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Bridging the gaps between research, policy and practice in low- and middle-income countries a survey of researchers

LAVIS, John N
et al
May 2010

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This article describes the findings from a study which examined efforts to bridge the gaps between research, policy and practice in 10 low- and middle-income countries in which researchers conducting research in one of four clinical areas relevant to the Millennium Development Goals: prevention of malaria (Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania), care of women seeking contraception (China, Kazakhstan, Laos and Mexico), care of children with diarrhoea (Ghana, India, Pakistan and Senegal) and care of patients with tuberculosis (China, India, Iran and Mexico) were surveyed

Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon

TOUKO, Adonis
et al
February 2010

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This article describes a study to investigate the prevalence of HIV in people who are hearing impaired among the population of Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, and assess their sexual vulnerability, through interviews and, in most cases, HIV testing. The research concludes that hearing impairment is a significant risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and that more research is needed into the impact of HIV and AIDS on people with disabilities, particularly those who are hearing impaired, in order to tackle this vulnerability

Factors affecting recruitment and retention of community health workers in a newborn care intervention in Bangladesh

RHAMAN, Syed Moshfiqur
et al
2010

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This is a summary of research which investigated the reasons for high rates of community health worker (CHW) attrition in Sylhet District in northeastern Bangladesh. Well-trained and highly motivated CHWs are critical for delivery of many community-based newborn care interventions. High rates of CHW attrition undermine programme effectiveness and potential for implementation at scale

Getting research into policy and practice

INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES (IDS)
October 2009

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This issue focuses on the innovative approaches to communicating research experiences being used by researchers and communication experts around sexual and reproductive health and HIV and AIDS globally. It includes specific articles about Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa and Bangladesh

Antimalarial drug quality in the most severely malarious parts of Africa - a six country study

BATE, Roger
et al
May 2008

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This article describes research conducted on a range of antimalarial drugs, procured from private pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas in the major cities of six African countries which were subjected to semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and dissolution testing to measure active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards

Fostering disability-inclusive HIV/AIDS programs in northeast India : a participatory study

et al
June 2007

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"This paper summarises findings from a participatory study which aimed to develop practical guidelines to make HIV programmes in the states of Manipur and Nagaland more disability-friendly...The objectives were to: 1) explore HIV risk and risk perception in relation to people with disability (PWD) among HIV and disability programmers, and PWD themselves; 2) identify HIV-related education and service needs and preferences of PWD; and 3) utilise findings and stakeholder consultation to draft practical guidelines for inclusion of disability into HIV programming in this region of India"

Insecticide resistance and malaria control : current trends in research

KULKARNI, Manisha
April 2006

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This article outlines current trends in malaria research. Recent research studies, here briefly reviewed, have focused on the molecular scale of resistance in Anopheles, geographical scale of resistance in Africa, impact of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) in host-seeking vectors, implications of resistance for malaria control, pyrethroids and alternative insecticides, and on new initiatives to fast track the development of improved insecticides

What is e-health (5) : a research agenda for eHealth through stakeholder consultation and policy context review

JONES, Ray
et al
November 2005

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This article reports a study that explored the concerns of professional and lay stakeholders regarding future developments of eHealth in the UK and reviewed relevant policy to produce recommendations for eHealth research. It concludes that the scope of eHealth research (grouped under four headings: using, processing, sharing, controlling information) derived empirically from this study corresponds with 'textbook' descriptions of informatics. Stakeholders would like eHealth research to include outcomes such as improved health or quality of life, but such research may be long term while changes in information technology are rapid. Longer-term research questions need to be concerned with human behavior and our use of information, rather than particular technologies A parallel literature review was carried out by others and has been reported elsewhere

Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning : a BEME systematic review

ISSENBERG, S Barry
et al
January 2005

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Systematic review on the use of simulations in medical education selected 109 studies meeting meeting criteria. High fidelity medical simulations facilitate learning under the right conditions. These include providing feedback, repetitive practice, curriculum integration, range of difficulty level, multiple learning strategies, capture clinical variation, controlled environment, individualised learning, defined outcomes and simulator validity. Does not specifically mention resource-poor contexts

Participation of African social scientists in malaria control : identifying enabling and constraining factors

NGALAME, Paulyne M
et al
December 2004

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This article discusses research examining the enabling and constraining factors that influence African social scientists' involvement in malaria control. Findings showed that most participants did not necessarily seek malaria as a career path. Having a mentor who provided research and training opportunities, and developing strong technical skills in malaria control and grant or proposal writing facilitated career opportunities in malaria. A paucity of jobs and funding and inadequate technical skills in malaria limited the type and number of opportunities available to social scientists in malaria control. Understanding the factors that influence job satisfaction, recruitment and retention in malaria control is necessary for better integration of social scientists into malaria control. However, given the wide array of skills that social scientists have and the variety of deadly diseases competing for attention in sub-Saharan Africa, it might be more cost effective to employ social scientists to work broadly on issues common to communicable diseases in general rather than solely on malaria

Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

GONZALEZ-BLOCK, M A
2004

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This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the health policy and systems research (HPSR) portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. The framework proposed offers a basis to identify and contrast research needs, projects and products at the international level and to identify the actor agendas and their influence. Research gaps are suggested when comparing topic ranking against the challenges to health system strengthening and scaling up of disease control programmes. Differences across per capita income groups suggests the need for differentiated priority setting mechanisms guiding international support. Data suggests that stakeholders have different agendas, and that donors predominate in determining the research portfolio. High-level consensus building at the national and international levels is necessary to ensure that the diverse agendas play a complementary role in support of health system objectives

Global equity gauge alliance : reflections on early experiences

McCOY, David
et al
September 2003

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"This paper traces the evolution and working of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA) and its efforts to promote health equity...[It] provides examples of strategies for promoting pro-equity policy and social change and reviews experiences and lessons, both in terms of technical success of interventions and in relation to the conceptual development and refinement of the Equity Gauge Strategy..."

Breast cancer in south-east Republic of Yemen

ABDUL HAMID, G
TAYEB, M S
BAWAZIR, A A
November 2001

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This retrospective study of breast cancer was carried out using the treatment registry of Aden Health Office and archives of Al-Gamhoria Teaching Hospital. It advocates for a comprehensive national approach to increase research funding in this area

Quality of Cochrane reviews : assessment of sample from 1998

OLSEN, Ole
et al
October 2001

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Ten Cochrane collaboration affiliates examined in a semi-structured way the quality of reviews first published in 1998. The Cochrane library remains a key source of reliable evidence about the effects of healthcare interventions, and steps continue to be made to improve quality of the reviews which remain on average more systematic and less biased than other reviews published in journals. On the whole however, the reviews were found to be over-generous when assessing the benefits of experimental interventions on health

Depression in developing countries : lessons from Zimbabwe

PATEL, Vikram
et al
2001

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Depression is one of the most important causes of morbidity and disability in developing countries. Zimbabwe, in common with other developing nations, has absolute poverty, economic reform programmes, limited public health services, widespread private and traditional health-care services, civil unrest, cultural diversity and sex inequality. This study looked at research on depression in Zimbabwe over the past 15 years, covering ethnographic and epidemiological studies in a range of populations. The findings are compared with research from other developing and developed countries. The report also examines the validity of the World Health Organization's classifications and medical concepts of depression, the public health implications of depression, and the implications for clinical practice and research in the context of developing countries

Telemedicine versus face to face patient care : effects on professional practice and health care outcomes

CURRELL, R
et al
2000

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A Cochrane systematic review assessing the effects of telemedicine compared to direct patient care. Seven trials were included including studies in the emergency department, videoconsultations between primary and outpatients department, home care provision or self monitoring. Suggests that policy makers should be cautious about recommending increased use and investment in unevaluated technologies

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