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Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Malay version of the Neck Disability Index

May 2020

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Purpose: Translating the Neck Disability Index (NDI) into the Malay language (NDI-M); evaluation of psychometric properties in patients with neck pain.


Methods: The NDI-M was translated according to established guidelines. In the first visit, 120 participants completed the NDI-M, visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and demographic details. 98 participants returned to complete similar questionnaires and the Global Rating of Change (GRoC) scale. The NDI-M was evaluated for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, content validity, construct validity and responsiveness.


Results: The NDI-M demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.84) and good test-retest reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.79). Content validity was confirmed with no floor or ceiling effects. Construct validity was established revealing three-factor subscales explaining 68% of the total variance. The NDI-M showed a moderate correlation with VAS (Rp = 0.49, p < 0.001). Regarding responsiveness, a moderate correlation between NDI-M change scores and VAS change scores was found (Rp = 0.40, p < 0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between NDI-M with GRoC (Rs = 0.11, p = 0.27).


Conclusions: The NDI-M is a reliable and valid tool to measure functional outcomes in patients with neck pain. It is responsive in detecting changes in pain intensity during a patient’s rehabilitation journey.

Perspectives in musculoskeletal injury management by traditional bone setters in Ashanti, Ghana

EDUSEI, Anthony K
DOGBE, Joslin A

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Background: The popularity of the services of traditional bone setters (TBS) in Ghana as an alternative health care requires exploration and documentation of the perspectives of providers and users. 


Objective: To explore and document the perspectives of providers and users of the services of TBS in the management of musculoskeletal injuries in the Ashanti region, Ghana.


Methods: From the social constructivist and qualitative approach, in-depth interviews were used to explore the perspectives of eight TBS and 16 users of their services, selected purposively through snowballing. Thematic content analysis (TCA) was employed.


Results: High recovery rate, warm reception, prompt attention, and the relatively lower charges, are reported to motivate the patronage of the services of TBS for the management of fractures in the legs, arms, ribs, joint bones dislocations, waist and spinal cord problems. The TBS combined traditional and orthodox procedures, using plant and animal-based materials, beliefs, spirituality (God-given) and physical therapy in the management of musculoskeletal injuries. No adverse experience was reported by either the providers or users of the traditional management methods.


Conclusion: With plant and animal-based materials, TBS are observed to combine traditional and orthodox procedures to confidently manage musculoskeletal injuries to the satisfaction of their highly motivated patrons. Although over 60% of the TBS attribute the healing power behind their practice to God, the rest do not discount the role of spiritual therapy. Further studies expanded to include the perspectives of non-users of the services of the TBS will authenticate the findings of this study.

Globalizing psychiatry and the case of ‘vanishing’ alternatives in a neo- colonial state

DAVAR, Bhargavi

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Analysing ‘modernity’ in India is a complex exercise, as the movement of the ‘modern’ is locally determined and may be non-linear at different sites and contexts. General medicine and psychiatry are illustrative of the difference in how ‘patienthood’ has been historically constructed, with each wave of ‘modernisation’ changing the subjecthood of the ‘mentally ill’. Unlike the public health sector in India, the mental health sector is driven by the ‘mental asylum’ archetype, continuing through late colonial times into contemporary science in refurbished designs. A related set of changes also concomitantly happened in the domain of indigenous healing, with each epistemic shift pushing this domain to the margins of knowledge and healing practice. The paper is set against the time period covering 1850s until recently (2014).


Disability and the Global South, 2014, Vol. 1 No. 2

Faith Healing in India: The Cultural Quotient of the Critical

LACROIX, Kimberly
DHAR, Anup

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We have had two ‘cultures of critique'. One is where critique of a culture's own principles is generated internally. The other is when critique is mounted from the outside. This paper is an attempt to shore up the two-fold nature of both culture of critique and critique of culture through a close examination of an extant and entrenched cultural practice provisionally called ‘faith healing' in its interlocution with western mental health models that are incumbent upon the Indian setting. This paper will explore what critical theory may need to consider in the context of India. Would it need a cultural turn, a culturalising? What is meant by culturalising? Would ‘culturalising', in turn, be premised on a bidirectional or dual critique, that is, a critique of both the West's hegemonic principles as well as principles that hegemonize the East, emanating from either the West or from the East? What relation would critique set up with an existing culture and cultural practice? What relation would culture set up with an existing culture of critique? In the process, this paper is also an attempt to inaugurate and locate the beginning coordinates of a critique of critique through the turn to culture in conditions called ‘faith healing'. The paper is also about the tense and troubled dialogue between the current globalization of certain frameworks in mental health, and local (faith-based) practices of health and healing that have survived in India; survived even in mutation and transformation, through colonialism, civilizing mission, welfarism and developmentalism. How would the knowledge and practice of mental health take shape in India – a landscape crisscrossed by on the one hand, aggressively modern institutions of mental health science and on the other, extant and surviving institutions of faith-based healing practices? While we remain critically mired in faith-based practices, while we cannot but be critical of some faith-based practices, we also cannot announce the silent demise of all Other imaginations of health and healing and let One global discourse take hold of all cultures. Hence, perhaps the need for what we have called the difficult ‘dual critique’. For critique also means an account of and an attention to experience and practice; an account formulated on its own terms and not on terms put in place by globalizing discourses. 


Disability and the Global South, 2014, Vol. 1 No. 2

Costs and cost-effectiveness of training traditional birth attendants to reduce neonatal mortality in the Lufwanyama neonatal survival study (LUNESP)

et al

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"The Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project ("LUNESP") was a cluster randomized, controlled trial that showed that training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to perform interventions targeting birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and neonatal sepsis reduced all-cause neonatal mortality by 45%. This companion analysis was undertaken to analyze intervention costs and cost-effectiveness, and factors that might improve cost-effectiveness"
PLoS ONE 7(4)

Packages of care for epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries

MBUBA, Caroline K
NEWTON, Charles R
October 2009

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This article focuses on the management of epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries and recommends a package of care - a combination of interventions aimed at improving the recognition and management of conditions to achieve optimal outcomes - for epilepsy, that is sustainable

Zimbabwean stories of best practice in mitigating the HIV crisis through a cultural and gender perspective : challenging gender dynamics in a cultural context to address HIV

PRICE, Leigh
March 2009

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This is a collection of best practice stories from six community-based organisations in Zimbabwe that have implemented innovative strategies and approaches in gender programming through a culture lens. The stories show how the organisations have been successful in promoting gender equality in the face of traditional practices, which relegate women in Africa to subordinate status and roles. They are about their struggles of trying to change the deep-seated traditional and cultural ideologies in a respectful and participatory way and the challenges faced by men and women from the communities who have taken the lead to bring about changes even when confronted with resistance from peers and elders, and important lessons about how to do things better

A book for midwives : care for pregnancy, birth and women's health|Un libro para parteras : atencion del embarazo, el parto y la salud de la mujer

KLEIN, Susan
MILLER, Suellen

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Originally published in 1995, A Book for Midwives has been a comprehensive resource for practicing midwives and midwifery training programmes around the world. This new edition has been extensively updated and revised to reflect new WHO/UNICEF guidelines and standards for mothers and newborn children.This book covers the essentials of care before, during, and after birth, providing a variety of designs for low-cost equipment and training materials. It includes new information on helping women stay healthy during pregnancy; helping mothers have safer labors and births; preventing, managing, and treating obstetric emergencies; breastfeeding; the health needs of new babies; and involving the community in improving the health of mothers and pregnant women. It also includes new information about treatment and medications for HIV and other sexually transmitted infectons; vaccinations, medicines, and drug interactions; infection prevention; improved methods for dealing with complicated deliveries; and new and updated information on family planning

Understanding and challenging HIV stigma : toolkit for action. Modules F & G : coping with stigma; treatment and stigma

KIDD, Ross
June 2007

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This is the fourth booklet in this revised toolkit to raise awareness and promote practical action to challenge HIV stigma and discrimination. Module F focuses on coping with stigma and module G on treatment and stigma. The toolkit was written by and for HIV trainers in Africa and changes and additions were made with the help of a regional trainers network workshop in Zambia in August 2005

Danger signs of neonatal illnesses : perceptions of caregivers and health workers in northern India

VERMA, Tuhina
October 2006

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This article explores the "household practices that can affect neonatal health, from the perspective of caregivers and health workers; to identify signs in neonates leading either to recognition of illness or health-care seeking; and to ascertain the proportion of caregivers who recognize the individual items of the integrated management of neonatal and childhood illnesses (IMNCI) programme"
Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(10)

Violence against young children : a painful issue [whole issue]

June 2006

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The Convention on the Rights of the Child condemns 'all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation', and yet cultural practices often tolerate or even encourage some forms of violence, such as corporal punishment, genital mutilation or forced early marriage. This issue of Early Childhood Matters aims to contribute to the debate around the concept and practice of violence, abuse and neglect. Includes case studies of projects designed to reduce violence at home, in schools and in the streets

Indigenous women working towards improved maternal health : Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia

May 2006

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This publication, part of the Action Research to Advocacy Initiative (ARAI) project, contains a summary of the research report 'Crossing the river and getting to the other side' (phase 1of the project) and a review of a series of a advocacy workshops for stakeholders (phase 2). The research assessed the maternal health situation in Ratanakiri, considering the policy environment and indigenous perspectives on maternal health priorities. The study found that access to health services is hampered by lack of money, absence of affordable transport, lack of care services, discrimination, lack of social support, traditional beliefs and inability to speak the official language. These findings were shared with stakeholders through a series of workshops design to develop advocacy capacity and skills. Stakeholders identified priority issues and developed an advocacy action plan. These meetings are described in some detail and insightful lessons learned are presented

Grandmothers promote maternal and child health : the role of indigenous knowledge systems' managers

February 2006

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IK Notes report on indigenous knowledge initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa and occasionally on such initiatives outside the region. It is published by the World Bank Africa region's Knowledge and Learning Centre as part of an evolving partnership between the World Bank, communities, NGOs, development institutions and multilateral organisations. This edition outlines the role of grandmothers as 'managers' of indigenous knowledge systems that deal with the development, care and well being of women and their children. The paper outlines a rationale for involving grandmothers in community programmes based around child and maternal health, and nutrition

Maternal survival : improving access to skilled care. A behavior change approach

February 2005

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This summary is based on the CHANGE Maternal Survival Toolkit, available online at: and on CD-ROM. It explores ways of influencing behaviours and encouraging use of health services and health professionals during childbirth and the postpartum period. A number of factors can prevent pregnant women from accessing skilled care, often putting themselves and the child at risk. They include availability of health services and high costs but also, and crucially, local culture, family and community behaviours and traditional practices. The CHANGE Project's approach and this document stress locally appropriate, behaviour-based interventions that integrate what is happening in homes, communities and health facilities. This tool is aimed at organisations and individuals working in the field of mother and child health, and willing to look at maternal and child survival issues from a behaviour change perspective

Children at play : a childhood beyond the Confucian shadow

BAI, Limin

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This article presents a historical overview of Chinese attitudes to children's play activities. While Confucian and neo-Confucian scholars based their pedagogical teaching on an idealised image of childhood and showed a hostile attitude to play, games and toys, traditional China accepted children's right to play. Furthermore, a dualism between play activities and daily life activities was alien to Chinese traditional society, and games were rather understood as interwoven into daily life in many ways. This paper can be particularly useful to researchers and practitioners keen on exploring the cultural foundations of childhood and children's education in contemporary China

Telemedicine and knowledge between medical and development discourses

MISCIONE, Gianluca

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This paper explores the implication of health care development through ICT on local norms of participation, and local accountabilities. Drawing on an example from the Amazon, the author notes the interplay between a telemedicine system and local knowledge. He suggests that ICT is an 'accountable structure' for a model of development based on linear transmition of knowledge rather than dialogue and participation

Management of birth asphyxia in home deliveries in rural Gadchiroli : the effect of two types of birth attendants and of resuscitating with mouth-to-mouth, tube-mask or bag-mask

BANG, Abhay T
et al

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This article reports the results of a study to evaluate the effect of home-based neonatal care on birth asphyxia and to compare the effectiveness of trained traditional birth attendants and village health workers in using mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, tube-mask or bag-mask interventions

Routemapping culture and development : report on a pilot research project exploring the use of cultural approaches to development within five UK development agencies

GOULD, Helen

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This research highlights the inconsistent approach and limited explicit policy with reference to cultural activities in development, despite finding over 350 examples across five development agencies over two years. The study considers the different uses of culture in development, finding a lack of consistency in implementing projects, little understanding of how cultural processes work, and few examples of appropriate evaluation

Community care, change and hope : local responses to HIV in Zambia


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This case study documents a successful model for facilitating a strong community response to HIV and AIDS. The Salvation Army Change Programme in Ndola and Choma Districts in Zambia illustrates the facilitation process stimulating an appropriate local response to HIV and AIDS and essential component of human capacity development. The model builds on local strengths and resources, stimulating ordinary people to address the barriers that prevent them from using HIV and AIDS information and services to prevent new infections, compassionately care for those who are infected and mitigate the effects of the epidemic on families and the community. Only by addressing personal risk, stigma and the potential for personal and societal change will the demand for and use of voluntary counselling and testing, prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy services increase