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The essentials of antiretroviral therapy for health care and program managers

HOPE, Ruth
ISRAEL, Ellen
April 2007

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This book provides health care workers and mangers with information and practical guidance relating to antiretroviral therapies (ART). It also considers wider care and treatment issues such as; opportunistic infections, the integration of ART with antenatal and midwifery services, the particular needs of children and young people, support relating to nutrition, spiritual needs, psycho-social and economic issues. In addition, the need for community level support to help with adherence to treatment and address stigma and discrimination are also considered, as is end-of-life care for people whose disease does not respond to treatment

Neglected tropical diseases : hidden successes, emerging opportunities

World Health Organization [WHO]
2006

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This report looks at neglected tropical diseases. These diseases particularly affect poor and disadvantaged people with limited access to health services and have a low profile and status in public health priorities. Despite the challenges involved, some progress has been made through interventions around particular diseases in certain countries. This report highlights some of those successes

Civil society perspectives on TB policy in Bangladesh, Brazil, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Thailand

Public Health Watch, Open Society Institute
2006

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This publication contains an overview of the common themes and funding resulting from five country reports, and the five reports themselves. The World Health Organization has designated all five as TB-high burden countries. The research findings show a low level of awareness about TB, and TB and HIV co-infection; about how TB is transmitted and how it can be cured; and about the link between poverty and TB; as well as low media coverage of TB and a lack of strong communication strategies for national TB programmes. It also contains country-specific recommendations

Palliative care in Sub-Saharan Africa : an appraisal

HARDING, Richard
HIGGINSON, Irene
2004

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This report was written from the belief that palliative care is, and will be for the forseeable future, an essential component in the continuum of managing HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. There is now a wealth of experience in sub-Saharan Africa about the ways in which palliative care can be delivered both affordably and effectively. However, there remains a lack of properly documented evidence and research to demonstrate the importance of this work and promote its development. This report provides a review of existing evaluations of palliative care projects in sub-Saharan Africa with an emphasis on isolating the factors that lead to sustainability, local ownership and scaling up; the role of palliative care in the management of HIV/AIDS and how to integrate palliative care and Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART); primary health based care projects in two countries, Kenya and Malawi, that could provide lessons for the implementation of palliative care; lessons from other parallel programmes which mirror palliative care delivery, for example, tuberculosis programmes, and primary care programmes with good links to local clinics and hospitals, and community mobilization and empowerment projects linked to health facilities. In this way it contributes to the effort of providing an evidence base to demonstrate the importance of palliative care and provides a source of reference for policy makers, practitioners, donors and researchers

Interim policy on collaborative TB/HIV issues

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Stop TB Department and Department of HIV/AIDS
2004

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This policy responds to a demand from countries for immediate guidance on which collaborative TB/HIV activities to implement and under what circumstances. It is complementary to and in synergy with the established core activities of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes. Implementing the DOTS strategy is the core activity for tuberculosis control. Similarly, infection and disease prevention and health promotion activities and the provision of treatment and care form the basis for HIV/AIDS control. This policy does not call for the institution of a new specialist or independent disease control programme. It rather promotes enhanced collaboration between tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS programmes in the provision of a continuum of quality care at service-delivery level for people with, or at risk of tuberculosis and people living with HIV/AIDS

Handbook on paediatric AIDS in Africa

TINDYEBWA, Denis
et al
2004

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This handbook intends to provide users in resource-poor countries with a tool that can be adapted to their needs. It follows the four principles of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and aims to provide a simple, accessible and practical handbook for health workers involved in preventing infection and caring for children infected and affected by HIV. It includes substantial chapters on caring for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, infants and orphans; diagnosis and the clinical stages of HIV infection; clinical conditions associated with HIV (diarrhoea, malnutrition, neurological manifestations, skin manifestations and more); pulmonary conditions; anti-retroviral therapy for children; youth issues, long-term and terminal care planning; psychosocial support. The primary targets are medical students and their lecturers, nurses, clinicians, community health workers and other service providers in resource poor settings where there is a significant HIV and AIDS burden

Enhancing research uptake through communication, networking and capacity development

DUNN, Alison
2004

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This brief paper describes the research methodology employed by the Malaria Knowledge Programme, and key lessons learned. The programme aimed to enhance the impact of its work through strengthening information and communication flows, involving Southern researchers and institutions and creating international networks for the improvement of research communication throughout its work. Using examples, this paper illustrates how the programme engaged with dynamics of research, policy making and practice, in accordance with DFID recommendations

Using knowledge management to make health systems work

BAILEY, Christopher
December 2003

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The discipline of knowledge management aims to bridge the gap between information availability and its communication in areas where the it is needed most. This editorial looks at two programmes that demonstrate how knowledge management can work

World health report 2003 : shaping the future

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
2003

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This report argues that real progress in health depends on strengthening health systems, centred on the principles of primary health care. This requires effective use of existing knowledge and technologies and innovation to create new health tools, along with appropriate structures and strategies to apply them. Success will need new forms of cooperation between international health agencies, national health leaders, health workers and communities, and other relevant sectors. Chapter 1 of the report looks at the current state of global health, highlighting the gap between the poor and better-off everywhere. Chapter 2 reflects on the slow progress towards achieving the Millenium Development Goals. Chapter 3 looks at the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and demonstrates why HIV/AIDS control needs to drive the agenda for the global health community. Chapter 4 looks at the steps needed to achieve polio eradication within the next few years, and chapter 5 concentrates on the lessons learned from the SARS outbreak. The theme of chapter 6 is the the overlap between communicable and non-communicable diseases and injuries occurring throughout the developing world, leading to a crisis of priorities for health systems. The concluding chapter returns to the statement that stronger health systems are necessary, and that strengthening health systems should be based on the principles and practices of primary health care

Malaria prevention : lessons learned

WIJEYARATNE, Panduka
ARATA, Andrew
May 1999

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A brief but insightful report on lessons learned in malaria prevention. These are carefully explained and expanded in the text and include points such as the impact of urbanisation in Africa on malaria epidemiology; the need for simple, rapid but scientifically sound methods for assssing transmission; the role of risk area mapping in surveillance and project planning; and the need for careful operational research prior to implementing Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) programmes

HIV, health and your community : a guide for action

GRANICH, Reuben
MERMIN, Jonathan
1999

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Designed as a manual for people confronting the HIV epidemic in their communities, this book has been written to be easily accessible to those without medical or technical knowledge and without prior training in the prevention of HIV and the care of those with AIDS. Topics range from the biology of the virus to designing prevention programs, from the epidemiology of the disease to writing grant proposals. The authors discuss explicitly the risk factors for infection and suggest helpful methods for explaining them and assisting people to change their behaviour. An appendix aimed at readers with medical training discusses common HIV-related illnesses and their treatment

Vitamin A supplements : a guide to their use in the treatment and prevention of vitamin A defincency and xerophthalmia

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
1997

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The past few years have seen a steady increase in the number of programmes for the distribution of high-dose vitamin A supplements as an emergency measure to treat and prevent vitamin A deficiency and associated xerophthalmia. Health administrators and programme managers in countries in which these conditions constitute a significant public health problem are sometimes in doubt about just how much vitamin A should be given to which age and population groups, how often, and in what form. To help resolve these doubts, WHO, UNICEF and the international Vitamin A Consultative Group (IVACG) have prepared the succinct guidelines which update and extend those published by the WHO in 1988. New information deriving from scientific investigations and practical experience has warranted this revision, whose recommendations are based on the best current evidence. Easy-to-follow treatment and prevention shcedules are given, and suggestions are made for the integration of vitamin A distribution into a variety of primary health care services

Net gain : a new method for preventing malaria deaths

1996

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This book reviews and discusses the development of the treated mosquito net, focusing on the technology, its implementation, and its promotion. It reports that a finely spun net could prevent as many as one-third of all child deaths in Africa. Studies conducted in The Gambia, Ghana, and Kenya show that the insecticide-treated mosquito net reduced the mortality rate of children under 5 years of age by up to 63 percent

Communication case studies for the water supply and sanitation sector

MCINTYRE, Peter
August 1993

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This publication presents eight case studies that demonstrate that effective and sustainable action depends on changes in people; those who make and influence decisions about development priorities and at village level those who change their everyday lives. The cases show that these changes depend on effective communication efforts. They also demonstrate that communication is more than just information, it is a two-way process involving asking and listening

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