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UNESCO guidelines on language and content in HIV- and AIDS-related materials

UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
January 2006

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This document contains guidelines on the use of language and content in HIV- and AIDS-related documents and contexts. As stigma and discrimination are often attached to the disease, the use of culturally-sensitive and appropriate terminology and ethical considerations in the production of materials are vital. Contains seven tables addressing commonly used terminology; stigmatising terms and expressions; culturally sensitive language; precision and differentiation of certain terms; cultural issues and practices; audio and visual content. Table 5 presents some specific examples. Each problematic term or approach is briefly discussed and provided with an alternative/preferred substitute. These guidelines are an essential tool for anyone working in the field of HIV and AIDS

Who is in...and for what? An analysis of stakeholders' influences in CBR

FINKENFLUGEL, Harry
January 2006

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"CBR builds on the active involvement of people with disabilities, volunteers, community rehabilitation workers, trainers, planners, and policy makers and can therefore best be viewed as a ‘web of interactions’ between and among these people." This paper uses a stakeholder analyses to explore CBR working processes
Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 17, No 1

Natural sign language and proficiency in learning Setswana sign language and curriculum content among students with hearing impairment in Botswana

MUKHOPADHYAY, Sourav
SISON, Waldetrudes
2006

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Language as 'mother tongue' is the first language in which one can express oneself fully as a tool for communication. Children acquire the mother tongue with seeming ease. Language theorists have offered various explanations about how children acquire and learn how to use language. The common element in the explanations is the innate force or power within the child and the opportunities for communication within the environment. Children with hearing impairment do not learn oral language the way it is acquired by hearing children. Because of the impairment, gestural communication which is the forerunner of language acquisition in normal children, are elaborated and end up as homesign or self-styled communication systems. This paper explores the relationship between homesign language as mother tongue of children with hearing impairment and their performance in learning the academic subjects and the second sign language formally taught in school

An analysis of reading errors of dyslexic readers in Hindi and English

GUPTA, Ashum
JAMAL, Gulgoona
2006

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[Authors' abstract] : The present study examined the nature of reading errors made by dyslexic readers in Hindi and English. A detailed analysis of error type showed 60% and 57% of phonological errors; 15% and 35% of orthographic errors; 25% and 7% of mixed errors; and 0.38% and 0.94% of unrelated errors in Hindi and English, respectively. Further, in both Hindi and English, the majority (65% & 69%, respectively) were the scaffolding errors, followed by the errors preserving the initial phoneme (22% & 23%, respectively), errors preserving the final phoneme (9% & 6%, respectively) and errors with orthographic overlap (4% & 2%, respectively). In Hindi, a far greater percentage of nonword (89%) than word (11%) errors was found, whereas in English, 54% of nonword and 46% of word errors was found. A significant correlation was found between reading accuracy in Hindi and in English. The findings are discussed in terms of linguistic interdependence hypothesis and orthographic transparency

Disaster preparedness for vulnerable populations : determining effective strategies for communicating risk, warning, and response

SULLIVAN, Helen T
HAKKINEN, Markku T
January 2006

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"Vulnerable populations, including those with disabilities, the elderly, the situationally disabled, and those with special needs are at particular risk in a disaster. Communicating preparedness and warning information is critical for these groups...This paper explores the challenges faced by vulnerable populations and discusses strategies that may prove effective in providing preparedness information to these groups. An ongoing project to develop accessible Tsunami preparedness information in Japan is described and the applicability of the results globally is discussed"

networklearning.org

NETWORK LEARNING
December 2005

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This website aims to make high quality manuals, field books and training courses easily available to groups who need them (free of cost to those in the South but with a contribution of $25 requested from those in the North); to encourage colleagues to be open to new knowledge and skills, to plan and stick to self-guided learning; to introduce topics which may be new to some people an to link users to resources, useful organisations, websites and materials; and to provide a place for users working in different countries in the South to stay informed. The resources are available online and cover a variety of topics in a clear, easy to understand format. It provides a number of guidelines including guidelines for writing reports [http://www.networklearning.org/writing-reports.html] and a simple guide to the web [http://www.networklearning.org/web.html]

Getting the message across : the mass media and the response to AIDS

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
December 2005

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The mass media have the potential to provide a platform for discussion, communication and education on HIV and AIDS, giving a voice to people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), challenging stigma and discrimination, lobbying policy makers and building partnerships and capacity through sharing and transferring skills and expertise. However, mass media can also disseminate misleading messages, while HIV/AIDS communication competes with other topics for broadcasting time and audiences. This report presents three case studies of effective and creative use of the media in South Africa: Soul City and Soul Buddyz adopt an 'edutainment' approach, aiming both to educate and entertain; the Community Health Media Trust produces a series of programmes addressing issues concerning people with HIV/AIDS; Takalani makes television and radio programmes, to encourage small children to develop self-esteem, offer positive models and destigmatise PLWHA. Detailing the lessons learned from these experiences, the report looks at how target audiences are chosen, how partnerships are formed, how topics and ideas are developed and what ethical issues arise

Telling stories, understanding lives, working toward change

COPLEY, Kath
HAYLOR, Graham
SAVAGE, William
December 2005

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This paper considers the importance of listening to people's stories when working towards improving the lives and livelihoods of individuals and communities. "Stories are helping us learn more about the livelihoods of the fishers and farmers with whom we work in eastern India. We are engaged with these communities in processes and activities aimed at improving their lives and promoting changes in government policy and service delivery in aquaculture and fisheries. Stories are told in several languages by women and men who fish and farm, about their lives, their livelihoods and significant changes they have experienced. We also record stories as narrated to us by colleague-informants. The written and spoken word, photographs, drawings and films - all are used to document the stories of people’s lives, sometimes prompted by questions as simple as 'What do people talk about in the village?' Through the power of language, stories can be an entry point into livelihoods programming, monitoring and evaluation, conflict transformation and ultimately a way of giving life to a rights-based approach to development"

What is e-health (5) : a research agenda for eHealth through stakeholder consultation and policy context review

JONES, Ray
et al
November 2005

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This article reports a study that explored the concerns of professional and lay stakeholders regarding future developments of eHealth in the UK and reviewed relevant policy to produce recommendations for eHealth research. It concludes that the scope of eHealth research (grouped under four headings: using, processing, sharing, controlling information) derived empirically from this study corresponds with 'textbook' descriptions of informatics. Stakeholders would like eHealth research to include outcomes such as improved health or quality of life, but such research may be long term while changes in information technology are rapid. Longer-term research questions need to be concerned with human behavior and our use of information, rather than particular technologies A parallel literature review was carried out by others and has been reported elsewhere

Voices for change : tuning in to community radio [whole issue]

INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES (IDS)
November 2005

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This issue of ID21 highlights the role of community media, and especially community radio. Through case studies and brief analytical articles, it examines some of the political, legal and regulatory challenges to the sustainability of community radio, and the difficulty of assessing the social impact of this sector

Technological convergence and regulation : challenges facing developing countries [whole issue]

BEZZINA, J
SANCHEZ, B
Eds
November 2005

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This special issue, produced with the support of InfoDev, marked the World Summit for the Information Society (WSIS) meeting in Tunis (16-18 November 2005). It focuses on technological advances and their implications for regulatory systems, particularly in developing countries. Topics include: new technologies and regulatory regimes; telecommunication reforms in developing countries; structural change in African mobile telecommunications; Internet; broadband technologies and services in sub-Saharan Africa; local software and content production in developing countries; outsourcing in developing countries. Articles are aimed at telecommunications specialists and researchers

ICTs : information and communication technologies for the poor

TORERO, Maximo
VON BRAUN, Joachim
November 2005

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This 'issue brief' describes the proliferation of electronically communicated information, which has accelerated economic and social change across all areas of human activity worldwide. It observes that the rapid growth of ICTs in developing countries is partly a result of very low initial access, and therefore in absolute terms developing countries are still well behind the developed world in access to ICTs. It concludes that ICTs offer an opportunity for development, but not a panacea. For the potential benefits of ICTs to be realized in developing countries, many prerequisites need to be put in place: prompt deregulation, effective competition among service providers, free movement and adoption of technologies, targeted and competitive subsidies to reduce the access gap, and institutional arrangements to increase the use of ICTs in the provision of public goods. The paper advocates for the importance of all three "Cs": connectivity, capability to use the new tools, and relevant content provided in accessible and useful forms

Building community on the airwaves

MENON, Jaya
September 2005

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The article shares the impact that Anna Radio in Chennai, the country's first community radio has had two years down the line on the community. Although it is gaining popularity their aim is to make programmes with the cheapest resources available and getting a community to decide on the content. The focus areas are education, health, environment, women's issues and community development. There are live phone-ins from two slum colonies to discuss day-to-day civic or social problems including drinking water shortage, bad roads and transport. Other programmes are aimed at improving quality of life including teaching the slum dwellers to engage their time creating art from scrap and speak about this empowering experience

Tele-neurosurgery facility inaugurated in Banglore hospital

September 2005

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A report on the inauguration of the tele-neurosurgery facility at Manipal Hospital in Bangalore. The facility will allow access to consultants working in the neurosurgical intensive care unit at the hospital and the unit will additionally provide continuous medical education in the form of talks, workshops and live surgical demonstrations

Handhelds for health : SATELLIFE’S experiences in Africa and Asia

SATELLIFE
July 2005

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This report describes the SATELLIFE experience in implementing handheld computer projects to support health-care providers and institutions in a dozen countries in Asia and Africa. It captures SATELLIFE's experience and lessons learned as a 16-year veteran of using ICTs for health and an early adopter of handheld computers in low-resource environments. It also provide some pointers to other organisations that may benefit from their knowledge and experience, to optimize their own use of ICT in general or handhelds in particular

The other side of the river : cyberspace comes to the Amazon

RÊGO, Fausto
June 2005

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This report describes the 'Saúde e Alegria' (Health and Happiness) project (http://www.saudeealegria.org.br/ ) developed by RITS (Red de Información para el Tercer Sector), a member of APC in Brazil, with the support of the Avina Foundation and the Institute for Connectivity in the Americas. It shows the impact of the project on the community, including a case where the internet provided access to snake bite information after a local girl was bitten

The social implications of free software

NORONHA, Frederick
May 2005

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This article focuses on the prevalence and utilisation of free software in South Asia. The article discusses the effectiveness and merits of introduction of free / open source software in less-affluent countries, and how they contribute to business and education

Communities of practice and networks : reviewing two perspectives on social learning

CUMMINGS, Sarah
VAN ZEE, Arin
May 2005

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This article examines the similarities between the concepts of 'community of practice' and 'networking for learning'. This article examines the common elements, and discusses the approaches, the characteristics, theoretical background and importance for development of each model. Next, similarities based on conceptions of social learning are explored. Finally, it is argued that communities of practice and networks for learning are part of the same continuum with varying degrees of formality, ranging from informal communities of practice to highly formal networks for learning. This article provides a valuable, relatively accessible introduction to the ideas of "networking" and "community of practice", discusses how they have evolved and explores how they can be useful to the development sector

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