose of this review is to support DFID advisers and partners designing and implementing programmes with nutrition components to ensure they are more inclusive of people with disabilities. After outlining the methodology in Section 2, Section 3 includes an overview of available evidence on what works to ensure nutrition programming reaches people with disabilities, as well as an assessment of the strength of the evidence, and highlighting key research gaps. Section 4 provides a summary on factors affecting access for people with disabilities, and Section 5 concludes by drawing a series of considerations for policy and programming to ensure that people with disabilities are not left behind when it comes to government-led and development partner-led programmes to tackle malnutrition. Case studies of approaches are included in annex 1 to give further insights on promising practices and key learnings

Creating an inclusive school environment

DOUGLAS, Susan
Ed
2019

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This publication draws together research and learning from around the world, in papers which highlight the need for inclusive education and some of the steps being taken to implement it. 

The settings brought to life here reveal the work of teachers, leaders and policy makers in geographically and culturally diverse situations. In each of the chapters we see the challenges they face and the significant efforts they make to ensure access to, and engagement with, a quality education for all children. The collection includes 15 case studies:

 

Special educational needs and disability section:

  • Teaching for All: mainstreaming inclusive education in South Africa
  • Successful inclusive education starts with teachers: what have we learned? A multi-country case study
  • Teaching English as a second language to the visually impaired in disadvantaged contexts: a case study from Chiapas, Mexico
  • The Theatre of the Classroom

Displaced populations section

  • Teaching on the run: safe learning spaces for internally displaced persons
  • Developing resilience through English language teaching in youth centres across Iraq
  • Capacity building for inclusive classrooms: the Living Together training
  • Integrating Syrian refugee children and their parents into Lebanese early education systems

Gender and inclusion in the classroom section

  • A gender equality and social inclusion approach to teaching and learning: lessons from the Girls’ Education Challenge
  • Teacher development and gender equality in five Nigerian states
  • Creating gender-inclusive schools in Turkey: the ETCEP project in action
  • Education, English language, and girls’ development: exploring gender-responsive policies and practices in Nepal

Minority ethnic groups in the classroom

  • Social inclusion and the role of English language education: making a transition from school to higher education in India
  • Storytelling for diverse voices
  • Inclusive education in marginalised contexts: the San and Ovahimba learners in Namibia

 

Inclusive urban mobility and getting to school safely in developing countries

HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
June 2018

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For teenagers in developing countries, there is no greater threat to life than road traffic crashes: road crashes are the leading cause of preventable death of youth aged 15 to 29 years, and the second cause for those aged 5 to 14 years.(6) The risks are even higher for children with disabilities, who are also more exposed to non-fatal injuries from road crashes.

In this thematic brief, the importance of inclusive urban planning is emphasised. Urban mobility and road safety challenges discussed include: safe crossing points over roads and collective transport (particularly buses). 

 

Two case studies are provided: Safer access to school for disabled students in Kenya; and School access and pedestrian safety improvements in Democratic Republic of Congo

 

Recommendations for improvements in policies and actions are given under the headings:

  • 1. Strengthening the policy and financial framework for safe and inclusive mobility, based on evidence and through participative processes
  • 2. Removing the barriers to safe and accessible mobility, focusing on: the built environment; transport and vehicles; people

Disability gaps in educational attainment and literacy - The price of exclusion : disability and education.

MALE, Chata
WODON, Quentin
December 2017

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This note provides an analysis of gaps in educational opportunities for children with disabilities. It also measures the impact at the margin of exclusion related to various types of disabilities on education outcomes for children. Four main outcomes are considered: whether children ever enroll in school, whether they complete their primary education, whether they complete their secondary education, and whether they are literate. The analysis is implemented using the most recent census data available for a total of 19 countries.

School Violence and Bullying: Global Status Report

UNESCO
January 2017

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"A 2012 report by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children1 notes that ‘more than one billion children around the world attend school. Many of these children enjoy their right to be taught in a safe and stimulating environment. For many others, however, schooling does not guarantee such opportunity. These girls and boys are exposed to bullying, sexual and gender-based violence, corporal punishment and other forms of violence… Many are also exposed to schoolyard fighting, gang violence, assault with weapons, and sexual and gender-based violence by their own peers. New manifestations of violence are also affecting children’s lives, notably the phenomenon of cyberbullying via mobile phones, computers, websites and social networking sites. The symposium is one of a series of international meetings UNESCO has organised to address school violence and bullying and it is intended to promote evidence-based action by educators, policy makers, professionals and practitioners in the education, health and other sectors. Consequently, this report aims to provide education sector stakeholders with a framework for planning and implementing effective programmes to prevent and respond to school violence and bullying as part of wider efforts to address violence against children." 

School and classroom disabilities inclusion guide for low- and middle-income countries

BULAT, Jennae
HAYES, Anne
et al
January 2017

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This guide provides strategies and recommendations for developing inclusive classrooms and schools. We specifically address the needs of Sub-Saharan African countries, which lack the resources for implementing inclusive education. However, our strategies and recommendations can be equally useful in other contexts where inclusive education practices have not yet been adopted. Strategies for enhancing existing school and classroom environment and instruction include: modify the physical environment; modify classroom managment strategies; ensure social inclusion; adopt best instructional practices; apply strategies for students with sensory disabilities; and use assistive technologies. Strategies for adopting response to intervention include: tier by tier implementation; individualised education plans; and planning for school wide adoption of inclusive practices and a multilevel system of support.

 

 

Learning generation. Investing in education for a changing world.

THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON FINANCING GLOBAL EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY
September 2016

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The International Commission on Financing Global Education Opportunity was set up to reinvigorate the case for investing in education and to chart a pathway for increased investment in order to develop the potential of all of the world’s young people. To achieve its goals, the Commission proposes a range of measures to finance education and a set of strategic reforms necessary for ensuring finance delivers real learning results. These actions aim to engage domestic and international partners across governments, the private sector, and civil society. This report summarizes the Commission’s findings and conclusions. It draws upon new research by partners around the world, new expert analysis of the existing evidence base, and wide-reaching global consultations with practitioners, education providers, ministers of finance and education, policymakers, and partners in education. More than 300 partners in 105 countries engaged in this process. The report also draws on the conclusions of dedicated expert panels on technology, health and education, and finance, as well as a youth panel. The Education Commission concludes that it is possible to get all young people into school and learning within a generation – despite the scale of the challenge, we can create a Learning Generation. 

Inclusive education : what, why, and how : a handbook for programm implementers

HEIJNEN-MAATHUIS, Els
March 2016

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This handbook has been developed specifically for Save the Children programme staff, implementing partners, and practitioners supporting education programmes in any context – development, emergency, or protracted crisis. The Inclusive Education Working Group​ (IEWG) recognized that inclusive education begins with the work being done by education staff in the field, and designed this handbook specifically with them in mind. Guidance has also been structured along the project cycle, so that it may be useful to programmes regardless of their current stage of implementation. This handbook is designed to provide guidance through the different attitudes and barriers that could be causing educational exclusion, as well as to identify key strategies to address them. The project steps are situational analysis, programme design, implementation design, implementation and monitoring, and evaluation and lessons learnt. Case studies presented include: community-based EMIS in Tajikistan; designing for gender equality in Sierra Leone; probing questions lead to deeper analysis and improved programmes (in Uganda); education in emergencies (in Syria); school self-evaluation in Lao PDR. Quick reference charts and further resources are offered for each step

Washington Group presentation

LOEB, Mitchell
2015

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A brief history of the Washington Group on Disability Statistics and their development of standard questions for the collection of statistics on disability worldwide is presented. A short set of 6 questions was originally developed and an extended set of 30-35 was finalised in 2009. Two modules have been developed in partnership with UNICEF for children: one for 2-4 year olds and one for 5-17 year olds.  A module concerned with inclusive education has also been developed

Leave no one behind : the real bottom billion

BHATKAL, Tanvi
SAMMAN, Emma
STUART, Elizabeth
September 2015

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"This paper sets out why the ‘leave no one behind’ agenda should be a key priority (i) in implementing the SDGs in all countries and (ii) in assessing whether or not governments have met them. It underlines how deeply entrenched marginalisation is, how vulnerabilities often overlap to amplify multiple disadvantages, and just how little we know about some groups that are likely to be deprived"

Human Rights

www.macao-tz.org
December 2014

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Malezi AIDS Care Awareness Organization (MACAO) is a non-profit organization reaching out to neglected Indigenous people in Ngorongoro District, Arusha Region of Northern Tanzania.  Macao founded in 2003, Macao is a humanitarian organization that provides assistance to approximately 200,000 Indigenous Maasai community in Ngorongoro district for addressing needs of water and sanitation, food security, health Care Research, Education, Research environment, Maasai Traditional Research, Human Rights and sustainable economic development by strengthening their livelihoods.  In addition to responding to major relief situations, MACAO focuses on long-term community development through over 4 Area Development Project. We welcome the donors and volunteers to join us in this programs, we are wolking in ruro villages.

Assistance to victims of landmines and explosive remnants of war : guidance on child-focused victim assistance

KASACK, Sebastien
November 2014

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This resource presents guidance on child-focused victim assistance. The first section contains the acknowledgements, foreword, acronyms and chapters one through four outlining victim assistance introductory information, stakeholders, international standards, principles, coordination and cross-cutting issues.  Another six stand-alone documents are available for the six technical components comprise data collection and analysis, emergency and continuing medical care, rehabilitation, psychological and psychosocial support, social and economic inclusion, and laws and policies. The final chapter contains resources and references that users may find helpful

Inclusive learning : children with disabilities and difficulties in learning : topic guide

HOWGEGO, Catherine
MILES, Susie
MYERS, Juliette
September 2014

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"This HEART Topic Guide brings together evidence on what works in inclusive learning for children aged 3 to 12 years with disabilities and/or difficulties in learning in low and middle income countries, and explores the role of inclusive approaches in contributing to inclusive societies and ultimately inclusive growth. The Topic Guide addresses some of the contested and debated issues around terminology, labelling, and segregated, integrated and inclusive schooling; reviews the limited evidence that exists from low and middle income countries around the outcomes of inclusive learning; and identifies future research directions"

Note: This resource is available in both pdf and online formats

Writing the rights : highlighting the international standards on the rights of victims of armed violence

ČEVRA, Nerina
HUNTER, Jane
March 2014

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This report is an analysis of international and regional legal and policy provisions on the rights of victims of armed violence. This study highlights different themes related to the rights of victims of armed violence and notes the evolving trends or emerging (or existent) norms evident in international law and policy relating to that particular theme. It is aimed at scholars, advocates, activists and government representatives working to further the rights of victims of armed violence as an international policy agenda. The report concludes that much more needs to be done by states to ensure that the rights of all victims of armed violence are protected and that assistance is provided in a way that addresses victims’ particular circumstances and specific needs

A guide for community health workers supporting children with disabilities

ADAMS, Mel
et al
2014

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"This resource is to be used as a guide for Community Health Workers (CHWs) to support parents in promoting the development and independence of their child with neurodevelopmental disabilities...In line with current thinking, this resource places the emphasis on promoting activity and participation in a child’s daily life activities rather than therapies that try to fix ‘the problem’ (Skelton and Rosenbaum, 2010). As such, this manual provides ideas on how to support the child during activities of daily living – taking particular account of their physical and communication abilities and needs – and does not include hands-on rehabilitation techniques that focus on specific impairments. It does however provide guidance on overall management and prevention of further disability. The materials in this manual can be used as the basis for a programme of intervention that progresses through two stages"

Note: As indicated when clicking on the resource link below, the manual is available once contact details are entered or alternatively user can contact mel@maits.org.uk to receive a free pdf copy of this resource

The state of the world's children 2014 in numbers : every child counts

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF)
January 2014

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This report highlights the critical role data and monitoring play in realising children’s rights. It presents an updated compendium of statistics and data (which has been produced thirty years after the initial report) relating to the position of children throughout the world but particularly within the Global South. The data indicators cover a vast range: from demography, health and education, to rate of progression, child mortality, and disparities by household wealth. It emphasises that credible data, disseminated effectively and used correctly, make change possible to target interventions that help right the wrong of exclusion by identifying needs, supporting advocacy, gauging progress and holding duty bearers to account

School readiness and transitions

BRITTO, Pia
LIMLINGAN, Maria
July 2012

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A companion to the Child Friendly Schools Manual, this module provides guidance to policymakers, educators, programme professionals and practitioners on how to promote holistic early learning and development. It can be used in several ways, including: as a resource document for early childhood programmes, preparing children and families for primary school entry; and as an advocacy document for promoting school readiness practices in the transition to the early grades of primary school. It is intended as general guidance adaptable to particular contexts and settings.

Implementing inclusive education : a commonwealth handbook to implementing article 24 of the UNCRPD

RIESER, Richard
2012

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This guide presents "a picture of the future is constructed by critically examining programmes geared towards inclusive education across the Commonwealth and beyond. Article 24 of the UNCRPD requires the development of an inclusive education system at all levels, where children and students with disabilities can be part of their local school alongside their non-disabled peers, with the right support and accommodation to develop academically and socially. It has been necessary to revise and update this publication as more countries have since signed and ratified the Convention. Inclusion of children and students with disabilities is an issue of values and morality. We should engage in restructuring our education systems to make this a reality, as everyone benefits and our societies are stronger and more democratic as a result"
Note: Two DVDs attached to the cover of the book hard copies with four hours of film extracts of implementing inclusive education

Early childhood development and disability : a discussion paper

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
2012

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"This discussion paper provides a brief overview of issues pertaining to early childhood development (ECD) and disability. It lays the foundation for a long-term strategic and collaborative process aimed at improving the developmental outcomes, participation and protection of young children with disabilities. Essential to this effort is dialogue between United Nations agencies and relevant stakeholders to identify sustainable strategies which build on existing efforts, and expand on multisectoral approaches to guarantee the rights of young children with disabilities and their families"

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