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Social protection and disability in Zambia

KIDD, Stephen
WAPLING, Lorraine
KABARE, Krystle
October 2019

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This report presents findings from a short study in Zambia to examine its social protection system and programmes and identifies the challenges faced by persons with disabilities in accessing them. The study was undertaken by a visit to Zambia between 31st October – 4th November 2016 during which a range of interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken. The study was supported by a review of the literature and some limited analysis of administrative data.

Topics presented in the report include:

  • the broader context of Zambia particularly around issues of education, health and consumption dynamics
  • the national population of persons with disabilities
  • key challenges faced by persons with disabilities
  • the legislative and policy framework on disability in Zambia
  • the governance of social protection and support for persons with disabilities
  • the disability classification system and an overview of the social protection system
  • the evolution of the Social Cash Transfer and access to the scheme by persons with disabilities 

The missing billion - Access to health services for 1 billion people with disabilities

KUPER, Hannah
HEYDT, Phyllis
July 2019

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One billion people around the world live with disabilities. This report makes the case that they are being “left behind” in the global community’s work on health. This lack of access not only violates the rights of people with disabilities under international law, but UHC (Universal Health Care) and SDG 3 cannot be attained without better health services for the one billion people with disabilities. 

Health and healthcare are critical issues for people with disabilities. People with disabilities often need specialized medical care related to the underlying health condition or impairment (e.g., physiotherapy, hearing aids). They also need general healthcare services like anyone else (e.g., vaccinations, antenatal care). On average, those with disabilities are more vulnerable to poor health, because of their higher levels of poverty and exclusion, and through secondary conditions and co-morbidities. People with disabilities therefore may require higher levels of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment services. However, health services are often lower quality, not affordable, and inaccessible for people with disabilities. In many situations these barriers are even more significant for women with disabilities, compared to men with disabilities.

Every learner matters: Unpacking the learning crisis for children with disabilities

McCLAIN-NHLAPO, Charlotte
et al
June 2019

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This paper was developed by the World Bank in partnership with Leonard Cheshire and Inclusion International. It is an attempt to add knowledge to the current understanding of the importance of learning achievements, with a focus on children with disabilities. While the premise is that inclusive education refers to the inclusion of all children, the focus of this paper is on children with disabilities.

The aim of the paper is to:

  • Provide an evidence-based review of educational participation of children with disabilities.
  • Establish a case for focusing on learning achievements for students with disabilities.
  • Take stock of current mechanisms of measurement of learning outcomes and review their inclusivity.
  • Explore evidence of practice and systems which promote disability-inclusive learning for all. 

Four case studies are provided - from Pakistan, South Africa, Canada and UK.

“On the Margins” Education for children with disabilities in Kazakhstan

RITMANN, Mira
March 2019

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Thisd report presents findings of research into report into progress towards inclusive education for disabled children in Kazakhstan and also presents recommendations for future progress.

Field research for this report was carried out between September 2017 and December 2018. The report is based on over 150 interviews with children and young adults with disabilities, their families, and disability rights activists, in multiple cities in Kazakhstan: Almaty, Astana, Kostanay, Kyzylorda, Shymkent, and Taldikorgan. Human Rights Watch researchers visited one PMPK office, five inclusive schools, and four special schools in Almaty and one inclusive school in Kyzylorda. Human Rights Watch also visited three neurological-psychiatric institutions for children in Almaty, Karaganda, and Shymkent. Human Rights Watch met and corresponded with officials from the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection and exchanged letters with the Ministries of Education and Health, and with the Almaty City Administration.

Reimagining the workplace: disability and inclusive employment

LEONARD CHESHIRE
February 2019

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This UK based report examines the challenges and barriers facing disabled people throughout their working journey, as well as considering solutions to some of the key issues. Through our own research survey and interviews we look at the impact on disabled people where they cannot access adequate support as well as what works in improving their employment prospects

 

Topics discussed include: conditions of employment; preparing for work; falling out of work; and the performance of government based programmes.

 

ComRes interviewed in 2018 online 1,647 disabled adults in the UK, aged between 18 and 65, and in 2017 they interviewed 1,609 disabled adults. ComRes interviewed 503 UK line managers responsible for or involved in the recruitment process in 2018 and in 2017.  Between 1 December 2018 – 20 January 2019, Leonard Cheshire conducted in-depth telephone interviews with seven disabled people of working age about their experiences of employment. 

 

Recommendations are made throughout.

Leaving no-one behind: Building inclusive social protection systems for persons with disabilities

KIDD, Stephen
et al
February 2019

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How to make social protection systems and schemes more inclusive of persons with disabilities is examined. Social protection can play a key role in empowering persons with disabilities by addressing the additional costs they face, yet the majority of persons with disabilities are currently excluded from schemes.

The report identifies a wide range of barriers persons with disabilities experience in accessing social protection to be overcome. It calls for better data on disability, disability-specific and old age pension schemes and expanded coverage; adapting communications about social protection schemes; and improving disability assessment mechanisms. The research underpinning the report comprised involved a review of the literature, an analysis of household survey datasets, and consultations with key stakeholders and persons with disabilities in seven low- and middle-income countries: Brazil, India, Kenya, Mauritius, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia.

Topics covered include:

  • Types of social protection schemes for persons with disabilities
  • Levels of investment in social protection for persons with disabilities
  • Coverage of persons with disabilities by social protection
  • Impacts of social protection on persons with disabilities
  • Barriers to accessing social protection and measures to address them
  • Links between social protection schemes and other public services

Leaving no-one behind: Building inclusive social protection systems for persons with disabilities

KIDD, Stephen
et al
February 2019

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This report identifies a wide range of barriers persons with disabilities experience in accessing social protection to be overcome. It calls for better data on disability, disability-specific and old age pension schemes and expanded coverage; adapting communications about social protection schemes; and improving disability assessment mechanisms. The project involved a review of the literature, an analysis of household survey datasets, and consultations with key stakeholders and persons with disabilities in seven low- and middle-income countries: Brazil, India, Kenya, Mauritius, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia.

Disability and nutrition programming: evidence and learning (Disability Inclusion Helpdesk Report No. 6)

HOLDEN, Jenny
CORBY, Nick
February 2019

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This document provides a rapid review of the evidence on approaches to ensuring people with disabilities are reached through nutrition programming, focusing on children, adolescents, and women of reproductive age in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The purpose of this review is to support DFID advisers and partners designing and implementing programmes with nutrition components to ensure they are more inclusive of people with disabilities. After outlining the methodology in Section 2, Section 3 includes an overview of available evidence on what works to ensure nutrition programming reaches people with disabilities, as well as an assessment of the strength of the evidence, and highlighting key research gaps. Section 4 provides a summary on factors affecting access for people with disabilities, and Section 5 concludes by drawing a series of considerations for policy and programming to ensure that people with disabilities are not left behind when it comes to government-led and development partner-led programmes to tackle malnutrition. Case studies of approaches are included in annex 1 to give further insights on promising practices and key learnings

Zero Project Report 2019: Independent living and political participation

FEMBEK, Michael
January 2019

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The Zero Project Report 2019 focuses on Article 19 (Living independently and being included in the community) and Article 29 (Participation in political and public life) of the UN CPRD, as well as related topics such as Article 12 (Equal recognition before the law) and Article 13 (Access to justice)

For 2019 the Zero Project selected 66 Innovative Practices and 10 Innovative Policies from 41 countries that positively impact the rights of persons with disabilities in their ability to live more independently and to take part in political life

 

This Report is composed of five main sections, summarizing the annual research, followed by an Annex:

• Executive Summary, including background information on this year’s research topic and the Zero Project methodology

• Innovative Polices and Practices: Fact Sheets and Life Stories

• Description of the Zero Project–Impact Transfer programme

• Description of EU-grant-funded TOPHOUSE projects

• A summary of this Report in easy language

• An Annex listing all Zero Project network members active in 2018–2019

The Zero Project Report is also available on the Zero Project Website in an accessible pdf format.

 

Seeing the invisible: Sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior of children and youth with disabilities in China

SHANGHAI INSITITUTE OF PLANNED PARENTHOOD RESEARCH (SIPPR)
UNESCO
HUMANITY & INCLUSION (HI)
2019

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Young people with disabilities have the same right to Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) as their peers without disabilities, but their needs and rights are often overlooked. This study examines the SRH status of young people with disabilities in China. In particular, the study explored the sexuality-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of young people with disabilities as well as their access to sexuality-related information, education and services. The findings of the study are intended to provide evidence to support decision-making by government agencies, educators, development workers and other relevant stakeholders regarding developing and implementing disability-inclusive SRH and sexuality education policies and programmes for young people in China.

The study, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2015 among unmarried young persons aged 12 to 24 living with visual, hearing, physical and intellectual disabilities, in both urban and rural areas. The analysis was based on data collected through 707 completed valid questionnaires, 20 group interviews and 35 individual interviews with young people with disabilities, and individual interviews with 60 parents and teachers, along with one case study.

Assistive technology in Tajikistan: Situational analysis

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO). REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EUROPE
2019

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"This publication summarizes the current gaps, needs and opportunities for intervention in the field of assistive technology in Tajikistan. The situational analysis was conducted under the leadership of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, Republic of Tajikistan and with technical support from the WHO Country Office, Tajikistan. It was undertaken in collaboration with different Government ministries and State agencies, development partners, United Nations agencies, nongovernmental organizations, disabled people’s organizations and users of assistive products. It adopted a realist synthesis approach, responsive to the unique social, cultural, economic and political circumstances in the country. The evaluation focuses on assistive technology policy and governance, service provision and the impact of assistive technology on the health and well-being of individual users and their families, with the aim of improving access to high-quality, affordable assistive products in Tajikistan.

 

200 persons with disabilities participated in a survey designed to collect information on self-reported need for assistive products, user experiences and barriers to access. An additional 11 focus groups made up of persons with disabilities and older adults held indepth discussions on assistive technology. The major providers of assistive technology (Government facilities, nongovernmental organizations, local producers) were also interviewed as part of the research"

Provision of wheelchairs in Tajikistan: Economic assessment of alternative options

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO). REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EUROPE
2019

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"This publication presents the results of a study on the economic aspects of various models for the provision of wheelchairs in Tajikistan. The study was conducted under the leadership of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, Republic of Tajikistan and with technical support from the WHO Country Office, Tajikistan. The study was finalized in consultation with Tajik users of wheelchairs, the Ministry of Health and Social Protection and international experts on wheelchair production and provision, and made use of national and international evidence on the provision of wheelchairs to inform the analysis and develop evidence-based policy options. While the study focuses on the Tajik context and its aspirations to expand in-country production of wheelchairs, its approach and findings will also be of interest to other countries in a similar situation and to other interested stakeholders"

 

 

Leaving No One Behind: A Nordic movement for change

Kroglund, Andrew
January 2019

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This report assesses the policies of the Nordic country governments on international disability issues following the Global Disability Summit in London, July 2018. The SDGs requirement for new focus on inclusion is highlighted and the report aims to strengthen the cooperation between civil society organisations and government in order to fulfill the ambitious 2030 agenda

DFID’s strategy for disability inclusive development 2018-23

December 2018

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The UK Department for International Development (DFID)'s vision is a world where all people with disabilities, women, men, girls and boys, in all stages of their lives, are engaged, empowered and able to exercise and enjoy their rights on an equal basis with others, contributing to poverty reduction, peace and stability. A world where no-one is left behind.

Over the next five years DFID will prioritise four strategic pillars for action: (i) inclusive education, (ii) social protection, (iii) economic empowerment, and (iv) humanitarian action. To complement this focus DFID are adopting three cross-cutting areas, vital to disability inclusion, which will be consistently and systematically addressed in all of their work: (v) tackling stigma and discrimination; (vi) empowering girls and women with disabilities; and (vii) access to appropriate assistive technology.

DFID have introduced a new set of standards for all DFID business units to meet. The standards require all country offices and departments to; review their leadership and culture, engage with people with disabilities, influence others, adapt programming and improve data and evidence.

Diagnostic study on Disabled Peoples’ Organisations and National Union of Organisations of the Disabled in Liberia

DEEPAK, Sunil
HARRIS, Naomi
November 2018

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A diagnostic study was carried out by a consultant to the DASU project in collaboration with the national umbrella organisation “National Union of Organizations of the
Disabled” (NUOD) to assess the institutional capacities of Disabled Peoples’ Organizations (DPOs) in Liberia. The study involved DPOs from the national capital Monrovia and in three counties – Bong, Grand Gedeh and Nimba.
The study included an initial Desk Review, collection of case studies from the field and visits to the counties to meet the county DPOs. Following these, a workshop was organised
in Monrovia in which representatives of NUOD and the concerned DPOs took part. The workshop looked at the strengths and challenges faced by NUOD and DPOs, focusing on the skills needed for stronger and active DPO leadership.

Shaping health systems to include people with disabilities. K4D emerging issues report

DEAN, Laura
et al
November 2018

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People with disabilities are at a heightened risk of communicable and non-communicable diseases and these diseases can cause debility and disability. Health needs of these people often extend beyond requiring continual longterm medical support to addressing broader social inequities. Key areas that are likely to be critical in re-orientating health systems from a biomedical approach towards inclusive health systems that are more responsive to the needs of people with debility and disability in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are offered in this report and cover the following:

 

  • 1. Nothing about us without us: prioritising person-centred health systems
  • 2. Responding to issues of access in mainstreaming disability within health systems
  • 3. Ensuring the provision of specialised services
  • 4. Community based rehabilitation 
  • 5. Improving the collection and use of disability related data against modified legal and policy frameworks
  • 6. Partnerships are paramount
  • 7. Financing and social protection 

Case studies are provided from Sudan, India, Liberia, Uganda and Nigeria

Young persons with disabilities: Global study on ending gender-based violence, and realising sexual and reproductive health and rights

McCLOSKEY, Megan
MEYERS, Stephen
July 2018

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This study provides an analysis on the situation of young persons with disabilities concerning discrimination and gender-based violence, including the impact on their sexual and reproductive health and rights. It also provides an assessment of legal, policy and programming developments and specific good practices in service delivery as well as best-standard prevention and protection measures. Finally, policy and programming recommendations are provided to assist in greater promotion of the rights of young persons with disabilities, with a particular emphasis on preventing and responding to gender-based violence, and realizing sexual and reproductive health and rights.

Situation of persons with disabilities in Lebanon.

COMBAZ, Emilie
July 2018

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This K4D helpdesk report identifies information since 2013 concerning:

  • data on the state of persons with disabilities in Lebanon
  • assessments of laws on the rights of persons with disabilities in Lebanon
  • analyses of the political, social, cultural, and economic context for persons with disabilities in Lebanon

Issues particular to persons with disabilities amongst Syrian refugees within these aspects are identified where possible.

The state of knowledge and gaps are discussed. 

Bridging the Gap: Examining disability and development in four African countries. The case for equitable education

GROCE, Nora
et al
June 2018

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Over the course of a three-year project the Leonard Cheshire Research Centre worked with research teams in four countries: Kenya, Sierra Leone, Uganda and Zambia to better understand the relationship between disability and development in each country across four domains: education, health, labour markets and social protection. This mixed methods research used a range of interrelated components, including policy and secondary data analysis, a household survey of 4,839 households (13,597 adults and 10,756 children), 55 focus group discussions and 112 key informant interviews across the four countries. 

 

This report explores key findings in relation to education. Key findings discussed include school attendance, cost of education, inability to learn and gap in educational attainment.

“They Stay until They Die” A lifetime of isolation and neglect in institutions for people with disabilities in Brazil

RIOS-ESPINOSA, Carlos
et al
May 2018

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This report documents a range of abuses against children and adults with disabilities in residential institutions in Brazil. The research is based on direct observations during visits to 19 institutions (known in Brazil as shelters and care homes), including 8 for children, as well as 5 inclusive residences for people with disabilities. In addition, Human Rights Watch researchers interviewed 171 people, including children with disabilities and their families, adults with disabilities in institutions, disability rights advocates, representatives of non–governmental organizations, including disabled persons organizations, staff in institutions, and government officials.

 

Research was carried out between November 2016 and March 2018 in the states of São Paulo (including São Paulo and Campinas), Rio de Janeiro (including Rio de Janeiro, Duque de Caxias, Niteroi and Nova Friburgo), Bahia (Salvador) and Distrito Federal (including Brasilia and Ceilândia).

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