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Sightsavers' approach to making health services inclusive for everyone

Sightsavers
April 2019

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Sightsavers has produced a new film that sets out our work to make health care services accessible and inclusive for everyone. It focuses on our programmes in Bhopal, India and Nampula, Mozambique. This highlights how we work and share learnings globally, but also shows how programmes can be made locally relevant by working with partners with direct experience.

The film showcases some of the people who work hard to make our inclusive health programmes a success, from Sightsavers experts and government health workers to leaders of disabled people’s organisations.

To find out more our inclusive health work and how we are developing best practice in terms of inclusive health programmes, visit our website: https://www.sightsavers.org/disability/health/

Scaling up inclusive approaches for marginalised and vulnerable people. K4D emerging issues report

CARTER, Becky
JOSHI, Anu
REMME, Michelle
July 2018

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This rapid review summarises the evidence on how to scale up inclusive approaches to complex social change. It looks at how to design scalable inclusive change interventions, as well as how to plan and manage the scale-up process. Focusing on interventions with the aim of reaching the most marginalised and transform social norms, it covers programmes aiming to deliver inclusive outcomes for women and girls (with a particular focus on preventing violence against women and girls) and persons with disabilities. To date, many interventions seeking to change harmful gender and disability norms have been implemented as small-scale projects. There are limited experiences of scale-up and fewer evaluations of these experiences. However, there are some documented case studies as well as emerging analysis that draw out lessons learned. From this evidence base, this rapid desk review identifies eight critical issues commonly highlighted as important considerations when scaling up inclusive change interventions:

1. Opportunities for systemic approach, including integrating political and community-level scale-up, and coordinating across multiple sectors and stakeholders

2. Political support for scale-up

3. Strategic choices: balancing reach, speed, cost, quality, equity, and sustainability

4. Catalysing change: tipping points, diffusion effects, and local champions

5. Locally grounded, participatory, and adaptive approaches

6. Long-term approaches with funding models to match

7. Cost-effective and financially feasible scale-up strategies

8. Measuring impact and sustainability.

 

Scale-up pathways are discussed including: horizontal, vertical, functional and organisational.

A number of case studies are given.

Disability, health and human development

MITRA, Sophie
2018

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This open access book introduces the human development model to define disability and map its links with health and wellbeing, based on Sen’s capability approach. The author uses panel survey data with internationally comparable questions on disability for Ethiopia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. It presents evidence on the prevalence of disability and its strong and consistent association with multidimensional poverty, mortality, economic insecurity and deprivations in education, morbidity and employment. It shows that disability needs to be considered from multiple angles including aging, gender, health and poverty. Ultimately, this study makes a call for inclusion and prevention interventions as solutions to the deprivations associated with impairments and health conditions.

 

Chapters include:

  • The Human Development Model of Disability, Health and Wellbeing
  • Measurement, Data and Country Context
  • Prevalence of Functional Difficulties
  • Functional Difficulties and Inequalities Through a Static Lens
  • Dynamics of Functional Difficulties and Wellbeing
  • Main Results and Implications

 

Audiology and speech-language pathology: Practitioners’ reflections on indigeneity, disability and neo-colonial marketing

PILLAYA, Mershen
KATHARD, Harsha
2018

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Indigenous peoples are part of those populations who are underserved by Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology. They include minority world populations like Aboriginal Australians/Canadians and majority world peoples in Asia, Africa and the Americas. How do Western-oriented rehabilitation/disability practitioners practice with Others? In this article, we reflect on our own experiences and use ideological critique to reveal the fault lines in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology practices. Along with other examples, we analyse South African data. We reveal predominant practices/ideologies that contribute to the production of disability. We focus on three interconnected issues (i) the construction of rehabilitation/disability practitioners as (il)legitimate providers for indigenous peoples; (ii) the engagement of epistemic violence across disability practice, educational and policy domains; and (iii) the authoritative (re)inscription of indigenous persons as disabled by transnational practitioners who, like their corporate counterparts, market practices. Professional marketeering is infused with bigotry, masked as benevolence and resourced/justified by global, neo-liberal policies (e.g., international conventions) and funding. We conclude that disability practices and indigeneity in the post-colonial moment capitalises on established settler-native relationships to continue dominance over Others’ lives.

 

Disability and the Global South, 2018, Vol.5, No. 2, 1385-1406 

Disabling bodies of/and land: Reframing disability justice in conversation with indigenous theory and activism

JAFFEE, Laura
JOHN, Kelsey
2018

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A central claim of this paper is that the destruction of Earth through practices of settler colonialism is inextricable from the disablement of Indigenous ontology, peoples, and communities. The disablement of land/body as a tactic of settler colonialism has persisted for centuries and takes multifarious forms. By highlighting Indigenous struggles to protect Mother Earth and her sacred resources, we suggest that Indigenous ontology, specifically relationships to land (Deloria, 1972), challenges Eurocentric/settler disability theory at the epistemological level by rejecting the taken-for-granted dualism between the environment and (disabled) humans within (settler) disability studies. Indigenous ontology, and Indigenous peoples’ experiences of settler colonialism, belie a clear bifurcation of humans and the environment, or bodies and space. Land appropriation, resource extraction, linguistic genocide, forced removal, erasure, and devastation by settlers invariably wreaks havoc on the land, spirit, livestock, and bodies of Indigenous peoples. Rejecting logics of elimination and imagining alternative futures- in opposition to the capitalist state’s projection of futures devoid of disability and Indigeneity- is essential for realizing national and bodily self-determination for non-Indigenous disabled and Indigenous peoples in the present and into the future.

 

Disability and the Global South, 2018, Vol.5, No. 2, 1407-1429

Disability, health and human development

MITRA, Sophie
October 2017

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This book presents new research on disability, health, and wellbeing in four countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda) . The primary focus is empirical. It also makes a conceptual contribution as it presents a new model of disability based on the human development and capability approach. It addresses four questions: 

  • How should disability be defined to analyse and inform policies related to wellbeing?
  • What is the prevalence of functional difficulties?
  • What inequalities are associated with functional difficulties?
  • What are the economic consequences of functional difficulties? 

Detailed data analysis using large-scale household survey datasets is combined with an interactional model of disability based on Amartya Sen’s capability approach.

 

DOI 10.1057/978-1-137-53638-9

 

First of book series: the Palgrave Studies in Disability and International Development

Disability under occupation : at the congruence between conflict, religion, & society in Palestine

RASHID, Omar
January 2015

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A dissertation on the Palestinian experience of disability under Israeli territorial occupation. The following key research questions were considered under this dissertation. "First, to locate the perceptions of disability among the disabled in the occupied territories of Palestine, in light of their religious affiliation. Second, to investigate the realities of the disabled within Palestine; and third, to enquire as to whether there had been any differences in the perceptions of disabilities and the realities of those who were injured in conflict, and those who were born with impairment" These questions were answered through a hybrid-methods system of research, with a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods being used

 

Dissertation submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Birmingham

The user has given permission for the original dissertation document to be uploaded to be reproduced and made publicly available on the Source website

Inclusive learning : children with disabilities and difficulties in learning : topic guide

HOWGEGO, Catherine
MILES, Susie
MYERS, Juliette
September 2014

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"This HEART Topic Guide brings together evidence on what works in inclusive learning for children aged 3 to 12 years with disabilities and/or difficulties in learning in low and middle income countries, and explores the role of inclusive approaches in contributing to inclusive societies and ultimately inclusive growth. The Topic Guide addresses some of the contested and debated issues around terminology, labelling, and segregated, integrated and inclusive schooling; reviews the limited evidence that exists from low and middle income countries around the outcomes of inclusive learning; and identifies future research directions"

Note: This resource is available in both pdf and online formats

Count me in - Include people with disabilities in development projects | A practical guide for organisations in the North and South

BRUIJN, Paulien
et al
November 2012

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"People with disabilities are often amongst the poorest in the developing world. Yet they are usually left out of development projects. This is not because of ill-will. Development organisations simply do not know how to include them. This book offers suggestions based on the experience of organisations that participated in a two-year learning programme. It is full of useful tips on how to launch inclusive programmes and projects, how to prepare your staff for working with people with disabilities and how to adapt your organisational processes and systems"

Available in Braille, high resolution, low resolution and word formats.
Available in Portuguese: "Inclusão de pessoas com deficiência nos projectos de desenvolvimento: Um guia prático para organizações do Norte e do Sul".
Available in French: "Tiens compte de moi - L'inclusion de personnes en situation de handicap dans les projets de développement"
Available in Spanish: "Cuenta conmigo - Incluir a las personas con discapacidad en los proyectos de desarrollo"

Are current guidelines for categorization of visual impairment in India appropriate?

MONGA, Parveen K
et al
October 2009

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Visual disability in India is categorised based on severity, and sometimes the disabled person does not fit unambiguously into any of the categories.  This study aimed to identify and quantify disability that does not fit in the current classification, and propose a new classification that includes all levels of vision. The research team found that around 10% of patients did not fall within did not fall within any of the existing categories, forcing the disability board to use its own judgement, and resulting in a tenancy to over-garde the disability. The authors propose a classification based on the national program in India for control of blindness' definition of normal vision (20/20 to 20/60), low vision ( < 20/60 to 20/200), economic blindness ( < 20/200 to 20/400) and social blindness ( < 20/400). It ranges from the mildest disability (normal vision in one eye, low vision in the other) up to the most severe grade (social blindness in both eyes).  The article concludes by acknowledging that the current classification of visual disabilities does not include all combinations of vision; some disabled patients cannot be categorised. The classification proposed by the authors is comprehensive, progresses logically, and follows the definitions of the national India program

Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol 57, Issue 6

The influence of HIV/AIDS on community-based rehabilitation in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

BOYCE, William
COTE, Laurence
January 2009

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This paper examines the impact of HIV and AIDS on community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Over a three-month period, observational sessions and individual interviews were conducted with caregivers of children with disabilities, CBR workers and managers. Among the findings was a significant decrease in CBR activities in families affected by HIV and AIDS. It is recommended that further integration of CBR work with general health development initiatives might improve this situation

Resource manual for disability and HIV/AIDS training

TATARYN, Myroslava
Ed
2006

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This manual was designed for individuals and organisations who want to learn more about disability and HIV and AIDS, and share this information with others. Each chapter follows the story, and dialogue between two disabled people actively learning about HIV and AIDS and their disabilities. Within the context of the characters, this guide provides extensive information on sexuality, HIV biology, prevention, testing and stigma. This resource would be useful for any one with an interest in approaches to disability, HIV and AIDS education and disability and development

The capability approach and disability

MITRA, Sophie
2006

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"The purpose of this article is to assess how an approach developed in economics to analyze issues related to the standard of living, the so-called capability approach, may help us understand disability at the conceptual level"
Journal of Disability Policy Studies, Vol 16, No 4

Definitions of disability in Europe : a comparative analysis

MABBETT, Deborah
Eds
September 2002

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This report examines the definitions of disability found in social policy throughout European Union member states and Norway. It differentiates between anti-discrimination legislation and more restrictive social policy and would be useful for anyone with an interest in disability studies and legislation

Disability/Postmodernity : embodying disability theory

CORKER, Mairian
SHAKESPEARE, Tom
Eds
2002

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With contributions from leading scholars around the world, the aim of this book is to demystify the concept of postmodernity and to suggest ways in which it fosters a holistic approach to the study of disability that better represents and reflects the complexity of disabled people's experience. This book provides a contribution to both disability studies and social and cultural theory

Inclusion and social justice articles

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This website provides a range of accessible articles on inclusion and social justice, arranged by author. In addition, the website features links to over 130 internet sites that feature similar articles and resources

The disability archive UK

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The aim of the Disability Archive UK is to provide access to the writings of those disability activists, writers and allies whose work may no longer be easily accessible in the public domain, to help inform current and future debates on disability and related issues

Equalise it! : a manifesto for disability equality in development cooperation

International Disability Equality Agency (IDEA)
et al

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This manifesto is a political statement, presenting a view that disabled people and their representative organisations have been excluded from decision-making and funding on disability and development issues. It suggests that large development organisations and disability charities have a monopoly on funding and are consequently seen by disabled people as part of the problem, not part of the solution. A key slogan of the manifesto is "professionals on tap - not on top". This refers to redefining and changing the relationship between disabled people and non-disabled professionals, whereby disabled people assume the leading position on all disability and development issues, requesting support from non-disabled professionals only as and when required. Perhaps somewhat contentious, the manifesto certainly raises a series of important questions and debates that should be of interest to anyone involved in disability and development issues

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