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Early rehabilitation in conflicts and disasters

LATHIA, Charmi
SKELTON, Peter
CLIFT, Zoe
Eds
January 2020

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When emergencies strike, there is a huge surge in the need for Early Rehabilitation. Early Rehabilitation for patients with traumatic injuries in conflicts and disasters is now recognised as being an integral part of a patient’s recovery. However, the majority of rehabilitation professionals in countries that experience such emergencies do not have all the skills needed to treat all of the injuries. HI, in collaboration with leading organisations (ICRC, MSF-France, CBM, Livability & the WHO), has created this educational resource package to fill this gap

Each chapter of this handbook has been written by experts in their field. It includes pictures and evidence based treatment protocols to help rehabilitation professionals around the world to delivery high quality early rehabilitation intervention. Chapters included are:

  • Key Challenges in Delivering Early Rehabilitation in Conflicts and Disasters
  • Early Rehabilitation Patient Assessment and Treatment - the Basics
  • Early Rehabilitation of Fractures 
  • Early Rehabilitation of Peripheral Nerve Injuries
  • Early Rehabilitation of Amputees
  • Early Rehabilitation of Acquired Brain Injuries
  • Early Rehabilitation of Spinal Cord Injuries
  • Early Rehabilitation of Burns

Videos accompany each of the chapters. The handbook contents are directly linked to modules taught on disasterready.org where there are additional accompanying resources designed to be used in conflict and disasters settings

Inclusion of persons with disabilities in humanitarian action. Case studies collection 2019. 39 examples of field practices, and learnings from 20 countries, for all phases of humanitarian response

PALMER, Tom
et al
December 2019

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Published at the same time as the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Guidelines on Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Humanitarian Action, this report aims to support their uptake and promote learning by example. This report presents 39 short case studies on inclusive practices for persons with disabilities in humanitarian action and disaster risk reduction (DRR). It is designed for humanitarian stakeholders with limited experience of working with and for persons with disabilities, as well as for organizations of persons with disabilities (OPDs) planning to engage in humanitarian action and DRR. The report draws lessons from field practices, but does not provide technical guidance. The IASC Guidelines are the reference document to seek in-depth theoretical and technical information

 

The case studies focus on:

  • Inclusive disaster risk reduction and preparedness
  • Collecting and using disability disaggregated data for assessments and programming.
  • Participation of persons with disabilities and their representative organizations in humanitarian response and recovery
  • Removing barriers to access humanitarian assistance and protection.
  • Influencing coordination mechanisms and resource mobilization to be inclusive

 

The evidence presented in this report was identified in 2017-2018 through a desk review of publicly available reports and internal documents on projects implemented by CBM, HI and IDA members, as well as their partners and affiliate members. Field visits to Lebanon, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, and the Philippines conducted in 2018 also informed the case-study collection and documentation

IASC Guidelines, Inclusion of persons with disabilities in humanitarian action

INTER-AGENCY STANDING COMMITTEE (IASC)
November 2019

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The guidelines set out essential actions that humanitarian actors must take in order to effectively identify and respond to the needs and rights of persons with disabilities who are most at risk of being left behind in humanitarian settings.

The recommended actions in each chapter place persons with disabilities at the centre of humanitarian action, both as actors and as members of affected populations. They are specific to persons with disabilities and to the context of humanitarian action and build on existing and more general standards and guidelines.

These are the first humanitarian guidelines to be developed with and by persons with disabilities and their representative organizations in association with traditional humanitarian stakeholders. Based on the outcomes of a comprehensive global and regional multi-stakeholder consultation process, they are designed to promote the implementation of quality humanitarian programmes in all contexts and across all regions, and to establish and increase both the inclusion of persons with disabilities and their meaningful participation in all decisions that concern them.

Guidelines. Inclusion of persons with disabilities in humanitarian action

IASC TASK TEAM ON INCLUSION OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN HUMANITARIAN ACTION
July 2019

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The guidelines set out essential actions that humanitarian actors must take in order to effectively identify and respond to the needs and rights of persons with disabilities who are most at risk of being left behind in humanitarian settings. The recommended actions in each chapter place persons with disabilities at the centre of humanitarian action, both as actors and as members of affected populations. They are specific to persons with disabilities and to the context of humanitarian action and build on existing and more general standards and guidelines. These are the first humanitarian guidelines to be developed with and by persons with disabilities and their representative organizations in association with traditional humanitarian stakeholders. Based on the outcomes of a comprehensive global and regional multi-stakeholder consultation process, they are designed to promote the implementation of quality humanitarian programmes in all contexts and across all regions, and to establish and increase both the inclusion of persons with disabilities and their meaningful participation in all decisions that concern them. 

 

Chapters include:

  • What to do - key approaches to programming
  • Data and information management
  • Partnerships and empowerment of organisation of people with disabilities
  • Cross cutting considerations
  • Accountability to affected people and protection from sexual exploitation and abuse
  • Humanitarian response options
  • Stakeholder roles and responsibilities
  • What sectors need to do
  • Camp coordination and camp management
  • Education
  • Food security and nutrition
  • Livelihoods
  • Health
  • Protection
  • Shelter and settlements
  • Water, sanitation and hygiene

Manual on community-based mental health and psychosocial support in emergencies and displacement

SCHININA, Guglielmo
Ed
July 2019

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This manual aims to facilitate mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) experts and managers in designing, implementing and evaluating community-based MHPSS (CB MHPSS) programmes, projects and activities for emergency-affected and displaced populations in humanitarian settings. It is specifically designed to support managers and experts hired by the International Organization for Migration (IOM). However, it can also be used, in its entirety or in some of its components, by MHPSS experts and managers working for IOM’s partners, including international and national governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), countries, donors and civil society groups.

 

The first chapter introduces concepts, models and principles of CB MHPSS work; the other chapters are operational and programmatic. These chapters are of two types: •

 

Those that have to do with the process of a CB MHPSS programme: 

Engaging with communities; - Assessing and mapping; - Psychosocial mobile teams; - Technical supervision and training; - Monitoring and evaluation; - Plus two annexes on coordination and ethical considerations. •

 

Those that introduce specific CB MHPSS activities: - Sociorelational and cultural activities; - Creative and art-based activities; - Rituals and celebrations; - Sport and play; - Non-formal education and informal learning; - Integration of mental health and psychosocial support in conflict transformation and mediation; - Integrated mental health and psychosocial support, and livelihood support; - Strengthening mental health and psychosocial support in the framework of protection; - Counselling; - Community-based support for people with severe mental disorders.

Forgotten in a crisis: Addressing dementia in humanitarian response

GLOBAL ALZHEIMER'S & DEMENTIA ACTION ALLIANCE
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE INTERNATIONAL
ALZHEIMER'S PAKISTAN
May 2019

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Every 3 seconds someone develops dementia and it’s one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite being some of the most at-risk in times of natural disaster, conflict and forced migration, there is a lack of awareness that dementia is a medical condition, meaning people with dementia are being neglected when they’re most in need of support.

This report investigates ways humanitarian emergency responses can protect and support people living with dementia. It draws on the experiences of people affected by dementia, Alzheimer’s specialists in affected countries, humanitarian organisations and inter-governmental organisations including the World Health Organisation and UNHCR.

Our findings reflect a wider issue of a lack of support for older people and those with disabilities in humanitarian response. We have found that people with dementia are systemically overlooked, due to a lack of global awareness of the condition and associated stigma.

The report is a collaboration between the Global Alzheimer’s & Dementia Action Alliance, Alzheimer’s Disease International and Alzheimer’s Pakistan.

Rapid review of the inclusion of people with disabilities and older people in gender-based violence (GBV) humanitarian interventions

PEARCE, Emma
MURRAY, Sinead
REIS, Chen
May 2019

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VOICE has partnered with Elrha to conduct a rapid review to:

1. Improve understanding of how people with disabilities and older people are included in GBV interventions;

2. Assess how strategies for DOAI are aligned with the recently published Humanitarian Inclusion Standards (HIS) for Older People and People with Disabilities;

3. Identify and document positive practice examples of inclusion of people with disabilities and older people in GBV interventions.

 

The VOICE review team collected qualitative and quantitative data through a range of methodologies, including a desk review of formal and grey literature such as programme documentation, and key informant interviews with key stakeholders.​

Guidance on strengthening disability inclusion in Humanitarian Response Plans

PERRY, Stephen
LANGE, Kirstin
MITRA, Gopal
WOOD, Gavin
April 2019

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This guidance provides support to seven UN entities on how to strengthen inclusion of disability in Humanitarian Response Plans (HRPs) as part of the UK Department for International Development (DFID) Humanitarian Investment Program. The aim of this work is to make humanitarian programming more responsive to the needs of people with disabilities affected by crisis. Humanitarian Response Plans are the product of a strategic planning process that is informed by humanitarian needs assessment activities. Therefore, this guidance focuses primarily on the steps in the humanitarian program cycle (HPC) leading to the HRP, including the process of developing the Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO). This guidance has been aligned to the 2019 revision of this process

Disability and disaster risk reduction as an incongruent matrix: Lessons from rural Zimbabwe

LUNGA, Wilfred
BONGO, Paradzavi Pathias
VAN NIEKERK, Dewald
MUSARURWA, Charles
April 2019

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This research paper focuses on two key topics in the disaster science field: pre-disaster risk reduction planning and post-disaster emergency response activities. It is based on experiences from disaster risk reduction projects in Bulilima and Mangwe districts in southern Zimbabwe between 2006 and 2014. A qualitative research methodology was employed, and data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, observations and focus group discussions. Both able-bodied people and people living with disabilities (PWDs) were part of the study.

 

Jamba. (Journal of disaster risk studies) 2019; 11(1): 648.

doi: 10.4102/jamba.v11i1.648

HelpAge training portal

HELPAGE INTERNATIONAL
2019

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This digital learning platform was established for the purpose of remote humanitarian response for hard to reach areas. HelpAge International is utilizing expertise to train international and national organizations, government agencies, and the private sector on Age Inclusive Interventions.

These series of trainings on 'Helping Older People in Emergencies (HOPE)' is designed to strengthen the capacity of humanitarian actors to ensure that their humanitarian action is evidence-based and responds to the distinct needs and priorities of crisis-affected to older men, women, and other vulnerable groups.

 

Modules available are:

1. Age & its interaction with vulnerabilities in humanitarian crises

2. Inclusion of older people in emergency needs assessments & SADDD

3. Health, home-based & community-based care in humanitarian crises

4. Protection of older people in humanitarian crises

5. Food security & livelihoods interventions for older people in humanitarian crises

Handbook for coordinating gender-based violence interventions in emergencies

GBV AoR
2019

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This handbook is a quick-reference tool that provides practical, field-level guidance to establish and maintain a Gender Based Violence (GBV) sub-cluster in a humanitarian emergency. Chapters include:

1. GBV concepts for coordination (1.6 Ensuring inclusion of persons with disabilities in GBV interventions)

2. GBV coordination policy and structures

3. GBV coordination functions and roles

4. Implementing a GBV subcluster

5. Core references and additional resources.

 

Facilitating inclusion in disaster preparedness: A practical guide for CBOs

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF RURAL RECONSTRUCTION (IIRR)
Give2Asia
November 2018

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This guidebook was produced to build the capacity of Communities of Practice members on inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). IIRR and Give2Asia hope that this guidebook will help CBOs in Asia make their disaster preparedness programs more inclusive and sensitive to the needs of vulnerable groups in communities.

There are 3 parts: 

Part 1: Principles and practice of inclusion in DRRM and disaster preparedness 

Part 2: Dimensions of Inclusive Disaster Preparedness

Part 3: Practical tools and strategies in inclusive disaster preparedness - including: Hazard vulnerability and capacity assessment; Early warning system and Emergency preparedness

 

This guidebook aims to:

1. Enable partner CBOs to delve into strategic planning, approaches and tools on Inclusive DRR;

2. Provide alternative learning avenues for sectors to shift paradigm: from looking at excluded groups as “the recipient, or an object” into a more equitable gender-fair and humane categorization, such as intervenors or pro-actors;

3. Provide samples of standard platforms and protocols on inclusive disaster risk assessment, structural framework, gender-mainstreaming and paralegal support systems

4. Develop a community of learning (COL) in sharing inclusion on rights, advocacy, livelihoods, and entitlements

Minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES (IFRC)
November 2018

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The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) Minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies (2018) is in its second edition. The first pilot version of the IFRC Minimum standard commitments to gender and diversity in emergency programming was published in 2015. The pilot version has been tested globally by Red Cross and Red Crescent staff, volunteers and management in low-, medium- and high-scale disasters and humanitarian crises. This edition is the result of three years of testing, revision and feedback from protection, gender and inclusion (PGI) and sectoral specialists. New chapters, such as cash-based interventions, have been added as well as a stronger focus on sexual and gender-based violence and disability inclusion to align with the commitments of the IFRC and its member National Societies. This edition is accompanied by the IFRC Protection, gender and inclusion in emergencies toolkit (2018–2019).

This guidance presents Red Cross and Red Crescent staff, members and volunteers with a set of minimum standards for protection, gender and inclusion (PGI) in emergencies. It aims to ensure that the emergency programming of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and National Societies provides dignity, access, participation and safety for all people affected by disasters and crises.

It provides practical guidance on how to mainstream these four principles in all sectors, based on a consideration of gender, age, disability and other diversity factors. This includes limiting people’s exposure to the risks of violence and abuse and ensuring that emergency programmes “do no harm”.

The standards address protection, gender and inclusion concerns by providing practical ways to engage with all members of the community, respond to their differing needs and draw on their capacities in the most non-discriminatory and effective way. This helps to ensure that local perspectives guide assistance delivery. The standards also support incorporation of the seven Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

Children with disabilities in situations of armed conflict - a discussion paper

THOMAS, Edward
et al
November 2018

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During armed conflict, children with disabilities are caught in a vicious cycle of violence, social polarization, deteriorating services and deepening poverty. Global estimates suggest there are between 93 million and 150 million children with disabilities under the age of 15.Given that disability is often not reported due to stigma there is reason to believe actual prevalence could be much higher. Although efforts to ensure the fulfilment of their rights have improved, girls and boys with disabilities continue to remain among the most marginalized and excluded segment of the population. This is amplified during situations of armed conflict. The barriers to full participation they face on a day-to-day basis are intensified and compounded when infrastructure is destroyed, and services and systems are compromised and made inaccessible. This results in the further exclusion and marginalization of children with disabilities, and prevents them from accessing schooling, health and psychosocial support, or a means of escape from conflict.

 

When systems and services break down, children are also left more susceptible to violence. Injuries sustained by many children during armed conflict may also lead to long-term impairments. There are six grave violations of children’s rights and protection in armed conflict that are on the agenda of the United Nations (UN) Security Council; killing and maiming, recruitment and use of children, rape or other sexual violence, abduction, attacks on schools or hospitals, and denial of humanitarian access. Governments around the world have committed themselves to respect, promote, and fulfil the rights of children with disabilities, including in situations of armed conflict, and progress is being made. Efforts by a broad range of actors to implement the CRPD, CRC and other human rights instruments include the development of standards to address the rights and needs of persons with disabilities in humanitarian crises, and guidance on making humanitarian response, development and peacebuilding more inclusive. Efforts to improve the collection and use of data concerning children and adults with disabilities are also underway. Yet, as this discussion paper makes clear, much more needs to be done. Investments in disability-inclusive humanitarian action and recovery from crises will pay off, contributing towards a dividend of peace built on greater equality, tolerance and justice. 

Saving lives and leaving no one behind - The Gaibandha Model for disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction

ROTHE, Manuel
BROWN, David
NEUSCHAFER, Oliver
October 2018

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"The Gaibandha Model" good practices guide outlines a framework for successful disability-inclusive disaster risk reduction programming. It is based on the experience of CBM and its partners in implementing community-based disaster risk reduction programs in some of the most flood-affected communities in Bangladesh. The model puts people with disabilities at the center of disaster risk reduction. They are the agents for change, working with the community to improve local systems of disaster prevention, preparedness and response to become more accessible and inclusive.

Missing millions: How older people with disabilities are excluded from humanitarian response

SHEPPARD, Phillip
POLACK, Sarah
McGIVERN, Madeleine
July 2018

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The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of older people with disabilities across a range of humanitarian settings, considering:

  • whether older people with disabilities have additional needs and challenges accessing humanitarian assistance and protection
  • what factors facilitate or limit access by older people with disabilities to humanitarian assistance and protection
  • to what extent is humanitarian response inclusive of older people with disabilities

A systematic literature review of published studies was conducted. Key online humanitarian guidelines were explored to review how far they explicitly address older people with disabilities. Data from six population-based disability surveys comparing the living situation of older people with and without disabilities were analysed. These included databases from two crises-affected populations in Haiti (post-earthquake) and Palestine. Data from four non-humanitarian settings was also reviewed to explore more broadly the situation for older people with disabilities – India, Guatemala, Cameroon and Nepal. Interviews were held with older people with disabilities, members of their families and local key informants in two conflict-affected populations in Ndutu and Mtendeli refugee camps in Western Tanzania, and Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Eastern Ukraine to find out about their experiences. Staff of five international agencies working in humanitarian response were also interviewed. 

 

Findings highlight particular issues facing older people with disabilities in humanitarian crises: more risk escaping from danger;  barriers to accessing social protection and work; barriers to accessing health and rehabilitation services; barriers to accessing food and other essentials; unsuitable housing and poor living conditions;  insecurity and discrimination; threats to dignity and independence; social isolation and loneliness; risks to mental health; and missing from humanitarian response.

 

A table brings together the findings from the different components of the research to show the needs, risks, barriers and enablers for older people with disabilities identified in the research. Recommendations are provided to humanitarian donors, policy makers and practitioners

Psychosocial disability in the Middle East

BOLTON. Laura
May 2018

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A K4 helpdesk report, commissioned by DFID (UK), provides a rapid review of literature to provide best estimates of psychosocial disability in specific countries in the Middle East.

Topics discussed include:

Prevalence and different forms of mental health conditions and psychosocial disability

Factors influencing prevalence

Differences across demographics

Provision for those with psychosocial disabilities

Good practice guide: embedding inclusion of older people and people with disabilities in humanitarian policy and practice Lessons learnt from the ADCAP programme

AKERKAR, Supriya
BHARDWAJ, Rhea
2018

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This guide shares good practices and challenges that have emerged through the experience of the Age and Disability Capacity Programme (ADCAP) implementing partners, in embedding inclusion of older people and people with disabilities within their humanitarian policies and practices. All mainstream and specialist organisations engaged in humanitarian responses can learn and benefit from this experience. This guide complements the ‘Humanitarian inclusion standards for older people and people with disabilities’ (see Appendix 4), by documenting practices that will help humanitarian organisations to systematically include older people and people with disabilities.

Nine change themes that reflect successful inclusion practices emerging from the ADCAP experience are presented. Each theme includes analysis — using examples of action from ADCAP implementing organisations, a set of good practice action points, and case studies detailing how change was brought about in different implementing organisations

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