“The current evaluation is meant to evaluate the UN Development Account Project, “Improvement of Disability Measurement and Statistics in Support of the Biwako Millennium Framework (BMF) and Regional Census Programme” implemented by ESCAP in cooperation with internal and external partners, including the Washington Group on Disability Statistics, WHO and selected national statistical offices and experts. The project started in August 2007 and is coming to an end in December 2010, after having received a one‐year extension”
This article discusses the results of a survey to examine the gaps that continue to exist between research based evidence and clinical practice. Health care providers in 10 low- and middle-income countries were surveyed about their use of research-based evidence and examined factors that may facilitate or impede such use. The conclusion is that locally conducted or published research plays an important role in changing the professional practice of health care providers surveyed in low- and middle-income countries and increased investments in local research, or at least in locally adapted publications of research-based evidence from other settings, are therefore needed. Although access to the Internet was viewed as a significant factor in whether research-based evidence led to concrete changes in practice, few respondents reported having easy access to the Internet. Therefore, efforts to improve Internet access in clinical settings need to be accelerate
This article describes the findings from a study which examined efforts to bridge the gaps between research, policy and practice in 10 low- and middle-income countries in which researchers conducting research in one of four clinical areas relevant to the Millennium Development Goals: prevention of malaria (Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania), care of women seeking contraception (China, Kazakhstan, Laos and Mexico), care of children with diarrhoea (Ghana, India, Pakistan and Senegal) and care of patients with tuberculosis (China, India, Iran and Mexico) were surveyed
This article puts forward the argument that evidence for better health outcomes involves a two-step process: getting the right sort of evidence - evidence that is convincing and is for low- and middle-income countries - and getting this evidence used - through access to reliable evidence (such as the Cochrane Library) to getting evidence into policy and practice
This report analyses findings on child discipline from 35 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in low and middle-income countries in 2005 and 2006. Questions on child discipline were addressed to the mother (or primary caregiver) of one randomly selected child aged 2-14 years in each household. The questionnaire asked whether any member of the household had used various disciplinary practices with that child during the past month. The survey covered eight violent disciplinary practices, some of which were psychological (such as shouting and name calling) while others were physical (such as shaking and hitting). The surveys also collected information on three nonviolent forms of discipline, such as explaining why a behaviour is wrong. Finally, interviewers asked the mother (or primary caregiver) about her or his personal beliefs regarding the need for physical punishment in child rearing"
This article assesses "the contribution of physical, mental, and cognitive chronic diseases to disability, and the extent to which sociodemographic and health characteristics account for geographical variation in disability." Using cross sectional surveys of people aged over 65 in seven low and middle income countries, the findings highlight specific associations of chronic diseases to disability and overall that dementia, not blindness, is overwhelmingly the most important independent contributor to disability for elderly people in low and middle income countries. This resource is useful to people interested in the contribution of chronic diseases to disability in elderly people
The Lancet, Vol 374, Issue 97041
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"This book brings together the vision, lessons learned and good practices from twenty-one stakeholders on how country-led monitoring and evaluation systems can enhance evidence-based policy making. A presentation with key findings is also available"
This booklet presents the challenging conditions faced by nurses in Uganda and how staff shortages make it difficult to deliver health services, particularly in rural areas. It also highlights how the Ministry of Health and the Uganda Nurses and Midwives Council, based in Kampala, are using data to support the country's health workers and improve health care in the districts
"This report provided results of a study of living conditions among people with functional limitation in Mozambique. Two comparative studies of different indicators of living conditions were carried out. These studies include: (i) a comparative study of households with and without family member(s) with functional limitation and (ii) a comparative study of individuals with and without functional limitation. In addition, a detailed study that specifically addresses the situation of individuals with functional limitation was also conducted"
Using the social model of disability which promotes inclusion and positive action for disabled people, this report explores ways in which disabled people can overcome isolation from, and discrimination by, mainstream society. It discusses appropriate use of language when talking about disability issues, and gives recommendations on how the information needs of most disabled people can be met. This resource would be of interest to those working in the disability sector
Note: this publication is available on request in the following formats: braille, large print, audio, electronic format
This report presents information about understanding and interpreting disability as measured using the Washington group (WG)’s short set of questions. The six questions are for use in censuses and surveys according to the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics and are consistent with the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). The questions produce internationally comparable data on disability by identifying the majority of persons in the population who are at greater risk than the general population of experiencing limited or restricted participation in society. The questions cover six functional domains or basic actions: seeing, hearing, walking, cognition, self-care, and communication. This resource is useful to anyone interested in measuring disability
This guide provides practical guidance for planning and implementing an evaluation of psychosocial programs in emergencies
Using information from 17 population surveys. this article analyses whether there are differences between the prevalence of mood, anxiety and alcohol use disorders among persons with multiple pain conditions compared with those with single pain problems. The results suggest that the existence of multiple pain conditions can be favourably and comparably associated with mood and anxiety disorders in diverse cultures. This article would be of interest to people interested in the relation among multiple pains and mental disorders
PAIN, Vol 135, Issue 1
This report presents survey findings on HIV prevalence in Haiti and other related results, including knowledge of HIV and AIDS, attitudes toward people living with HIV, and sexual behaviour. The survey was undertaken by the Mortality, Morbidity, and Utilization of Services Assessment Survey (EMMUS-IV) [Enquête Mortalité, Morbidité et Utilisation des Services] conducted between October 2005 and June 2006. The French version of this report follows the English version
This document provides guidance on the process for identifying, documenting and sharing knowledge on country experiences in the planning, implementation and monitoring of health programmes and services that can be considered as 'Best Practices' and that can contribute to the acceleration and expansion of health sector actions. It has been written for WHO staff, ministries of health and civil society organisations
This training manual enhances "the understanding of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) based approach to disability measurement. It provides an overview of the ICF framework as well as guidelines on how to operationalise the underlying concepts of functioning and disability into data collection, dissemination and analysis." This manual is useful for anyone who is interested in disability data collection and dissemination for both national and international disability policy analysis, formulation and evaluation
This paper seeks to contribute to current debate on evidence-based practice and appropriate models of disability rehabilitation for people with disabilities in developing countries. Based on the authors' experience in, and evaluation of Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) projects and research, they provide suggestions for utilising different kinds of evidence at different levels of CBR. The paper proposes four considerations. First, at the micro level of individual rehabilitation techniques, it recommends the judicious co-opting of available evidence from conventional evidence sources. Second, at the level of service planning, it suggests the need for conducting major syntheses of CBR evaluation reports for evidence. Third, it proposes the incorporation of values with research in consideration of issues at the model level. Finally, the paper proposes that in the case of CBR and similar approaches, new conceptualisations and methodologies are required in current understandings of evidence-based research and practice, which highlight the voice of people with disabilities, their family members and communities as key sources of evidence-related data."This paper seeks to contribute to current debate on evidence-based practice and appropriate models of disability rehabilitation for people with disabilities in developing countries...The paper proposes four considerations. First, at the micro level of individual rehabilitation techniques, it recommends the judicious co-opting of available evidence from conventional evidence sources. Second, at the level of service planning, it suggests the need for conducting major syntheses of CBR evaluation reports for evidence. Third, it proposes the incorporation of values with research in consideration of issues at the model level. Finally, the paper proposes that in the case of CBR and similar approaches, new conceptualisations and methodologies are required in current understandings of evidence-based research and practice, which highlight the voice of people with disabilities, their family members and communities as key sources of evidence-related data"
Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 19, No 2
“Poverty and mental illness compound one another, creating an environment of despair for some of the most vulnerable people in low and middle-income countries. Mental health intervention programmes in resource-poor settings such as rural Northern India must understand and address the economic burden of mental illness, in addition to clinical and functional outcomes. The BasicNeeds [BN]- Nav Bharat Jagruti Kendra [NBJK] intervention programme, located in rural Northern India, aims to improve quality of life for people with mental disorders and their families, through treatment, livelihoods and capacity building interventions based on the Mental Health and Development Model. This prospective evaluation assessed economic outcomes of 138 people with mental disorders involved in the BN-NBJK programme over a period of two years”
Cost-effectiveness analysis is used to evaluate medical interventions worldwide, in both developed and developing countries. This book provides process-specific instruction in a concise, structured format to provide a robust working knowledge of common methods and techniques. Each chapter includes real-world examples and tips that highlight key information. Calculations concerning disability life adjusted years are covered. The third edition contains new discussion on meta-analysis and advanced modelling techniques and a long worked example.
This resource offers guidance and 29 indicators to measure how information products and services contribute to improving health programmes. It includes the 'Conceptual Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Health Information Products and Services', which illustrates how improving the reach and usefulness of information products and services facilitates and increases their use - which in turn enhances public health policy and practice. Together, the elements in the Guide can help health professionals to better evaluate the contribution of their knowledge management work to crucial health outcome
Source e-bulletin on Disability and Inclusion