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Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus

KINDHAUSER, Mary Kay
ALLEN Tomas
FRANK Veronika
SANTHANAA Ravi Shankar
DYE Christopher
September 2016

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The temporal and geographical distribution of Zika virus infection and associated neurological disorders, from 1947 to 1 February 2016, when Zika became a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) are described following an extensive literature search. During this period a total of 74 countries and territories had reported human Zika virus infections. The timeline in this paper charts the discovery of the virus (1947), its isolation from mosquitos (1948), the first human infection (1952), the initial spread of infection from Asia to a Pacific island (2007), the first known instance of sexual transmission (2008), reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome (2014) and microcephaly (2015) linked to Zika infections and the first appearance of Zika in the Americas (from 2015). The paper concludes that the Zika virus infection in humans appears to have changed in character as its geographical range has expanded from equatorial Africa and Asia. The change is from an endemic, mosquito-borne infection causing mild illness to one that can cause large outbreaks linked with neurological sequelae and congenital abnormalities

 

Improved and standardized method for assessing years lived with disability after injury

HAAGSMA, JA
et al
2012

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"This article presents the results of study that aimed to develop a standardized method for calculating years lived with disability (YLD) after injury. The method developed consists of obtaining data on injury cases seen in emergency departments as well as injury-related hospital admissions, using the EUROCOST system to link the injury cases to disability information and employing empirical data to describe functional outcomes in injured patients. The novel method for calculating YLD after injury can be applied in different settings, overcomes some limitations of the method used to calculate the global burden of disease, and allows more accurate estimates of the population burden of injury"
Bull World Health Organ, 90

Global development voices : living with a disability

CUMMINS, Jaz
VILANI, Lisa
December 2011

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This article is part of the Global development voices series. It features discussions from14 people living with disabilities where they highlight the challenges they face in their respective countries in terms of access to education, healthcare and employment, and in relation to their social lives and relationships. Related links are also provided to The World Report on Disability, key data on disability globally and debates about the issues

Left out twice : living with HIV/AIDS and disabilities

BARRIGA, Santhu Rau
July 2010

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This article documents the experiences and prejudices which women with HIV and Aids and disabilities face. These include the risk of sexual violence to disabled women, and the difficulty in persuading partners to consent to safe sex. The article concludes with suggestions as to how the link between HIV and disability can be better researched and funded. This article would be of interest to those who are interested in HIV and disability

Bridging the gaps between research, policy and practice in low- and middle-income countries : a survey of health care providers

GUINDON, G Emmanuel
et al
May 2010

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This article discusses the results of a survey to examine the gaps that continue to exist between research based evidence and clinical practice. Health care providers in 10 low- and middle-income countries were surveyed about their use of research-based evidence and examined factors that may facilitate or impede such use. The conclusion is that locally conducted or published research plays an important role in changing the professional practice of health care providers surveyed in low- and middle-income countries and increased investments in local research, or at least in locally adapted publications of research-based evidence from other settings, are therefore needed. Although access to the Internet was viewed as a significant factor in whether research-based evidence led to concrete changes in practice, few respondents reported having easy access to the Internet. Therefore, efforts to improve Internet access in clinical settings need to be accelerate

Bridging the gaps between research, policy and practice in low- and middle-income countries a survey of researchers

LAVIS, John N
et al
May 2010

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This article describes the findings from a study which examined efforts to bridge the gaps between research, policy and practice in 10 low- and middle-income countries in which researchers conducting research in one of four clinical areas relevant to the Millennium Development Goals: prevention of malaria (Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania), care of women seeking contraception (China, Kazakhstan, Laos and Mexico), care of children with diarrhoea (Ghana, India, Pakistan and Senegal) and care of patients with tuberculosis (China, India, Iran and Mexico) were surveyed

Don’t just do it, do it right : evidence for better health in low and middle income countries

THARYAN, Prathap
March 2010

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This article puts forward the argument that evidence for better health outcomes involves a two-step process: getting the right sort of evidence - evidence that is convincing and is for low- and middle-income countries - and getting this evidence used - through access to reliable evidence (such as the Cochrane Library) to getting evidence into policy and practice

Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon

TOUKO, Adonis
et al
February 2010

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This article describes a study to investigate the prevalence of HIV in people who are hearing impaired among the population of Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, and assess their sexual vulnerability, through interviews and, in most cases, HIV testing. The research concludes that hearing impairment is a significant risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and that more research is needed into the impact of HIV and AIDS on people with disabilities, particularly those who are hearing impaired, in order to tackle this vulnerability

Factors affecting recruitment and retention of community health workers in a newborn care intervention in Bangladesh

RHAMAN, Syed Moshfiqur
et al
2010

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This is a summary of research which investigated the reasons for high rates of community health worker (CHW) attrition in Sylhet District in northeastern Bangladesh. Well-trained and highly motivated CHWs are critical for delivery of many community-based newborn care interventions. High rates of CHW attrition undermine programme effectiveness and potential for implementation at scale

Getting research into policy and practice

INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES (IDS)
October 2009

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This issue focuses on the innovative approaches to communicating research experiences being used by researchers and communication experts around sexual and reproductive health and HIV and AIDS globally. It includes specific articles about Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa and Bangladesh

"I washed and fed my mother before going to school" : understanding the psychosocial well-being of children providing chronic care for adults affected by HIV/AIDS in Western Kenya

SKOVDAL, Morten
OGUTU, Vincent O
August 2009

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This paper presents three case studies of young people each of whom is a primary caregiver for a relative living with HIV. They are drawn from a study in Western Kenya of how well children cope with the challenges of chronic care and the psycho-social impact it has on them

Sexual-health communication across and within cultures : the clown project, Guatemala

SAVDIE, Anthony
CHETLEY, Andrew
June 2009

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This paper puts forward an argument in favour of careful and critical analysis of culture in formulating communication strategies with and for specific groups, based on experience drawn from the Clown Project in Guatemala and other countries in Central America. The Clown Project uses labour-intensive face-to-face street theatre and dialogue, participatory workshops, and symbolic communication such as print-based material to reach those most vulnerable to the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS . The analysis takes into account relations of power within and between vulnerable groups, examining the centre-periphery dynamic between classes, genders, ethnicities, age groups, and other social identities. Both appropriately supported insider perspectives and appropriately processed outsider knowledge are recommended, along with ways of bridging science and the field, theory and practice

Disability among clients attending Taif Rehabilitation Centre, Saudi Arabia

AL-SHEHRI, Abdul-Salam A
ABDEL-FATTAH, Moataz M
July 2008

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This is a cross-sectional study examining 850 hospital records of people who were admitted to Rehab Armed Forces Rehabilitation Center, Taif, Saudi Arabia from 1999 to 2005. Data were collected on age, sex, nationality, date of admission and discharge, and type of disability. Recommendations are provided to expand home care programmes, to minimize duration of stay at the rehabilitation centres, and to increase health education of the public to assist in encouraging disabled people to adapt to daily life activities

Antimalarial drug quality in the most severely malarious parts of Africa - a six country study

BATE, Roger
et al
May 2008

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This article describes research conducted on a range of antimalarial drugs, procured from private pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas in the major cities of six African countries which were subjected to semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and dissolution testing to measure active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards

Helping a forgotten minority : disability and HIV/AIDS in Zambia

DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID)
June 2007

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This article and case study demonstrate work being done in Zambia to ensure that the needs of people with disabilities are met by HIV and AIDS services, so that they have full access to the treatment, care and support available. Provisions include sign language training for HIV and AIDS counsellors, making mobility aids and hearing aids available to those who need them, as well as improving food security and encouraging a sustainable livelihoods approach. This would be of interest to anyone looking at mainstreaming disability in the provision of HIV and AIDS services

Fostering disability-inclusive HIV/AIDS programs in northeast India : a participatory study

et al
June 2007

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"This paper summarises findings from a participatory study which aimed to develop practical guidelines to make HIV programmes in the states of Manipur and Nagaland more disability-friendly...The objectives were to: 1) explore HIV risk and risk perception in relation to people with disability (PWD) among HIV and disability programmers, and PWD themselves; 2) identify HIV-related education and service needs and preferences of PWD; and 3) utilise findings and stakeholder consultation to draft practical guidelines for inclusion of disability into HIV programming in this region of India"

Five myths about the HIV epidemic in Asia

GODWIN, Peter
et al
October 2006

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This article raises concerns about a number of misinformed beliefs, or myths, about the HIV epidemic that are widely circulating in Asia, and suggests that if these myths, are allowed to underpin and influence policy and programming and guide immediate action, they have the potential to jeopardise exactly the kind of focused, coherent, evidence-based programme being called for in Asia and the Pacific

Evaluating health research capacity building : an evidence-based tool

BATES, Imelda
et al
July 2006

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Health research capacity building is essential to the success and sustainability of research programmes. This article describes the development and use of a tool for determining whether the required infrastructure is present in a given setting, and for designing and evaluating capacity-building programmes in health research. It provides an analysis of published models and effective capacity-building principles, together with structured reflection and action by stakeholders at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ghana

Insecticide resistance and malaria control : current trends in research

KULKARNI, Manisha
April 2006

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This article outlines current trends in malaria research. Recent research studies, here briefly reviewed, have focused on the molecular scale of resistance in Anopheles, geographical scale of resistance in Africa, impact of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) in host-seeking vectors, implications of resistance for malaria control, pyrethroids and alternative insecticides, and on new initiatives to fast track the development of improved insecticides

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