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Malnutrition and disability: unexplored opportunities for collaboration

GROCE, Nora
CHALLENGER, E
BERMAN-BIELER, R
FARKAS, A
YILMAZ, N
SCHUTLINK, W
CLARK, D
KAPLAN, C
KERAC, M
2014

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There is increasing international interest in the links between malnutrition and disability: both are major global public health problems, both are key human rights concerns, and both are currently prominent within the global health agenda. In this review, interactions between the two fields are explored and it is argued that strengthening links would lead to important mutual benefits and synergies. At numerous points throughout the life-cycle, malnutrition can cause or contribute to an individual's physical, sensory, intellectual or mental health disability. By working more closely together, these problems can be transformed into opportunities: nutrition services and programmes for children and adults can act as entry points to address and, in some cases, avoid or mitigate disability; disability programmes can improve nutrition for the children and adults they serve. For this to happen, however, political commitment and resources are needed, as are better data.



Paediatrics and International Child Health
Volume 34, 2014 - Issue 4: Nutrition and malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries
https://doi.org/10.1179/2046905514Y.0000000156

Assessment of neurodisability and malnutrition in children in Africa

GLADSTONE, Melissa
MALLEWA, Mac
ALUSINE JALLOH, Alhaji
VOSJUIKL, Wieger
POSTELS, Douglas
GROCE, Nora
KERAC, Marco
MOLYNEUX, Elizabeth
March 2014

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Neurodevelopmental delay, neurodisability, and malnutrition interact to contribute a significant burden of disease in global settings. Assessments which are well integrated with plans of management or advice are most likely to improve outcomes. Assessment tools used in clinical research and programming to evaluate outcomes include developmental and cognitive tools that vary in complexity, sensitivity, and validity as well as the target age of assessment. Few tools have been used to measure socioemotional outcomes and fewer to assess the disabled child with malnutrition. There is a paucity of tools used clinically which actually provide families and professionals with advice to improve outcomes. Brain imaging, electroencephalography, audiology, and visual assessment can also be used to assess the effect of malnutrition on brain structure and function. The interaction of neurodisability and malnutrition is powerful, and both need to be considered when assessing children.

Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, Child Neurology in Africa, Volume 21, Issue 1, March 2014, Pages 50–57

The interaction of malnutrition and neurologic disability in Africa

KERAC, Marko
et al
March 2014

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Malnutrition and neurodisability are both major public health problems in Africa. This review highlights key areas where they interact. These areas of interaction include maternal malnutrition, toxin ingestion, macronutrient malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies - all of which cause or are caused by neurodisability, The article concludes that there is an urgent need for nutrition and disability programmes to work more closely together

Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, Volume 21, Issue 1

Stronger together : nutrition-disability links and synergies|Briefing note

GROCE, Nora
CHALLENGER, Eleanor
KERAC, Marko
2013

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Malnutrition can lead to disability, and disability can also lead to malnutrition. This paper will focus mainly on under-nutrition causing disability and disability causing or contributing to under-nutrition. Both nutrition and disability are key human rights issues. There is increasing knowledge about optimal nutrition-related practices and implementation of often low cost interventions to tackle issues of malnutrition in children. It is essential that governments, international actors and service providers consider and include the needs of children with disabilities in these efforts to ensure that children with disabilities have equitable access to nutrition in order to allow them to grow and thrive

Inequalities relating to health and the life course : disability, mental Illness and older age

SAMMAN, Emma
RODRIGUEZ-TACKEUCHI, Laura
November 2012

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"Issues related to early childhood feature prominently in the MDG framework (as do malnutrition, HIV status and malaria), and data collection in these areas is fairly advanced. Other sources of inequality are notable by their virtual absence - among these, older age, disability and mental illness, although these issues each appear to affect sizeable numbers of particularly vulnerable people throughout the world. A clear obstacle to ‘mainstreaming’ these sources of inequality in a new post-2015 agreement is the widespread lack of nationally representative internationally comparable data. This could arise from definitional or technical issues (what to measure and/or how), operational issues (e.g., resource or capacity constraints), attitudinal issues (relating to stigma) and/or lack of demand from data users. Greater attention is needed to explore these constraints and how they might be overcome. To this end, this paper discusses currently available data and its limitations, constraints to better data collection and efforts needed to adjust key international survey instruments- the World Bank’s Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire (CWIQ) and Living Standards and Measurement Survey (LSMS), Macro International’s Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) - to collect reliable data on these sources of inequality, alongside other household indicators"
Note: Accepted under the "Addressing Inequalities" Global Thematic Consultation - Call for Proposals for Background Papers, Oct 2012

IDDC sustainable development statement

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT CONSORTIUM (IDDC)
2012

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This paper highlights that the issues of disability, poverty and environmental sustainability are inextricably linked and provides key recommendations for disability-inclusive sustainable development discussions and framework

Costs and cost-effectiveness of training traditional birth attendants to reduce neonatal mortality in the Lufwanyama neonatal survival study (LUNESP)

SABIN, Lora L
et al
2012

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"The Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project ("LUNESP") was a cluster randomized, controlled trial that showed that training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to perform interventions targeting birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and neonatal sepsis reduced all-cause neonatal mortality by 45%. This companion analysis was undertaken to analyze intervention costs and cost-effectiveness, and factors that might improve cost-effectiveness"
PLoS ONE 7(4)

Nutrition, physical activity and NCD prevention : a briefing document

THE NCD ALLIANCE
2011

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"The NCD Alliance Proposed Outcomes Document calls on governments around the world to commit to actions in a number of key areas to tackle the global burden of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). This briefing document works in synergy with the Proposed Outcomes Document and provides evidence-based actions for nutrition and physical activity related aspects of NCD prevention...(This) briefing document is divided into two sections. Part A provides Key Messages and Guiding Principles together with clear Calls for Action to improve nutrition and increase physical activity. Part B presents an overview of the available evidence of nutrition, physical activity and NCDs, and of effective policies and interventions to reduce the common risk factors"

Priority medicines for mothers and children 2011

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2011

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This resource presents a list of priority medicines for mothers and children to help countries and partners select and make available those medicines that will have the biggest impact on reducing maternal, newborn and child morbidity and mortality
WHO/EMP/MAR/2011.1

Policy brief : HIV, food security and nutrition : expanded version

JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
May 2008

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This policy brief focuses on the interrelationship between food security, nutrition and HIV, and highlights the actions that governments, civil society and international partners can take to promote food security and nutrition in the context of the AIDS epidemic

What works? interventions for maternal and child under nutrition and survival

BHUTTA, Zulfigar
et al
January 2008

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This article "reviews interventions that affect maternal and child undernutrition and nutrition-related outcomes. These interventions included promotion of breastfeeding; strategies to promote complementary feeding, with or without provision of food supplements; micronutrient interventions; general supportive strategies to improve family and community nutrition; and reduction of disease burden (promotion of handwashing and strategies to reduce the burden of malaria in pregnancy). (The authors) showed that although strategies for breastfeeding promotion have a large effect on survival, their effect on stunting is small"
The Lancet, Vol 371, Issue 9610

Community-based management of severe acute malnutrition : a joint statement by the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, the United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition and the United Nations Children's Fund

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
et al
2007

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This statement advocates a community-based approach to the management of severe malnutrition, combined with a facility-based approach for those malnourished children with medical complications. It outlines actions that countries can take and suggests how WHO, WFP, SCN, UNICEF and other partners can support these actions

Danger signs of neonatal illnesses : perceptions of caregivers and health workers in northern India

AWASTHI, Shally
VERMA, Tuhina
AGARWAL, Monica
October 2006

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This article explores the "household practices that can affect neonatal health, from the perspective of caregivers and health workers; to identify signs in neonates leading either to recognition of illness or health-care seeking; and to ascertain the proportion of caregivers who recognize the individual items of the integrated management of neonatal and childhood illnesses (IMNCI) programme"
Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(10)

IMCI : what can we learn from an innovation that didn’t reach the poor?

GWARTKIN, Davidson
October 2006

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In this editorial, the author comments on the feasibility of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy of the World Health Organization aimed at serving the poor. He analyses the reasons behind the failure of IMCI strategy to reach the poor. According to the author, IMCI failed due to several faults in its implementation including its initiation in well-off areas, a horizontal approach, and bad financial infrastructure of the poor regions
Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84(10)

FAO working in support of persons with disabilities

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Ed
August 2006

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The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the key linkages between poverty, disability, nutrition and agricultural production. The paper also reports on some of the FAO's work on disability and disability rights and highlights 5 FAO projects / pilot models - ranging from mushroom production to blacksmithing - that target rural people living with disabilities. It would be useful for anyone with an interest in mainstreaming disability in development policy and practice

Understanding the links between agriculture and health

HAWKES, Corinna
RUEL, Marie T
May 2006

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This is a collection of briefs on the relationship between agricultural systems and outputs and health. Provides a conceptual framework of the linkage between agriculture and health and looks in some detail at some key aspects, including food safety, agricultural technology, nutrition, foodbourne diseases, malaria and water-associated diseases, HIV and AIDS, occupational health hazards, livestock, fisheries, agroforestry, agrobiodiversity, urban agriculture, sustainability, policymaking and synergies between agriculture and health

Grandmothers promote maternal and child health : the role of indigenous knowledge systems' managers

AUBEL, Judi
February 2006

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IK Notes report on indigenous knowledge initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa and occasionally on such initiatives outside the region. It is published by the World Bank Africa region's Knowledge and Learning Centre as part of an evolving partnership between the World Bank, communities, NGOs, development institutions and multilateral organisations. This edition outlines the role of grandmothers as 'managers' of indigenous knowledge systems that deal with the development, care and well being of women and their children. The paper outlines a rationale for involving grandmothers in community programmes based around child and maternal health, and nutrition

Community-based health financing and child health

MAKINEN, Marty
PARTNERS FOR HEALTH REFORMPLUS (PHRplus)
et al
2006

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This brief reports on the effects that membership in community-based health financing schemes has on the use of health services when a member is ill or injured and, specifically, on priority child health services (immunisations, vitamin A supplementation, treatment of diarrhoeal disease, and prevention and treatment of malaria). The results come from household surveys performed by the Partners for Health Reformplus project (PHRplus) in the three West African countries of Ghana, Mali, and Senegal in 2004

Protecting and assisting older people in emergencies

WELLS, Jo
December 2005

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The rapid increase in the older population worldwide poses new challenges, particularly in resource poor countries and in emergency settings. Older people are particularly vulnerable to the effects of natural disaster or conflict and less able to adapt to sudden disruptions in their lives. They can also make crucial contributions to their communities, caring for orphans, providing inter-generational support, helping resolve conflicts, offering their knowledge on alternative and traditional healing practices. This document looks in some detail at both the needs and strengths of the elderly in emergencies and calls for greater promotion of the rights of older people, their inclusion in all stages of humanitarian interventions, mainstreaming and allocation of adequate resources for older people's protection

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