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Costs and cost-effectiveness of training traditional birth attendants to reduce neonatal mortality in the Lufwanyama neonatal survival study (LUNESP)

SABIN, Lora L
et al
2012

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"The Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project ("LUNESP") was a cluster randomized, controlled trial that showed that training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to perform interventions targeting birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and neonatal sepsis reduced all-cause neonatal mortality by 45%. This companion analysis was undertaken to analyze intervention costs and cost-effectiveness, and factors that might improve cost-effectiveness"
PLoS ONE 7(4)

Packages of care for epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries

MBUBA, Caroline K
NEWTON, Charles R
October 2009

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This article focuses on the management of epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries and recommends a package of care - a combination of interventions aimed at improving the recognition and management of conditions to achieve optimal outcomes - for epilepsy, that is sustainable

A book for midwives : care for pregnancy, birth and women's health|Un libro para parteras : atencion del embarazo, el parto y la salud de la mujer

KLEIN, Susan
MILLER, Suellen
THOMPSON, Fiona
2009

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Originally published in 1995, A Book for Midwives has been a comprehensive resource for practicing midwives and midwifery training programmes around the world. This new edition has been extensively updated and revised to reflect new WHO/UNICEF guidelines and standards for mothers and newborn children.This book covers the essentials of care before, during, and after birth, providing a variety of designs for low-cost equipment and training materials. It includes new information on helping women stay healthy during pregnancy; helping mothers have safer labors and births; preventing, managing, and treating obstetric emergencies; breastfeeding; the health needs of new babies; and involving the community in improving the health of mothers and pregnant women. It also includes new information about treatment and medications for HIV and other sexually transmitted infectons; vaccinations, medicines, and drug interactions; infection prevention; improved methods for dealing with complicated deliveries; and new and updated information on family planning

Danger signs of neonatal illnesses : perceptions of caregivers and health workers in northern India

AWASTHI, Shally
VERMA, Tuhina
AGARWAL, Monica
October 2006

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This article explores the "household practices that can affect neonatal health, from the perspective of caregivers and health workers; to identify signs in neonates leading either to recognition of illness or health-care seeking; and to ascertain the proportion of caregivers who recognize the individual items of the integrated management of neonatal and childhood illnesses (IMNCI) programme"
Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(10)

Violence against young children : a painful issue [whole issue]

June 2006

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The Convention on the Rights of the Child condemns 'all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation', and yet cultural practices often tolerate or even encourage some forms of violence, such as corporal punishment, genital mutilation or forced early marriage. This issue of Early Childhood Matters aims to contribute to the debate around the concept and practice of violence, abuse and neglect. Includes case studies of projects designed to reduce violence at home, in schools and in the streets

Grandmothers promote maternal and child health : the role of indigenous knowledge systems' managers

AUBEL, Judi
February 2006

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IK Notes report on indigenous knowledge initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa and occasionally on such initiatives outside the region. It is published by the World Bank Africa region's Knowledge and Learning Centre as part of an evolving partnership between the World Bank, communities, NGOs, development institutions and multilateral organisations. This edition outlines the role of grandmothers as 'managers' of indigenous knowledge systems that deal with the development, care and well being of women and their children. The paper outlines a rationale for involving grandmothers in community programmes based around child and maternal health, and nutrition

Footsteps issues 18-65

TEARFUND
2006

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Includes issues 18 - 65 of Footsteps, a newsletter with a Christian emphasis that is aimed at all health and development workers. It aims to share practical ideas and enthusiasm on all aspects of development that impact at community level, including health, sustainable agriculture, agro-forestry, literacy, the environment, and project management. Provides book reviews and resource guides

Maternal survival : improving access to skilled care. A behavior change approach

CHANGE
February 2005

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This summary is based on the CHANGE Maternal Survival Toolkit, available online at: www.changeproject.org and on CD-ROM. It explores ways of influencing behaviours and encouraging use of health services and health professionals during childbirth and the postpartum period. A number of factors can prevent pregnant women from accessing skilled care, often putting themselves and the child at risk. They include availability of health services and high costs but also, and crucially, local culture, family and community behaviours and traditional practices. The CHANGE Project's approach and this document stress locally appropriate, behaviour-based interventions that integrate what is happening in homes, communities and health facilities. This tool is aimed at organisations and individuals working in the field of mother and child health, and willing to look at maternal and child survival issues from a behaviour change perspective

Telemedicine and knowledge between medical and development discourses

MISCIONE, Gianluca
2005

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This paper explores the implication of health care development through ICT on local norms of participation, and local accountabilities. Drawing on an example from the Amazon, the author notes the interplay between a telemedicine system and local knowledge. He suggests that ICT is an 'accountable structure' for a model of development based on linear transmition of knowledge rather than dialogue and participation

Children at play : a childhood beyond the Confucian shadow

BAI, Limin
2005

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This article presents a historical overview of Chinese attitudes to children's play activities. While Confucian and neo-Confucian scholars based their pedagogical teaching on an idealised image of childhood and showed a hostile attitude to play, games and toys, traditional China accepted children's right to play. Furthermore, a dualism between play activities and daily life activities was alien to Chinese traditional society, and games were rather understood as interwoven into daily life in many ways. This paper can be particularly useful to researchers and practitioners keen on exploring the cultural foundations of childhood and children's education in contemporary China

Management of birth asphyxia in home deliveries in rural Gadchiroli : the effect of two types of birth attendants and of resuscitating with mouth-to-mouth, tube-mask or bag-mask

BANG, Abhay T
et al
2005

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This article reports the results of a study to evaluate the effect of home-based neonatal care on birth asphyxia and to compare the effectiveness of trained traditional birth attendants and village health workers in using mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, tube-mask or bag-mask interventions

Making pregnancy safer : the critical role of the skilled attendant|a joint statement by WHO, ICM and FIGO

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO), DEPARTEMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND RESEARCH
INTERNATIONAL CONFEDERATION OF MIDWIVES (ICM)
INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS (FIGO)
2004

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This statement advocates for skilled care during pregnancy, childbirth and the immediate postnatal period. The statement defines clearly who is a skilled attendant, what skills she/he should have and how she/he should be trained and supported

Guidelines on developing consumer information on proper use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine

FALKENBERG,Torkel
HOK, Johanna
SCHONSTROM, Suzanna
2004

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These guidelines offer an overview of the general principles and activities necessary for the development of reliable consumer information about traditional, complementary and alternative medicine. Aimed at governments and other stakeholders, they would also be a useful reference on the information consumers need to guide them when seeking a safe and effective therapy

24 tips for culturally sensitive programming

UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND (UNFPA)
2004

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"This booklet, a companion to the publication ‘Working from Within’, colorfully presents 24 tips, one per page, for culturally sensitive programming, based on research carried out by UNFPA"

Reproductive health outlook

PROGRAM FOR APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY IN HEALTH (PATH)
2004

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Provides summaries of research findings, programme experience and clinical guidelines related to key reproductive health topics, as well as analyses of policy and programme implications. Reproductive Health Outlook is designed for reproductive health programme managers and decision makers working in developing countries and low-resource settings

Routemapping culture and development : report on a pilot research project exploring the use of cultural approaches to development within five UK development agencies

GOULD, Helen
MARSH, Mary
2004

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This research highlights the inconsistent approach and limited explicit policy with reference to cultural activities in development, despite finding over 350 examples across five development agencies over two years. The study considers the different uses of culture in development, finding a lack of consistency in implementing projects, little understanding of how cultural processes work, and few examples of appropriate evaluation

Community care, change and hope : local responses to HIV in Zambia

LUCAS, Sue
2004

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This case study documents a successful model for facilitating a strong community response to HIV and AIDS. The Salvation Army Change Programme in Ndola and Choma Districts in Zambia illustrates the facilitation process stimulating an appropriate local response to HIV and AIDS and essential component of human capacity development. The model builds on local strengths and resources, stimulating ordinary people to address the barriers that prevent them from using HIV and AIDS information and services to prevent new infections, compassionately care for those who are infected and mitigate the effects of the epidemic on families and the community. Only by addressing personal risk, stigma and the potential for personal and societal change will the demand for and use of voluntary counselling and testing, prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services increase

Sociocultural explanations for delays in careseeking for pneumonia

CENTRE FOR HEALTH AND POPULATION RESEARCH
December 2003

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This article is printed in the Health and Science Bulletin produced by the Centre for Health and Population Research, based in Bangladesh. It outlines research conducted among parents in Matlab, Bangladesh, revealing how their beliefs affect household treatment of childhood pneumonia and influence delays in seeking care from trained providers. Many indigenous beliefs and social factors prevent primary care providers, particularly mothers, of pneumonia cases from obtaining prompt and appropriate help. For example, in fear of being blamed for poor caring practices, mothers are reluctant to share information about the illness with other family members. Intervention strategies designed to reduce child mortality associated with pneumonia need to address the cultural beliefs and challenges. Efforts should focus on involving family members such as the child's father or grandmother in early recognition of pneumonia cases. It also suggests that health workers use local terminology and cultural knowledge to communicate the need for prompt treatment with a trained provider

Mali : traditional knowledge and the reduction of maternal and infant mortality

SANOGO, Rokia
GIANI, Sergio
November 2003

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IK Notes report on indigenous knowledge initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa and occasionally on such initiatives outside the region. It is published by the World Bank Africa region’s Knowledge and Learning Centre as part of an evolving partnership between the World Bank, communities, NGOs, development institutions and multilateral organisations. This edition outlines the high rate of maternal and infant mortality in Mali, despite interventions by the government and donors in the past ten years. It then outlines the methodology used in developing a close collaboration between the traditional system of assistance to pregnancy and childbirth (of which traditional birth assistants (TBAs) are the protagonists) and the modern system of management of obstetrical emergencies. This involved a new role for the TBAs in breaking down cultural barriers in access to modern health care. The first results appear promising, and the authors stress the importance of taking into account traditional knowledge in birthing practices when developing a national strategy for the control of maternal and infant mortality

Evaluation and utilization of traditional methods of communication in Cameroon's central, southern, eastern and extreme northern regions : case study 20

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO). Communication for Development Group
August 2003

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This study's main objectives are to evaluate traditional means of communication; to note their constraints; to select the traditional methods which can best be used for the diffusion of information and to devise a strategy for implementing the selected method of traditional communication. The methodology of this survey is based on the Active Method of Participative Research.
The study illustrates that the traditional media for communication in Cameroon are: the gong and songs accompanied by dances (in all of the surveyed provinces); the xylophone (in the center and south); griot [travelling poet] and balafon (in the east); colleagues of the traditional chiefs (Lawanes, Djaoros); and messengers of traditional chiefs or muezzins (extreme north).There are numerous constraints to using individuals in devising communications strategies: a lack of trained musicians, the lack of initiative on the part of the village elders, the disinterest of the youth, conflict among the different generations, the proliferation of modern communications technologies, the complexity of training in various methods, the possible alteration of messages, a lack of motivation and the slow speed of transmission. The study notes that the best methods for the diffusion of information in the regions surveyed in Cameroon are: the gong, the colleagues and messengers of traditional chiefs to organize village meetings in which reproductive health issues could be raised, singing and dancing, travelling poets and xylophones.
In order to devise effective strategies for conveying messages about reproductive health through these traditional methods of communication, traditional authorities must be engaged early on in the process and informed of the importance of these means of communication; qualified individuals must be identified as resources and others trained; and a training of trainers must be conducted

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