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Poverty and disability in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review

BANKS, Lena Morgon
KUPER, Hannah
POLACK, Sarah
December 2017

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Disability and poverty are believed to operate in a cycle, with each reinforcing the other. While agreement on the existence of a link is strong, robust empirical evidence substantiating and describing this potential association is lacking. Consequently, a systematic review was undertaken to explore the relationship between disability and economic poverty, with a focus on the situation in low and middle income countries (LMICs).

Ten electronic databases were searched to retrieve studies of any epidemiological design, published between 1990-March 2016 with data comparing the level of poverty between people with and without disabilities in LMICs (World Bank classifications). Poverty was defined using economic measures (e.g. assets, income), while disability included both broad assessments (e.g. self-reported functional or activity limitations) and specific impairments/disorders. Data extracted included: measures of association between disability and poverty, population characteristics and study characteristics. Proportions of studies finding positive, negative, null or mixed associations between poverty and disability were then disaggregated by population and study characteristics.

 

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204881

Extra costs of living with a disability: A review and agenda for research

MITRA, Sophie
PALMER, Michael
KIM, Hoolda
MONT, Daniel
GROCE, Nora
April 2017

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Background
There has been a growing interest in disability and poverty on the international research and policy stages. Poverty assessments for persons with disabilities may be affected by the experience of extra costs associated with a disability.

Objective
This article provides a systematized review of the global literature on the direct costs associated with living with a disability at the individual or household level.

Methods
We searched three databases for peer-reviewed journal articles that estimated extra costs associated with disability: Econlit, SocIndex and PubMed.

Results
We found 20 such studies conducted in 10 countries. These studies were predominantly from high-income countries. Although studies were heterogeneous (e.g., in terms of disability measures and cost methodologies), estimated costs were sizeable and some patterns were consistent across studies. Costs varied according to the severity of disability, life cycle and household composition. Highest costs were observed among persons with severe disabilities, and among persons with disabilities living alone or in small sized households.

Disability and Health Journal
Volume 10, Issue 4, October 2017, Pages 475-484
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dhjo.2017.04.007

The economic lives of people with disabilities in Vietnam

PALMER, M
GROCE, N
MONT, D
NGUYEN, O H
MITRA, S
July 2015

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Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how
they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs
gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour) that helps to maintain living standards
in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to
all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.

The disabled beggar : a literature review

GROCE, Nora
LOEB, Marie
MURRAY, Barbara
September 2014

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Beggars with disabilities are among the poorest and most disadvantaged in society. Yet they are virtually invisible in the policy agenda of countries around the world, and are often overlooked in programme and advocacy efforts to improve opportunities for people with disabilities in general. This literature review originated as part of an exploratory study of beggars with disabilities in Ethiopia, published by the Leonard Cheshire Disability and Inclusive Development Centre in collaboration with the ILO in 2013 based on fieldwork undertaken by Professor Groce in Addis Abba. It has been updated and published separately as a contribution to debates on the social and economic inclusion of people with disabilities, on poverty reduction and social protection

Gender, Equality and Diversity Branch, Working Paper No. 1

Effective poverty reduction and empowering women : a win-win situation?|CCTs in Latin America

HERZOG, Karolin
October 2011

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"Building on the conceptual issues surrounding the discussion of the feminisation of anti-poverty programmes and its translation into CCTs (Conditional cash transfer programmes), this paper therefore calls for more deliberately gender-sensitive programme designs to address women's capabilities for income generation and for the inclusion of men in order to transform gender relations and create more equality"
Discussion papers on social protection, Issue No 12

Disability and poverty in developing countries : a snapshot from the World Health Survey

MITRA, Sophie
POSARAC, Aleksandra
VICK, Brandon
April 2011

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This paper outlines the economic and poverty situation of working-age persons with disabilities and their households in 15 developing countries. Using data from the World Health Survey, the study presents estimates of disability prevalence, individual-level economic well-being, household-level economic well-being, and multidimensional poverty measure. Detailed appendices are provided to support the results of the study. This paper is useful for people interested in the social and economic conditions of people with disabilities in developing countries
Social Protection Discussion Paper No 1109

Access to mainstream microfinance services for persons with disabilities : lessons learned from Uganda

BWIRE, Flavia Nakabuye
MUKASA, George
MERSLAND, Roy
2009

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This article reports on a pilot project in Uganda which aims to enable persons with disabilities to have access to mainstream microfinance services. The project is described and lessons learned are highlighted, including the finding that all micro finance institutions (MFIs) report an increase in the number of clients with disabilities served. The article is useful for people interested in mainstreaming microfinance services for people with disabilities

FAO working in support of persons with disabilities

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Ed
August 2006

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The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the key linkages between poverty, disability, nutrition and agricultural production. The paper also reports on some of the FAO's work on disability and disability rights and highlights 5 FAO projects / pilot models - ranging from mushroom production to blacksmithing - that target rural people living with disabilities. It would be useful for anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in development policy and practice

A case study on reaching the poorest & vulnerable

AHMED, Rokeya
2006

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This paper outlines a case study focusing on the very poorest people in a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme in urban areas of Bangladesh. WASH focuses on economic access through a cross-subsidy approach, and uses poverty ranking by community to identify the hard-core poor. Two case studies are presented; one about a blind elderly man and the other about a frail elderly woman. The paper would be useful for people interested learning about WASH programmes for poor people in urban areas in Bangladesh

The contributions of ICTs to pro-poor growth

BATCHELOR, Simon
SCOTT, Nigel
TAYLOR, Nigel
March 2005

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A background paper prepared for the DAC Network on Poverty Reduction. It provides a useful overview of definitions of ICT, pro-poor growth thinking and impacts on poverty

Improving the health of the world's poorest people [whole issue]

CARR, Dara
2004

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This bulletin examines the facets of the rich-poor health divide, factors that play a role in in health disaparities, and approaches for improving the health of the poor (socio-economic health service and health financing). It also provides indicators for monitoring progress to diminishing the disparities. In recent years a great deal of research has become available on health inequalities within low-income countries. This report provides the latest data on how the world's poorest people are faring on key indicators of reproductive and child health

Chronic poverty and disability in Uganda

LWANGA-NTALE, Charles
2003

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The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of long-duration poverty and disability. It seeks to summarise the current state of knowledge about disability and chronic poverty in Uganda; discuss factors that lead to disabled people living in perpetual poverty; describe efforts to address the long-term poverty of disabled people in Uganda; and propose policy interventions aimed at the inclusion of disabled people in Uganda's development process

Social capital and coping with economic shocks : an analysis of stunting of South African children

CARTER, M R
MALUCCIO, J A
2002

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This study explores household coping capacity in relation to social context and community supporting networks, using data on household responses to economic shocks and their effects on child nutritional status. It makes a critical point, supported by evidence, that households in communities with more social capital seem better able to weather economic shocks

Poverty in a wealthy economy : the case of Nigeria

THOMAS, Saji
CANAGARAJAH, Sudharshan
2002

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This paper describes the nature and evolution of poverty in Nigeria between 1985 and 1992. It highlights the potential wealth of the Nigerian economy and examines how economic policies pursued in the 1980s and 1990s impacted on economic growth and welfare. The paper proposes that promoting broad-based growth and targeted interventions in health, education and infrastructure need to be central strategies in the fight against poverty in Nigeria

Health - a global public good? [whole issue]

INTERNATIONAL POVERTY AND HEALTH NETWORK (IPHN)
January 2002

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This is the final issue of a bulletin produced by the International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN). This issue looks at whether health can be considered a global public good. It defines what public goods are, and moves on to examine whether health can be considered to be one

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