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Benefits and costs of e-accessibility : how economics and market forces can support e-accessibility and the convention on the rights of peoples' with disability

BURGER, Dominique
et al
March 2012

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This white paper seeks to document the innovative elements of a conference discussion about e-accessibility costs and benefits. Despite technological and political achievements, the economics of e-accessibility need to be understood. This paper aims to define new approaches to understand how best to promote e-accessibility models
E-Accessibility costs and benefits
Paris, France
28 March 2011

Making mobile phones and services accessible for persons with disabilities

NARASIMHAN, Nirmita
LEBLOIS, Axel
2011

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"This report contains references to the new legislative and regulatory framework set by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, an important resource for policy makers. It also covers practical elements required for a successful implementation of those programs and policies: technical accessibility features for handsets, accessible and assistive applications and services as well as business cases of companies which have implemented significant accessibility programs...(T)his report will be a useful resource for telecom regulators, mobile operators, organizations of persons with disabilities and other mobile stakeholders to develop successful accessibility policies and programs in their respective countries to equally serve persons of all abilities"

A historical overview of health disparities and the potential of eHealth solutions

GIBBONS, M
2005

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Over the past decade a rapidly expanding body of literature has demonstrated the existence of disparities in health and health care. While consensus has not emerged regarding the causes of disparities, they are generally thought to be related to sociocultural, behavioural, economic, environmental, biologic, or societal factors. To effectively address disparities, several authorities have suggested the need for greater information technology research and investments. eHealth researchers may be able to make significant contributions in this area through research and its applications. This paper begins with a historical overview of health disparities in the United States and Europe. It then discusses the role that the Internet, and access to the Internet, may play in the genesis of health disparities. Finally, this paper closes with a discussion of the potential benefits of eHealth applications and the possible contributions of the field to overcoming disparities in health and health care

Information and communication technologies and the effects of globalization : twenty-first century digital slavery for developing countries -- myth or reality?

OGUNSOLA, L A
2005

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This paper examines the ICT (Information and Communication Technology) revolution and the concept of globalization as they effect developing countries. The wide gap in availability and use of ICTs across the world and the influences ICTs exert on globalization at the expense of developing countries are carefully examined and suggestions and necessary policies are offered for developing countries to leap-frog the industrialization stage and transform their economies into high value-added information economies that can compete with the advanced countries on the global market. This is why it is important for Africa, in general, and Nigeria, in particular, to be aware of the implications, prepare to avoid the most telling consequences and prepare to meet its challenges

Can we achieve health information for all by 2015?

GODLEE, Fiona
et al
July 2004

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This article summarizes the attempts, since 1995, to utilize information and communication technology to bridge the health information gap between developing and industrialized countries. The authors note that the successes has been 'patchy' and that the potential has not been reached. Significant gaps continue between the north and south and also are seen between urban and rural areas especially for current clinical information. Stakeholders have not been involved sufficiently and there is considerable need for better telecommunications access and capacity building. The authors conclude that, without championing by a major player such as the WHO, the millennium goal of unviersal access to health information will not be reached despite some successes in the past 10 years

Disabled people and the internet : experiences, barriers and opportunities

PILLING, Doria
BARRET, Paul
FLOYD, Mike
2004

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This report explores how provision of goods and services over the Internet affects people’s lives. While the Internet might have some capability to provide goods, services and communication at a distance, improving access in doing so, some research findings in the early days of e-commerce suggested diminished access for some groups.
This research focuses on the impact of the Internet on people with disabilities. There is the possibility that provision of information and services through the Internet might actually narrow rather than widen choices, because it might lead to the phasing out of traditional ways of providing services preferred by some disabled people

Low cost access and connectivity : local solutions

UN ICT TASK FORCE
2004

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This publication, a UN ICT Task Force Working Group Paper, brings together case studies of local initiatives which highlight innovation in meeting the information and communication needs in developing countries. Seven papers explore connectivity and access issues in different countries. Papers on Benin and Cameroon are in French

The Internet in developing nations : grand challenges

PRESS, L
2004

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The author outlines the 'grand challenge' or $15 billion project for achieving truly global connectivity. It is based on the methodology for the development of the US National Science Foundation Network. The plan emphasizes the use of wireless technology and input on local means of delivery based on stakeholders' decisions. The author does discuss the intellectual property rights problem and the need to subsidize access in lesser developed regions

Providing low-cost ICT access to low-income communities in developing countries : what works? what pays?

CASPREY, G
O'CONNOR, D
2003

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This Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development report discusses the potential of and need for telecommunications development in rural areas of low-income countries. It outlines the main challenges, and describes sustainable options. The report also reviews low-cost options and summarizes policies that would support the more rapid diffusion especially telecommunications reform

Information for research in developing countries : information technology Friend or Foe?

ARUNACHALAM, S
2003

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The author details the need for and complexity of doing research in the developing country environment. He summarizes the technology divide, lack of visibility of research from these countries and how this gap is widening and notes various programmes to overcome the lack of access to information primarily journal articles. The author concludes with a number of suggestions for facilitating research in developing countries including the increase of standards and norms

Integrating intellectual property rights and development policy : report of the commission on intellectual property rights

COMMISSION ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (CIPR)
September 2002

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This detailed and thorough report considers whether and how intellectual property rights (IPRs) can play a role in achieving the Millenium Development Goals. It explores the potential benefits of IPRs in stimulating economic growth, and the associated benefits in terms of productivity and reduced poverty. It considers also the barriers that IPRs may present to developing economies, including discouraging invention, research, technology transfer, domestic production and driving up the costs of medicines and agricultural inputs. Key issues covered in successive chapters include: current evidence about the impact of IPRs in developing countries; development of and access to medicines; protection of plants and genetic resources; the Convention on Biological Diversity, traditional knowledge, cultural expressions and geographic indicators; copyright and patents; IPR legislation for developing countries; international and national institutional framework for IPRs

The potential and the constraints in low income countries

GHOSH, V
CHANDRASEKHAR, C P
July 2002

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This paper outlines the potential offered by technological progress in the information and communication technologies (ICTs) industries for the health sector in developing countries, presents some examples of positive experiences in India, and considers the difficulties in achieving this potential. Conclusions are that the development of ICTs can bring about improvements in health in developing countries but there are barriers including the limits on physical access to new technologies, the high cost of providing such access for the less well endowed, and exclusion from access due to the inadequate capabilities of large sections of the population. These constraints suggest that the ICT revolution could, in turn, generate a new digital divide

Local capacities to create and adapt information for healthcare workers in developing countries

PAKENHAM-WALSH, Neil
July 2002

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This study is a brief but sobering analysis of the impact of ICTs and health information in the developing country environment. The author notes that despite its massive potential, the current global information explosion has had little impact on access to practical information for frontline healthcare workers in developing countries, especially those working in primary care and district hospital settings. The author notes that healthcare workers in developing countries continue to lack access to the basic information they need to learn, to diagnose, and to save lives. However, it is shown that this can be improved through access to and use of ICTs

Digital opportunities for all : meeting the challenge

DIGITAL OPPORTUNITY TASK FORCE
May 2001

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This report examines in depth how ICT can be utilized to bridge the digital gap. It analyzes the causes of the gap, potential for bridging the divide, and a mix of strategies, policies and actions to take advantage of the digital opportunities, charting the roles of various players. The report is based on a mix of plenary meetings, informal consultations, meetings with stakeholders, and electronic outreach. It concludes that, when wisely applied, ICT oportunities can narrow the social and economic inequities and impact on development

Information and communication technologies and disability in developing countries : a technical note

SANDHU, Jim S
SAARNIO, Ilkka
WIMAN, Ronald
2001

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This study highlights the role information and communication technologies (ICT) can play in the fight against poverty of disabled people in developing countries. The study addresses the possibilities and barriers ICT can cause for disabled people. It shows the role ICT can play in the provision of services and information for disabled people in the context of middle and low income countries

Information and communication technology : poverty and development in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia

PIGATO, Miria
2001

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This lengthy report examines the patterns of utilization, ownership and affordability of ICT in these two regions. It also discusses the application of ICT to the poor by the private sector, government and NGOs. The paper notes the significant gap between industrialized countries and these two regions and two internal gaps - between the richest and poorest and between the urban and rural areas. It also notes several principles for ICT use to alleviate poverty.

Challenges and concerns

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This article follows on from several case studies presented on the Reproductive Health Outlook website. It draws together key issues based on a review of recent literature and project experiences. The main themes are around the significant financial, political, cultural and technological obstacles that affect the establishment of sustainable programmes, especially for computer-based ICTs. These obstacles have been identified as lack of affordability, lack of human capacity, lack of awareness of the benefits of ICT, lack of ability to use ICT proficiently, and lack of content suitable for local residents. ICTs that rely on access to the Internet need good-quality access to be truly useful

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