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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Video gallery

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO). REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EUROPE
April 2020

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Several short videos concerning COVID-19 are available including:

  • Seven steps to prevent the spread of the virus
  • How to protect yourself against COVID-19
  • How is the new coronavirus affecting people who get it?
  • What is the correct way to wear and dispose of masks?
  • Why is it recommended to avoid close contact with anyone who has fever and cough?
  • Q&A on Coronavirus - COVID-19 in the workplace - WHO's Dr Rosamund Lewis

Operational adaptations of the trachoma pre-validation surveillance strategy employed in Ghana: successes and challenges

SENYONJO, Laura
et al
September 2019

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In 2009 Ghana began to design a trachoma pre-validation surveillance plan, based on then-current WHO recommendations. The plan aimed to identify active trachoma resurgence and identify and manage trichiasis cases, through both active and passive surveillance approaches. This paper outlines and reviews the adaptations made by Ghana between 2011 and 2016

Infectious Diseases of Poverty volume 8, Article number: 78 (2019)

Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development, Volume 30, No.2, 2019 (Summer 2019)

June 2019

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Research articles are:

 

  • Stereotypes about Adults with Learning Disabilities: Are Professionals a Cut Above the Rest?
     
  • Perceptions of Primary Caregivers about Causes and Risk Factors of Cerebral Palsy in Ashanti Region, Ghana
     
  • Changes in Social Participation of Persons Affected by Leprosy, Before and After Multidrug Therapy, in an Endemic State in Eastern India
     
  • Users’ Satisfaction with Assistive Devices in Afghanistan
     
  • Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Exercise among Physically Active and Non-Active Elderly People

 

Brief reports are:

  • The GRID Network: A Community of Practice for Disability Inclusive Development
     
  • A Preliminary Report of the Audiological Profile of Hearing Impaired Pupils in Inclusive Schools in Lagos State, Nigeria

 

An experiential report is given:

  • MAANASI - A Sustained, Innovative, Integrated Mental Healthcare Model in South India

 

Disability and global health: Special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

KUPER, Hannah
POLAK, Sarah
Eds
2019

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Papers included in this special issue are:

 

Community knowledge, attitude, and perceived stigma of leprosy amongst community members living in Dhanusha and Parsa districts of Southern Central Nepal

SINGH, Rakesh
SINGH, Babita
MAHATO, Sharika
January 2019

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The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and stigma of leprosy amongst the community members living in Dhanusha and Parsa districts of Southern Central Nepal. A total of 423 individuals were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in Dhanusha and Parsa districts. Data was analyzed using both descriptive (frequency, percentage, median) and statistical inferences.

Changes in social participation of persons affected by leprosy, before and after multidrug therapy, in an endemic state in Eastern India

RAMASAMAY, Senthilkumar
2019

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Multidrug therapy (MDT) completion rate and the change in disability levels before and after medical treatment are reported as outcomes in leprosy programmes. Changes in activity and social participation levels are rarely reported, possibly because the parameters are more difficult to measure. The study aimed to assess and evaluate the changes in social participation among leprosy-affected persons after completion of MDT. An observational study was conducted among 108 newly-diagnosed leprosy-affected clients, who were registered at the Leprosy Referral Hospital in Champa, Chhattisgarh. Their disability levels pre- and post- MDT were assessed using the WHO Disability Grading, and their social participation level was assessed using the Participation Scale

 

https://doi.org/10.5463/dcid.v30i2.791

Strengthening personal and family resilience: a literature review for the leprosy context

VAN'T NOORDENDE, Anna Tiny
KUIPERS, Kim
PEREIRA DSZ B
January 2019

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 A literature review was conducted to identify core elements of interventions to promote resilience in individuals and family members in the face of discrimination in the case of leprosy. A multi-phase adapted scoping review of English literature and a narrative review of the Portuguese language literature were carried out. Three main intervention focus areas in our review were identified: individual level, social/community level and system level.

 

Lepr Rev (2019) 90, 88–104

Household expenditure on leprosy outpatient services in the Indian health system: A comparative study.

TIWARI, Ajun
et al
January 2018

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The primary objective of this study is to estimate the expenditure in primary (outpatient) care incurred by leprosy patients in two different health system settings in India. The secondary objective is to compare the effect of the health systems on consumer behaviour and practices. 

The study followed a cross-sectional design, where a cohort from the Union Territory of DNH (an administrative division ruled directly by the federal government) was compared with a cohort from Umbergaon block of Valsad district, Gujarat, India. A block is the smallest administrative unit under a district. The cohorts were leprosy cases detected between April 2015 and March, 2016. A sample of 120 participants from each group was selected randomly. In the financial year of 2015–16, DNH reported 425 and Umbergaon reported 287 cases. 

A household survey was conducted between June and October, 2016 by means of a structured questionnaire collecting data on patient demographics, HH socioeconomic status, accessibility of health services, treatment seeking history and OPD expenditure. Respondents were asked to report on the last three OPD visits, either in a public or private facility, in the last 6 months. 

The costs were categorized as direct and indirect expenditure. The direct part included the expenditure on consultation, investigations and medicines & supplies. The indirect part constituted expenditure on transport, food, and days lost during illness of the patient and attendant

PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, January 4, 2018

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006181

Report of the informal consultation on stopping discrimination and promotion inclusion of persons affected by Leprosy. New Delhi, 14–16 Nov 2017

COOREMAN, Erwin
WHO SEARO/Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases
et al
2018

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An Informal Consultation on Stopping Discrimination and Promoting Inclusion of Persons Affected by Leprosy was held in New Delhi from 14 to 16 November 2017. Forty delegates with diverse backgrounds, experience and expertise enriched the discussions. Persons affected by leprosy brought to the table the challenges faced in daily life and suggested actions to be taken to reduce stigma and discrimination related to leprosy. Representatives of national programmes presented actions taken in their respective countries. The participants acknowledged the fact that stigma and discrimination related to leprosy still exists at a significant level. Information about stigma and discrimination related to leprosy needs to be collected in a more systematic manner to assess the magnitude of the problem and to further plan activities to reduce it.

Key recommendations from the consultation included counselling and reporting of incidences of discrimination. Efforts should be continued to inform facts about leprosy to the community.

The participants strongly recommended that leprosy programmes should adopt a ‘rights-based approach’ in line with the Sustainable Development Goals.

Managing epidemics - Key facts about major deadly diseases

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO)
2018

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The manual is structured in three parts.

  • Part One “Epidemics of the 21st century” provides vital insights on the main features of the 21st century upsurge and the indispensable elements to manage them.
  • Part Two “Be in the know. 10 key facts about 15 deadly diseases” contains key information about 15 diseases (Ebola Virus Disease, Lassa Fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Yellow Fever, Zika, Chikungunya, Avian and Other Zoonotic Influenza, Seasonal Influenza, Pandemic Influenza, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Cholera, Monkeypox, Plague, Leptospirosis and Meningococcal Meningitis). This section provides tips on the interventions required to respond to epidemics of all these diseases.
  • Part Three “Tool boxes” gives an overview and summarized guidance on some other important topics, including: the role of WHO, the International Coordinating Group, laboratory diagnosis and shipment of infectious diseases substances, and vector control.

 

The handbook enables the three levels of WHO – its Headquarters, Regional Offices and Country Offices to work efficiently together by building the foundations of a shared conceptual and thinking framework, which includes common terminology. 

Caregivers' views on stigmatisation and discrimination of people affected by leprosy in Ghana

ASAMPONG, Emmanuel
DAKO-GYEKE, Mavis
ODURO, Razak
January 2018

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In Ghana, the social interpretation of leprosy regardless of the language, culture and tradition engenders stigmatisation and discrimination that leads to social rejection and exclusion of persons who have been cured of the disease. Often, these persons are cared for by relatives who happen to live with them in a confined place. From the views of these caregivers, this paper identifies areas of stigmatising and discriminatory tendencies against people affected by leprosy who reside in a Leprosarium in Accra. A qualitative interview with semi-structured interviews were conducted for twenty caregivers.

Toolkit for understanding and challenging leprosy related stigma for Civil Society Organisations in India

JOY, Anish
et al
2017

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This toolkit is intended primarily for use by CSO's at the community level in India for use with field workers and local governments for challenging stigma and discrimination against people affected by leprosy/disabilities. The toolkit uses simple activities and pictures and is based on a participatory approach which requires active involvement of the group being trained. There are 6 modules:

What is leprosy

What is stigma

How we stigmatise others

How it feels to be stigmatised

Understanding human rights

Action towards inclusion

There are 10 appendices providing supporting information for the toolkit  

Association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil, January to May, 2016: preliminary report of a case-control study

DE ARAUJO, Thalia Velho Barreto
et al
December 2016

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The microcephaly epidemic, which started in Brazil in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO in 2016. Preliminary results of a case-control study investigating the association between microcephaly and Zika virus infection during pregnancy are reported. A case-control study was carried out in eight public hospitals in Recife, Brazil. Cases were neonates with microcephaly. Two controls (neonates without microcephaly), matched by expected date of delivery and area of residence, were selected for each case.

The Lancet Infectious Diseases,  Vol. 16, No. 12, pp. 1356–1363, Dec 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(16)30318-8

Estimation of Zika virus prevalence by appearance of microcephaly

SAAD-ROY, C M
van den DRIESSCHE, P
MA, J L
December 2016

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There currently is a severe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Brazil and other South American countries. Due to international travel, this poses severe public health risk of ZIKV importation to other countries. We estimate the prevalence of ZIKV in an import region by the time a microcephaly case is detected, since microcephaly is presently the most significant indication of ZIKV presence. A mathematical model to describe ZIKV spread from a source region to an import region was established. This model incorporates both vector transmission (between humans and mosquitoes) and sexual transmission (from males to females). Account was taken of population structure through a contact network for sexually active individuals. Parameter values of the model are either taken from the literature or estimated from travel data

BMC Infectious Diseases (2016) 16:754 DOI 10.1186/s12879-016-2076-z

Disability, CBR and inclusive development - Vol 27, No 4 (2016) Winter 2016

December 2016

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8 articles

Original Research Articles

Social Inclusion and Mental Health of Children with Physical Disabilities in Gaza, Palestine PDF
Khaled Nasser, Malcolm MacLachlan, Joanne McVeigh 5-36

CBR Workers' Training Needs for People with Communication Disability PDF
Choo Er Yeap, Hasherah Ibrahim, Sandra Vandort, Kartini Ahmad, Md Syahrulikram Yasin 37-54

Educational Concerns of Students with Hearing Impairment in Secondary and Higher Secondary Classes in Mumbai, India PDF
Dipak Kumar Aich, Suni Mariam Mathew 55-75

Advocacy Campaign for the Rights of People with Disabilities: A Participatory Action Research within a Community-based Rehabilitation Project in Vangani, Maharashtra PDF
Atul Jaiswal, Shikha Gupta 76-92

Effectiveness of Role Play and Bibliotherapy in Attitude Change of Primary School Pupils towards Learners with Special Needs in Nigeria PDF
Nwachukwu Ezechinyere Kingsley 93-105

 

Reviews

Disability Data Collection in Community-based Rehabilitation PDF
Sunil Deepak, Franesca Ortali, Geraldine Mason Halls, Tulgamaa Damdinsuren, Enhbuyant Lhagvajav, Steven Msowoya, Malek Qutteina, Jayanth Kumar 106-123

 

Brief reports

Differences in Malaria Prevention between Children with and without a Disability in the Upper East Region of Ghana PDF
Fleur Frieda Cornelia Muires, Evi Sarah Broekaart 124-137

Demographic Profile of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): A Hospital-based Prospective study in Bangladesh PDF
Atma Razzak, Rajkumar Roy, Shamim Khan

Disability, CBR and inclusive development (DCID) - Vol 27, No 4 (2016)

THOMAS, Maya
Ed
2016

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"Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development aim to enhance knowledge in the field of disability, addressing the needs of practitioners in the field (particularly those from developing countries), policy makers, disabled persons’ organizations and the scientific community. The journal encourages publication of information that is evidence-based, to improve current knowledge and programmes implementation, and will be openly and freely accessible to all readers" ”Published four times a year, previously published two times per year
Free

Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus

KINDHAUSER, Mary Kay
ALLEN Tomas
FRANK Veronika
SANTHANAA Ravi Shankar
DYE Christopher
September 2016

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The temporal and geographical distribution of Zika virus infection and associated neurological disorders, from 1947 to 1 February 2016, when Zika became a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) are described following an extensive literature search. During this period a total of 74 countries and territories had reported human Zika virus infections. The timeline in this paper charts the discovery of the virus (1947), its isolation from mosquitos (1948), the first human infection (1952), the initial spread of infection from Asia to a Pacific island (2007), the first known instance of sexual transmission (2008), reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (2014) and microcephaly (2015) linked to Zika infections and the first appearance of Zika in the Americas (from 2015). The paper concludes that the Zika virus infection in humans appears to have changed in character as its geographical range has expanded from equatorial Africa and Asia. The change is from an endemic, mosquito-borne infection causing mild illness to one that can cause large outbreaks linked with neurological sequelae and congenital abnormalities

 

Detecting Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by Zika virus using systems developed for polio surveillance

KANDEL, Nirmal
LAMICHHANE Jaya
TANGERMANN Rudolf
RODIEA Guenael
September 2016

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With increasing evidence of linkages between Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus infection, the importance of enhancing Guillain-Barré syndrome surveillance is highlighted and use of existing surveillance systems like the one for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) used by polio eradication programmes is proposed. A process for using the AFP surveillance system for Zika virus surveillance is outlined. Worldwide distribution maps of  Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are presented and control measures following Zika infection testing are listed.

WHO : microcephaly and zika virus infection : questions and answers

COSTELLO, Anthony
February 2016

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Dr Anthony Costello, Director of WHO's Department of Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health, answers some key questions on Microcephaly and Zika virus infection including concerning how a pregnant women would know if her baby is infected, what support would be needed if the child has Microcephaly and what steps can be taken to avoid being infected

Zika virus

HESPERIAN HEALTH GUIDES
February 2016

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A short introduction to the Zika virus and pregnancy. This resources details the signs of the Zika virus and the difference between Zika virus, dengue, chikungunya, or malaria are outlined. How the mosquito spreads the disease, the prevention of mosquito bites, ways in which communities can prevent mosquito illnesses and removal of mosquito breeding sites from around the house and community are also covered

 

Note: resource is available online and in downloadable pdf formats

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