A guidance note on considerations for children and adults with disabilities in the COVID-19 response. The guidance describes what we need to know about the situation of persons with disabilities in COVID-19 response, and what we need to do in five key points: Limit human to human transmission and protect individuals from exposure; minimise morbidity and mortality; prevent and address the secondary impact of the outbreak- minimise the human consequences of the outbreak; enhance risk reduction and in-country preparedness including coordination; inclusion in UNICEF operations
A literature review was carried out to identify and assess the evidence for interventions to reduce stigma experienced by children with disabilities and their families in low and middle-income settings. A systematic review of seven databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, Social Policy and Practice, CINAHL, IBSS) for articles published January 2000 to April 2018 was carried out. Data were extracted on study population, study design, intervention level(s) and target group, and type(s) of stigma addressed. A narrative approach was used to synthesise the results.
Twenty studies were included. The majority (65%) of interventions targeted enacted stigma (negative attitudes) and the most common intervention approach was education/training (63%). Over half (54%) of interventions were delivered at the organisational/ institutional level and only four studies targeted more than one social level. The most common disability targeted was epilepsy (50%) followed by intellectual impairment (20%).
Trop Med Int Health. 2020 Mar
This edition of the Disability inclusion helpdesk summarises the major announcements, events and reports published on 3rd December 2019, International Day of Persons with Disabilities.
This study measured and compared the prevalence of disability and developmental delay among children attending preschool centres in rural Malawi. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 48 preschool centres in Thyolodistrict, Malawi. Data were collected from parents or guardians of 20 children per centre. Disability was ascertained using the Washington Group/UNICEF Child Functioning Module. Child development was measured using the language and social domains of the Malawi Development Assessment Tool. A total of 960 children were enrolled; 935 (97.4%) children were assessed for disability and 933 (97.2%) for developmental delay; 100 (10.7%) children were identified as having a disability
Child Care Health Dev. 2020;46:187–194.
The Bond Disability and Development Group (DDG) has commissioned this learning paper to summarise discussions which took place at the DDG’s Data Lab workshop, held in London on 22 October 2019, and to be used as a reference document going forward. This first workshop focused on why organisations need to collect disability data; what tools are available and practical ways in which these can be used. This learning paper provides a summary of these discussions and can act as a guide and reference tool for organisations looking to be more inclusive in their programming, generally, and in their data collection practices, specifically. A number of case studies and numerous resource references are provided.
To estimate the proportion of children with trachomatous inflammation—follicular (TF) and adults with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in the Darfur States of Sudan and to evaluate associated risk factors.
A random-effects hierarchical model was used to evaluate factors associated with TF and TT. Thirty-six IDP camps were represented in the survey data in which 1926 children aged 1–9 years were examined, of whom 38 (8%) had TF. Poor sanitation, younger age and living in a household that purchased water from a vendor were associated with TF in children aged 1–9 years.
Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2019 Oct 11;113(10):599-609
This study used a parametric bootstrap model to estimate intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in 1-9 year-olds, from 261 population-based trachoma prevalence surveys completed using standardised GTMP methodologies in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Nigeria from 2012-2016.
Results from this study were used to draw up the most recent WHO 2018 recommendations on design effect (DE) estimates for sample size calculations for survey
American Journal of Epidemiology, 2019 Sep 11. pii: kwz196
In 2009 Ghana began to design a trachoma pre-validation surveillance plan, based on then-current WHO recommendations. The plan aimed to identify active trachoma resurgence and identify and manage trichiasis cases, through both active and passive surveillance approaches. This paper outlines and reviews the adaptations made by Ghana between 2011 and 2016
Infectious Diseases of Poverty volume 8, Article number: 78 (2019)
Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness, and facial cleanliness has been associated with reduced odds of trachomatous inflammation and Chlamydia trachomatis infection. This study reports on the results of a program integrating face washing into a school-based handwashing promotion program in Turkana County, Kenya
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2019 Oct;101(4):767-773
This document provides a rapid review of the evidence on approaches to ensuring people with disabilities are reached through nutrition programming, focusing on children, adolescents, and women of reproductive age in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The purpose of this review is to support DFID advisers and partners designing and implementing programmes with nutrition components to ensure they are more inclusive of people with disabilities. After outlining the methodology in Section 2, Section 3 includes an overview of available evidence on what works to ensure nutrition programming reaches people with disabilities, as well as an assessment of the strength of the evidence, and highlighting key research gaps. Section 4 provides a summary on factors affecting access for people with disabilities, and Section 5 concludes by drawing a series of considerations for policy and programming to ensure that people with disabilities are not left behind when it comes to government-led and development partner-led programmes to tackle malnutrition. Case studies of approaches are included in annex 1 to give further insights on promising practices and key learnings
This Compendium documents the broad range of UNICEF’s social protection interventions in MENA from 2014-2017.
The Compendium includes 20 case studies detailing UNICEF’s contributions in the MENA region across the following five Action Areas
- Evidence and Advocacy (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Yemen, Morocco)
- Policies, coordinating and financing (Djibouti, Morocco)
- Cash transfer programming and systems strengthening (Egypt, Jordan, Tunisia)
- Cash plus interventions and social work (Iraq, State of Palestine (highlights children with disabilities), Yemen)
- Social protection in fragile and humanitarian contexts/settings (Yemen, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria). The Syrian programme was "Reaching children with complex disabilities through cash transfers and case management"
This publication draws together research and learning from around the world, in papers which highlight the need for inclusive education and some of the steps being taken to implement it.
The settings brought to life here reveal the work of teachers, leaders and policy makers in geographically and culturally diverse situations. In each of the chapters we see the challenges they face and the significant efforts they make to ensure access to, and engagement with, a quality education for all children. The collection includes 15 case studies:
Special educational needs and disability section:
- Teaching for All: mainstreaming inclusive education in South Africa
- Successful inclusive education starts with teachers: what have we learned? A multi-country case study
- Teaching English as a second language to the visually impaired in disadvantaged contexts: a case study from Chiapas, Mexico
- The Theatre of the Classroom
Displaced populations section
- Teaching on the run: safe learning spaces for internally displaced persons
- Developing resilience through English language teaching in youth centres across Iraq
- Capacity building for inclusive classrooms: the Living Together training
- Integrating Syrian refugee children and their parents into Lebanese early education systems
Gender and inclusion in the classroom section
- A gender equality and social inclusion approach to teaching and learning: lessons from the Girls’ Education Challenge
- Teacher development and gender equality in five Nigerian states
- Creating gender-inclusive schools in Turkey: the ETCEP project in action
- Education, English language, and girls’ development: exploring gender-responsive policies and practices in Nepal
Minority ethnic groups in the classroom
- Social inclusion and the role of English language education: making a transition from school to higher education in India
- Storytelling for diverse voices
- Inclusive education in marginalised contexts: the San and Ovahimba learners in Namibia
This report covers children's exposure to blasts, children's unique vulnerability to blast injury (head, torso, burns and long term effects) and why children are exposed to blast.
Across five of the deadliest conflicts for children in 2017, an estimated 72% of child casualties were due to blasts. Using UN data for Afghanistan, Yemen, Syria, Nigeria and Iraq we can see that of the 7,364 children killed or maimed in conflict in 2017, at least 5,322 were linked to blasts.
The Field Manual has been created to provide technical guidance for those with medical training. It enables the user to adapt their knowledge to the treatment of severely injured children. It has paediatric-specific sections on:
- Pre-hospital care and transport
- Damage control resuscitation, surgery and intensive care
- Surgery (thoraco-abdominal, limb, burns)
- Neurological injury
- Ward care
- Psychosocial support
- Ethics and safeguarding
The Manual is also intended for use by anyone who is required to plan for the treatment of severely injured children, so they can see the resources, training and equipment that is required in a medical facility likely to receive blast injured children.
Background identification of children at risk of developmental delay and/or impairment requires valid measurement of early child development (ECD). ECD measurement tools were systematically assessed for accuracy and feasibility for use in routine services in low income and middle-income countries (LMIC).
Building on World Bank and peer-reviewed literature reviews, available ECD measurement tools for children aged 0–3 years used in ≥1 LMIC were identified and matrixed according to when (child age) and what (ECD domains) they measure at population or individual level. Tools measuring <2 years and covering ≥3 developmental domains, including cognition, were rated for accuracy and feasibility criteria using a rating approach derived from Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations
Articles in this issue include:
Working together to advocate for our children in Trinidad and Tobago
The inclusion of deaf children in Malaysia: parental support and advocacy
Family-mediated intervention to support inclusion in Bulgaria
Creating inclusivity and diversity through a parent support group in Kolkata, India
The positive impact of family involvement in inclusive education, Tetouan, Morocco
People with disabilities are at a heightened risk of communicable and non-communicable diseases and these diseases can cause debility and disability. Health needs of these people often extend beyond requiring continual longterm medical support to addressing broader social inequities. Key areas that are likely to be critical in re-orientating health systems from a biomedical approach towards inclusive health systems that are more responsive to the needs of people with debility and disability in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are offered in this report and cover the following:
- 1. Nothing about us without us: prioritising person-centred health systems
- 2. Responding to issues of access in mainstreaming disability within health systems
- 3. Ensuring the provision of specialised services
- 4. Community based rehabilitation
- 5. Improving the collection and use of disability related data against modified legal and policy frameworks
- 6. Partnerships are paramount
- 7. Financing and social protection
Case studies are provided from Sudan, India, Liberia, Uganda and Nigeria
Humanity & Inclusion (HI) and iMMAP conducted a study concerning with the lack of disability data in the Syria crisis context, which aimed to:
- Provide statistically reliable prevalence of disability as well as disability disaggregated data indicators on access to services.
- Increase understanding of the situation of Syrian refugees with disabilities and their households, compared to their peers without disabilities, in relation to the access to services including education, and key barriers experienced in accessing these services.
- Recommend inclusive actions to be prioritized by humanitarian actors.
The study conducted a literature review, quantitative data collection as well as qualitative data collection. Quantitative data was collected from 6,381 persons of randomly sampled 1,159 households in Azraq and Zaatari camps and Irbid between October 2017 and January 2018. Twenty-five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and 3 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted between November 2017 and January 2018 to elicit deeper insights on the educational situation of children with and without disabilities
Published in 2011, the Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health initiative provided a framework to guide the research needed to improve treatment and prevention of mental health disorders and expand access to mental health services. At the Academy’s workshop on global mental health participants reflected on progress since 2011, focusing on specific life-course stages, and identified priorities for research in treatment and prevention, as well as enduring challenges and emerging opportunities
For teenagers in developing countries, there is no greater threat to life than road traffic crashes: road crashes are the leading cause of preventable death of youth aged 15 to 29 years, and the second cause for those aged 5 to 14 years.(6) The risks are even higher for children with disabilities, who are also more exposed to non-fatal injuries from road crashes.
In this thematic brief, the importance of inclusive urban planning is emphasised. Urban mobility and road safety challenges discussed include: safe crossing points over roads and collective transport (particularly buses).
Two case studies are provided: Safer access to school for disabled students in Kenya; and School access and pedestrian safety improvements in Democratic Republic of Congo
Recommendations for improvements in policies and actions are given under the headings:
- 1. Strengthening the policy and financial framework for safe and inclusive mobility, based on evidence and through participative processes
- 2. Removing the barriers to safe and accessible mobility, focusing on: the built environment; transport and vehicles; people
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