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Design journey of an affordable manual standing wheelchair

SHAIKH-MOHAMMED, Javeed
DASH, Swostik Sourav
SARDA, Vivek
SUJATHA, S
2021

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Purpose: Only 1 in 10 people with disabilities can access assistive devices, underlining the critical need for low-cost assistive products. This paper describes the design evolution of a manual user-operated standing wheelchair (SWC), translating from prototype to product.


Methods: The SWC design has been refined over 5 years through multiple iterations based on comments from user trials. The SWC product, Arise, provides standing functionality, facile outdoor mobility, afford- ability, customisability, and is aesthetically pleasing. A one-time fitting and training ensure optimal effort for operation, correct posture, and comfortable user experience. The SWC accommodates users of differ- ent sizes and body weights (up to 110kg) and minimises user effort with the use of a gas spring. Incorporating discrete adjustments enables customisation while retaining the advantages of mass manu- facturing, which is necessary for ensuring affordability.

 

Results: The SWC has been field-tested and well received by over 100 wheelchair users, and Arise was launched recently by the industry partner.


Conclusions: It should be noted that RESNA cautions on the use of any standing device without medical consultation. Nevertheless, with appropriate dissemination and awareness, it is anticipated that the afford- able SWC product, Arise, will immensely benefit the eligible users and make a difference in their quality of life.

Deaf people in Pacific Island countries. A design for the Pacific deaf strenthening program

JENKIN, Elena
WATERS, Philip
SEN, Krishneer
ADAM, Robert
2019

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Pacific Disability Forum (PDF) is committed to advancing the rights of people with disabilities living in Pacific Island Countries (PICs). Developing an evidence base to understand more about deaf children and adults’ experiences and priorities will better assist communities, DPOs, organisations and governments to plan inclusive communities, policy and programs.

 

The development of the design was deliberately planned to be highly collaborative and the team met with 161 people who shared their views. This provided opportunities for deaf people and DPOs to contribute to the design, along with representatives from government, non-government and regional organisations. This collaboration occurred in three countries in the Pacific, namely Solomon Islands, Samoa and Fiji. Within Fiji, the design team met with deaf and DPO representatives of other PIC’s along with regional multi-lateral organisations such as UNICEF and the Pacific Island Forum Secretariat (PIFS). Consultations also occurred remotely with supporting organisations and development workers that are focused on disability inclusion in the Pacific. The design undertook a desk review to learn what is known about deaf children and adults in the Pacific region. Participatory methods ensured the process was highly respectful of the views of deaf people. DPOs, other organisations and governments will be asked to identify to what extent deaf children, adults and their families are participating in services, programs and establishments, and to identify potential supports required to increase deaf people’s participation.  A capacity building element has been carefully built into the design. The report is divided into three parts. Part A rationalizes the design, with background information and a brief desk review to collect evidence from and about deaf children and adults in the Pacific. Part B describes the design development process and reports findings. Part C details the design for the situation analysis.  

Digital Accessibility Toolkit

CBM
May 2018

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The purpose of this toolkit is to share a selection of tools and recommendations pertaining to the accessibility of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Based on international standards and a scan of available technologies, these tools and recommendations are intended to contribute to the social and economic inclusion of persons with disabilities by ensuring that information is equitably accessible.

The goals of this toolkit are:

  • To outline the key international frameworks around digital accessibility and why it is critical for inclusion of persons with disabilities.
  • To link people with tools, practice examples, free online training, and other resources so that their practice is digitally accessible.
  • To ensure that digital accessibility is an inherent aspect of daily practice.
  • To align the practices of those working with and for CBM. 

This toolkit is intended to be used as a guide and practice resource by people working with and for CBM so that we produce accessible digital content and communications, and place accessibility at the centre of our ICT procurement processes. We hope that the toolkit will be a resource for the wider community of persons with disabilities, Disabled People’s Organisations (DPOs), and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs).

Target population’s requirements on a community-based intervention for stimulating physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people: an interview study

KROPS, Leonie A
FOLKERTSMA, Nienke
HOLS, Doortje H J
GEERTZEN, Jan H B
DIJKSTRA, Pieter U
DEKKER, Rienk
May 2018

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Purpose: To explore ideas of the target population about a community-based intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people.

 

Materials and methods: Semi-structured interviews were performed with 21 physically disabled people, and analyzed using thematic analyses. Findings were interpreted using the integrated Physical Activity for People with a Disability and Intervention Mapping model.

 

Results: The intervention should aim to stimulate intrinsic motivation and raise awareness for the health effects of physical activity. It should provide diverse activities, increase visibility of these activities, and improve image of physical activity for physically disabled people. Participants suggested to provide individual coaching sessions, increase marketing, present role models, and assign buddies. Potential users should be approached personally through intermediate organizations, or via social media and word of mouth promotion. Participants suggested that users, government, sponsors, and health insurers should finance the intervention. Self-responsibility for being physically active was strongly emphasized by participants.

 

Conclusions: An intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people should be individualized, include personal support, and should include marketing to improve image of physical activity of physically disabled people. The intervention that fulfills these requirements should be developed and tested for effects in future research.

Mental health assessments in refugees and asylum seekers: evaluation of a tablet-assisted screening software

MORINA, Naser
et al
October 2017

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Mental health problems resulting from persecution and forced migration are very common among refugees and asylum seekers and evolve into a major public health challenge. Language barriers often prevent timely access to appropriate health care, leading to chronic trajectories and abortive social integration. Tools for multilingual screening and assessment could be of great benefit for this particularly vulnerable population as well as for policy makers. This study aimed at testing the reliability, feasibility and usability of the Multi-Adaptive Psychological Screening Software (MAPSS), a newly developed Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Software (ACASI) for touchscreen devices, for screening purposes in a clinical setting. In a randomized cross-over design including both MAPSS and paper-pencil clinician-administered interviews, 30 treatment-seeking refugees completed clinical measures and a feasibility questionnaire to rate the user interface of MAPSS. Five professionals performed given tasks in MAPSS and completed usability questionnaires for the administration interface.

Conflict and Health 2017 11:18

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-017-0120-2

Humanitarian Hands on Tool (HHoT)

CBM
2017

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The CBM smartphone app 'Humanitarian Hands-on Tool' (HHoT) provides step-by-step guidance on how to implement an inclusive emergency response. With disability-inclusive humanitarian action broken down into individual task cards, which explain the basic 'how-to' details in simple language and images, this web-based tool and downloadable mobile app aims to become the ‘go-to’ field resource for all agencies planning humanitarian work that leaves no-one behind

Pilot testing of 3D printing technology for transtibial prosthesis in complex contexts (Togo, Madagascar and Syria)

CONICAVE, Jerome
TAN, Daniele
2017

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In January-October 2016, Handicap International carried out a pilot testing of 3D printing technology for transtibial prosthesis in Togo, Madagascar and Syria. The aim of the study was to explore and test how physical rehabilitation services can be more accessible to people living in complex contexts via innovative technologies (such as 3D printing, treatment processes that use Internet technology and tools) and decentralised services by bringing them closer to the patients. This scientific summary provides the context, the objectives, the methodology, the results of the study, and perspectives for the future.

A number of technical appendices are available

RS/05

WFD’s position paper on the language rights of deaf children

WORLD FEDERATION OF THE DEAF
September 2016

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Early exposure to sign language and multilingualism, combined with strong family support for sign languages, best prepares deaf children for their future effective participation in society. This position paper covers language acquisition for deaf children, the benefits of multilingualism, multilingual education and interpreting UN CPRD Article 24 in support of sign bilingual education. 

Each section of the paper has International sign videos available.

Evaluation of the feasibility and acceptability of the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention in India, a smartphone-enabled, carer-supported, educational intervention for management of disability following stroke

SURESHKUMAR, K
MURTHY, G V S
NATARAJAN, S
GOENKA, S
KUPER, H
February 2016

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This study aimed to identify operational issues encountered by study participants in using the ‘Care for Stroke’ intervention and to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. ‘Care for Stroke’ is a smartphone-enabled, educational intervention for management of physical disabilities following stroke. It is delivered through a web-based, smartphone enabled application (app). It includes inputs from stroke rehabilitation experts in a digitised format. Sixty stroke survivors discharged from hospital in Chennai, South India, and their caregivers participated in the study. The preliminary intervention was field-tested with 30 stroke survivors for 2 weeks. The finalised intervention was provided to a further 30 stroke survivors to be used in their homes with support from their carers for 4 weeks. Field-testing identified operational difficulties related to connectivity, video-streaming, picture clarity, quality of videos, and functionality of the application. Assessment was carried out by direct observation and short interview questionnaires. 

 

 

Benefits and costs of e-accessibility : how economics and market forces can support e-accessibility and the convention on the rights of peoples' with disability

BURGER, Dominique
et al
March 2012

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This white paper seeks to document the innovative elements of a conference discussion about e-accessibility costs and benefits. Despite technological and political achievements, the economics of e-accessibility need to be understood. This paper aims to define new approaches to understand how best to promote e-accessibility models
E-Accessibility costs and benefits
Paris, France
28 March 2011

Information and communications for development 2012 : maximizing mobile

THE WORLD BANK
2012

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"This report analyzes the growth and evolution of applications for mobile phones, focusing on their use in agriculture, health and financial services, as well as their impact on employment and government. It also explores the consequences for development of the emerging "app economy", summarizing current thinking and seeking to inform the debate on the use of mobile phones for development. It’s no longer about the phone itself, but about how it is used, and the content and applications that mobile phones open"

Making mobile phones and services accessible for persons with disabilities

NARASIMHAN, Nirmita
LEBLOIS, Axel
2011

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"This report contains references to the new legislative and regulatory framework set by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, an important resource for policy makers. It also covers practical elements required for a successful implementation of those programs and policies: technical accessibility features for handsets, accessible and assistive applications and services as well as business cases of companies which have implemented significant accessibility programs...(T)his report will be a useful resource for telecom regulators, mobile operators, organizations of persons with disabilities and other mobile stakeholders to develop successful accessibility policies and programs in their respective countries to equally serve persons of all abilities"

Mobile cell-phones (m-phones) in telemicroscopy : Increasing connectivity of isolated laboratories

BELLINA,Livia
EDUARDO, Missoni
June 2009

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This article analyses the development of modern information telecommunication (ITC) technology and its use in telemedicine by facilitating access to some diagnostic services. Images were taken without the use of an adaptor by simply approaching the lens of the mobile cell phone camera to the ocular of common optical microscopes, and subsequently sent via multimedia messaging services (MMS) to distant reference centres for tele-diagnosis. The study concludes that "the use of otherwise already widely available technologies, without any need for adaptors or otherwise additional technology, could significantly increase opportunities and quality diagnostics while lowering costs and considerably increasing connectivity between most isolated laboratories and distant reference center"
Diagnostic Pathology Vol 4, Issue 19

The world health report 2007 - a safer future : global public health in the 21st century

World Health Organization (WHO)
August 2007

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"This report dicusses...current challenges to global health secturity and asks: How can a safer future be acheived? It looks at the potential new tools for collective defence, particularly the revised 'International Health Regulations' (2005) which came into force [in 2007]...[It] concludes with recommendations intended to provide guidance and inspiration towards cooperation and transparency in the effort to secrure the highest level of global public health security"

How to accelerate your Internet : a practical guide to bandwidth management and optimisation using open source software

FLICKENGER, R
Ed
October 2006

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Information and communications technologies and the Internet have become critical components of development policies and practices. The speed of the Internet, however, is also the measure of a growing disparity between developed and developing countries. This publication provides practical tips, optimisation techniques and guidance on how to gain the largest benefits from network connections, with a particular focus on use of Internet in developing countries. Chapters cover a comprehensive range of issues, from policy development to monitoring and analysis, implementation of basic techniques, and general good practices. Include case studies, resources and glossary

Natural sign language and proficiency in learning Setswana sign language and curriculum content among students with hearing impairment in Botswana

MUKHOPADHYAY, Sourav
SISON, Waldetrudes
2006

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Language as 'mother tongue' is the first language in which one can express oneself fully as a tool for communication. Children acquire the mother tongue with seeming ease. Language theorists have offered various explanations about how children acquire and learn how to use language. The common element in the explanations is the innate force or power within the child and the opportunities for communication within the environment. Children with hearing impairment do not learn oral language the way it is acquired by hearing children. Because of the impairment, gestural communication which is the forerunner of language acquisition in normal children, are elaborated and end up as homesign or self-styled communication systems. This paper explores the relationship between homesign language as mother tongue of children with hearing impairment and their performance in learning the academic subjects and the second sign language formally taught in school

Technological convergence and regulation : challenges facing developing countries [whole issue]

BEZZINA, J
SANCHEZ, B
Eds
November 2005

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This special issue, produced with the support of InfoDev, marked the World Summit for the Information Society (WSIS) meeting in Tunis (16-18 November 2005). It focuses on technological advances and their implications for regulatory systems, particularly in developing countries. Topics include: new technologies and regulatory regimes; telecommunication reforms in developing countries; structural change in African mobile telecommunications; Internet; broadband technologies and services in sub-Saharan Africa; local software and content production in developing countries; outsourcing in developing countries. Articles are aimed at telecommunications specialists and researchers

ICTs : information and communication technologies for the poor

TORERO, Maximo
VON BRAUN, Joachim
November 2005

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This 'issue brief' describes the proliferation of electronically communicated information, which has accelerated economic and social change across all areas of human activity worldwide. It observes that the rapid growth of ICTs in developing countries is partly a result of very low initial access, and therefore in absolute terms developing countries are still well behind the developed world in access to ICTs. It concludes that ICTs offer an opportunity for development, but not a panacea. For the potential benefits of ICTs to be realized in developing countries, many prerequisites need to be put in place: prompt deregulation, effective competition among service providers, free movement and adoption of technologies, targeted and competitive subsidies to reduce the access gap, and institutional arrangements to increase the use of ICTs in the provision of public goods. The paper advocates for the importance of all three "Cs": connectivity, capability to use the new tools, and relevant content provided in accessible and useful forms

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