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Coronavirus (COVID-19): Evidence Collection

EVIDENCE AID
2020

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The COVID-19 (Coronavirus) pandemic is leading to a rapidly expanding and evolving literature. Evidence Aid is preparing summaries of relevant research, which are available below in English with links to translations in other languages. 

 

  • Clinical characterization and management
  • Epidemiology
  • Ethical considerations
  • Health systems and services
  • Infection prevention and control, including health care workers’ protection
  • Public health interventions
  • Research & Development: Therapeutics and Vaccines
  • Social science in the response

Systematic review of interventions for reducing stigma experienced by children with disabilities and their families in low and middle-income countries: state of the evidence.

SMYTHE, Tracey
ADELSON, Jaimie
POLACK, Sarah
March 2020

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A literature review was carried out to identify and assess the evidence for interventions to reduce stigma experienced by children with disabilities and their families in low and middle-income settings. A systematic review of seven databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, PsycINFO, Social Policy and Practice, CINAHL, IBSS) for articles published January 2000 to April 2018 was carried out. Data were extracted on study population, study design, intervention level(s) and target group, and type(s) of stigma addressed. A narrative approach was used to synthesise the results.

Twenty studies were included. The majority (65%) of interventions targeted enacted stigma (negative attitudes) and the most common intervention approach was education/training (63%). Over half (54%) of interventions were delivered at the organisational/ institutional level and only four studies targeted more than one social level. The most common disability targeted was epilepsy (50%) followed by intellectual impairment (20%). 

doi: 10.1111/tmi.13388

Trop Med Int Health. 2020 Mar

Estimated prevalence of disability and developmental delay among pre‐school children in rural Malawi: Findings from ‘Tikule Limodzi’, a cross‐sectional survey

MURPHY, Rachel
et al
January 2020

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This study measured and compared the prevalence of disability and developmental delay among children attending preschool centres in rural Malawi. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 48 preschool centres in Thyolodistrict, Malawi. Data were collected from parents or guardians of 20 children per centre. Disability was ascertained using the Washington Group/UNICEF Child Functioning Module. Child development was measured using the language and social domains of the Malawi Development Assessment Tool. A total of 960 children were enrolled; 935 (97.4%) children were assessed for disability and 933 (97.2%) for developmental delay; 100 (10.7%) children were identified as having a disability

 

Child Care Health Dev. 2020;46:187–194.
https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12741

Integrating geospatial data and measures of disability and wealth to assess inequalities in an eye health survey: An example from the Indian Sunderbans

MOHANTY, Soumya
et al
December 2019

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The Sunderbans are a group of delta islands that straddle the border between India and Bangladesh. For people living on the Indian side, health services are scarce and the terrain makes access to what is available difficult. In 2018, the international non-governmental organisation Sightsavers and their partners conducted a population-based survey of visual impairment and coverage of cataract and spectacle services, supplemented with tools to measure equity in eye health by wealth, disability, and geographical location. Two-stage cluster sampling was undertaken to randomly select 3868 individuals aged 40+ years, of whom 3410 were examined

 

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Dec; 16(23): 4869

doi: 10.3390/ijerph16234869

TT Tracker app aims to improve surgical outcomes and patient care

JENSEN, Kimberley
et al
November 2019

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Trichiasis (TT) operations are generally conducted in remote and resource-poor settings, which can make it difficult to follow-up and assess surgical outcomes. Sightsavers developed an Android-based mobile phone application, called the TT Tracker, which helps surgeons, assistants and supervisors to collect and analyse information about surgical outcomes and performance, and to determine when and where follow-up appointments are required. 

 

Community Eye Health. 2019; 31(104): 93.

Optimising the performance of frontline implementers engaged in the NTD programme in Nigeria: lessons for strengthening community health systems for universal health coverage

OLUWULE, A
et al
November 2019

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This research article focuses on optimising the performance of frontline implementers engaged with NTD programme delivery in Nigeria. Three broad themes are examined: technical support, social support and incentives

Qualitative data was collected through participatory stakeholder workshops. Eighteen problem-focused workshops and 20 solution-focussed workshops were held  in 12 selected local government areas (LGA) across two states in Nigeria, Ogun and Kaduna States

 

Human Resources for Health, 2019 Nov 1;17(1):79

doi: 10.1186/s12960-019-0419-8

Unimproved water sources and open defecation are associated with active trachoma in children in internally displaced persons camps in the Darfur States of Sudan

MACLEOD, C K
October 2019

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To estimate the proportion of children with trachomatous inflammation—follicular (TF) and adults with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in the Darfur States of Sudan and to evaluate associated risk factors. 

A random-effects hierarchical model was used to evaluate factors associated with TF and TT. Thirty-six IDP camps were represented in the survey data in which 1926 children aged 1–9 years were examined, of whom 38 (8%) had TF. Poor sanitation, younger age and living in a household that purchased water from a vendor were associated with TF in children aged 1–9 years.

 

Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2019 Oct 11;113(10):599-609

DOI:10.1093/trstmh/trz042

India’s disability estimates: Limitations and way forward

RAKHI, Dandona
et al
September 2019

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With India preparing for the next decennial Census in 2021, disability estimates and data collection methodology between the Census 2011 and the most recent population-level survey for India and its states were compared, to highlight the issues to be addressed to improve robustness of the disability estimates in the upcoming Census.

 

Data from the Census 2011 and from two complementary nationally representative household surveys that covered all Indian states with the same methodology and survey instruments–the District-Level Household Survey-4 (DLHS-4, 2012–2013) and the Annual Health Surveys (AHS three rounds, 2010–11, 2011–12 and 2012–13) were used. Data from DLHS-4 and AHS 2012–13 round were pooled to generate estimates for the year 2012–13. Data collection methodology between the sources was compared, including the review of definitions of each type of disability. The overall, mental, visual, hearing, speech, and movement disability rate (DR) per 100,000 population were compared between the sources for India and for each state, and the percent difference in the respective rates was calculated
 

Disability stigma in the Disability Inclusive Development (DID) programme countries: an overview of the evidence

ROHWERDER, Brigitte
September 2019

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This literature review outlines factors contributing to disability stigma in low- and middle-income countries. Overviews of disability stigma in the six Disability Inclusive Development (DID) programme countries – Bangladesh, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, and Tanzania – are presented next. The review then looks at the literature on interventions to reduce disability stigma. Interventions aimed at addressing disability stigma in developing countries have been aimed at the intrapersonal and familial level; the interpersonal level; and the structural level.

Estimating the intracluster correlation coefficient for trachomatous inflammation-follicular in population-based trachoma prevalence surveys: results from a meta-regression of 261 standardised pre-intervention surveys in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Nigeria.

MACLEOD, Colin
et al
September 2019

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This study used a parametric bootstrap model to estimate intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in 1-9 year-olds, from 261 population-based trachoma prevalence surveys completed using standardised GTMP methodologies in Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Nigeria from 2012-2016.

Results from this study were used to draw up the most recent WHO 2018 recommendations on design effect (DE) estimates for sample size calculations for survey

 

American Journal of Epidemiology, 2019 Sep 11. pii: kwz196

doi: 10.1093/aje/kwz196

 

 

Operational adaptations of the trachoma pre-validation surveillance strategy employed in Ghana: successes and challenges

SENYONJO, Laura
et al
September 2019

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In 2009 Ghana began to design a trachoma pre-validation surveillance plan, based on then-current WHO recommendations. The plan aimed to identify active trachoma resurgence and identify and manage trichiasis cases, through both active and passive surveillance approaches. This paper outlines and reviews the adaptations made by Ghana between 2011 and 2016

Infectious Diseases of Poverty volume 8, Article number: 78 (2019)

Good practices on the implementation of the UNCRPD in Timor Leste (2015-2017)

HANDICAP INTERNATIONAL
DOS SANTOS, Domingos T.M.
et al
August 2019

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The 2015-2017 Advocating for Change Project (AfC), a project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), aimed at promoting and advocating for rights of people with disabilities through the push for the ratification of the UNCRPD at the national level, improving quality decentralization process at the local level and promoting quality livelihood action for people with disabilities through improved and inclusive vocational training center (CNEFP) in Tibar.

One particular activity in this project is the collection and dissemination of best practices with the "Making it Work" methodology. This methodology aims to document and promote already existing best practices that adhere to the principles of UNCRPD. Making it Work utilizes a multi stakeholder approach and encourages members of DPOs and other organizations to identify best practices and effective action in and surrounding their localities. These best practices are then collected with the ultimate goal to serve as examples of embodiment of the UNCRPD for replication by organizations or institutions elsewhere.

Integrating face washing into a school-based, handwashing behavior change program to prevent trachoma in Turkana, Kenya

TIDWELL, James
et al
August 2019

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Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness, and facial cleanliness has been associated with reduced odds of trachomatous inflammation and Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  This study reports on the results of a program integrating face washing into a school-based handwashing promotion program in Turkana County, Kenya

 

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2019 Oct;101(4):767-773

doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0205.

Health economic evaluation in orthotics and prosthetics: a systematic review protocol

CLARKE, Leigh
DILLON, Michael
SHIEL, Alan
June 2019

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The aim of this systematic review is to critically appraise the existing orthotic/prosthetic health economic evaluation literature and therefore determine evidence gaps, critical method design issues and the extent to which the literature informs orthotic/prosthetic policy and investment decisions

 

Systematic Reviews volume 8, Article number: 152 (2019)

doi:10.1186/s13643-019-1066-9

 

 

People are neglected, not diseases: the relationship between disability and neglected tropical diseases

HAMILL, Claire Louise
et al
May 2019

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The affect of NTDs can contribute to poverty, illness, mental health and psychosocial, cognitive, intellectual and physical impairments, all of which can, in turn, result in disability through a multifaceted process upon which many other factors impinge. It is this complex and non-linear relationship between disability and NTDs that forms the basis of this review

 

Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2019; 00: 1–6
doi:10.1093/trstmh/trz036

 

 

ClinFIT: ISPRM's Universal Functioning Information Tool based on the WHO's ICF

FRONTERA, Walter
et al
May 2019

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A short editorial reviews the development of ClinFit (“Clinical Functioning Information Tool”).  The expectation is that ClinFIT can be tailored to the needs of (1) rehabilitation service types along the continuum of care, (2) different patient populations across age groups and health conditions, and (3) low-, middle-, and high‑income countries

 

J Int Soc Phys Rehabil Med 2019;2:19-21

DOI: 10.4103/jisprm.jisprm_36_19

Disability and disaster risk reduction as an incongruent matrix: Lessons from rural Zimbabwe

LUNGA, Wilfred
BONGO, Paradzavi Pathias
VAN NIEKERK, Dewald
MUSARURWA, Charles
April 2019

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This research paper focuses on two key topics in the disaster science field: pre-disaster risk reduction planning and post-disaster emergency response activities. It is based on experiences from disaster risk reduction projects in Bulilima and Mangwe districts in southern Zimbabwe between 2006 and 2014. A qualitative research methodology was employed, and data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, observations and focus group discussions. Both able-bodied people and people living with disabilities (PWDs) were part of the study.

 

Jamba. (Journal of disaster risk studies) 2019; 11(1): 648.

doi: 10.4102/jamba.v11i1.648

Disability and global health: Special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

KUPER, Hannah
POLAK, Sarah
Eds
2019

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Papers included in this special issue are:

 

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