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Bridging the gaps between research, policy and practice in low- and middle-income countries a survey of researchers

LAVIS, John N
et al
May 2010

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This article describes the findings from a study which examined efforts to bridge the gaps between research, policy and practice in 10 low- and middle-income countries in which researchers conducting research in one of four clinical areas relevant to the Millennium Development Goals: prevention of malaria (Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania), care of women seeking contraception (China, Kazakhstan, Laos and Mexico), care of children with diarrhoea (Ghana, India, Pakistan and Senegal) and care of patients with tuberculosis (China, India, Iran and Mexico) were surveyed

Sexual vulnerability and HIV seroprevalence among the deaf and hearing impaired in Cameroon

TOUKO, Adonis
et al
February 2010

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This article describes a study to investigate the prevalence of HIV in people who are hearing impaired among the population of Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, and assess their sexual vulnerability, through interviews and, in most cases, HIV testing. The research concludes that hearing impairment is a significant risk factor for contracting sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and that more research is needed into the impact of HIV and AIDS on people with disabilities, particularly those who are hearing impaired, in order to tackle this vulnerability

Factors affecting recruitment and retention of community health workers in a newborn care intervention in Bangladesh

RHAMAN, Syed Moshfiqur
et al
2010

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This is a summary of research which investigated the reasons for high rates of community health worker (CHW) attrition in Sylhet District in northeastern Bangladesh. Well-trained and highly motivated CHWs are critical for delivery of many community-based newborn care interventions. High rates of CHW attrition undermine programme effectiveness and potential for implementation at scale

Getting research into policy and practice

INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES (IDS)
October 2009

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This issue focuses on the innovative approaches to communicating research experiences being used by researchers and communication experts around sexual and reproductive health and HIV and AIDS globally. It includes specific articles about Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa and Bangladesh

Disabling able

FERRIER, Liz
MULLER, Viv
July 2008

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This article explores ability from a disability perspective, rather than disability from an able-ist perspective. The aim is to offer a fresh perspective on disability, with a focus on abilities and productivities. This resource would be useful for anyone with an interest in disability studies

Antimalarial drug quality in the most severely malarious parts of Africa - a six country study

BATE, Roger
et al
May 2008

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This article describes research conducted on a range of antimalarial drugs, procured from private pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas in the major cities of six African countries which were subjected to semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and dissolution testing to measure active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards

Fostering disability-inclusive HIV/AIDS programs in northeast India : a participatory study

et al
June 2007

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"This paper summarises findings from a participatory study which aimed to develop practical guidelines to make HIV programmes in the states of Manipur and Nagaland more disability-friendly...The objectives were to: 1) explore HIV risk and risk perception in relation to people with disability (PWD) among HIV and disability programmers, and PWD themselves; 2) identify HIV-related education and service needs and preferences of PWD; and 3) utilise findings and stakeholder consultation to draft practical guidelines for inclusion of disability into HIV programming in this region of India"

Insecticide resistance and malaria control : current trends in research

KULKARNI, Manisha
April 2006

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This article outlines current trends in malaria research. Recent research studies, here briefly reviewed, have focused on the molecular scale of resistance in Anopheles, geographical scale of resistance in Africa, impact of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) in host-seeking vectors, implications of resistance for malaria control, pyrethroids and alternative insecticides, and on new initiatives to fast track the development of improved insecticides

One never knows : research policy and knowledge management in Dutch evelopment cooperation

WIEDENHOF, Caroline
MOLENAAR, Henk
2006

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This article is about the development cooperation section of the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DGIS) and initiatives it has undertaken since the early 1990s to respond to the need to ensure Southern ownership of research agendas and programmes and to ensure that research is informed by policy matters and the outcomes of research are used to inform policy

What is e-health (5) : a research agenda for eHealth through stakeholder consultation and policy context review

JONES, Ray
et al
November 2005

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This article reports a study that explored the concerns of professional and lay stakeholders regarding future developments of eHealth in the UK and reviewed relevant policy to produce recommendations for eHealth research. It concludes that the scope of eHealth research (grouped under four headings: using, processing, sharing, controlling information) derived empirically from this study corresponds with 'textbook' descriptions of informatics. Stakeholders would like eHealth research to include outcomes such as improved health or quality of life, but such research may be long term while changes in information technology are rapid. Longer-term research questions need to be concerned with human behavior and our use of information, rather than particular technologies A parallel literature review was carried out by others and has been reported elsewhere

Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning : a BEME systematic review

ISSENBERG, S Barry
et al
January 2005

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Systematic review on the use of simulations in medical education selected 109 studies meeting meeting criteria. High fidelity medical simulations facilitate learning under the right conditions. These include providing feedback, repetitive practice, curriculum integration, range of difficulty level, multiple learning strategies, capture clinical variation, controlled environment, individualised learning, defined outcomes and simulator validity. Does not specifically mention resource-poor contexts

Participation of African social scientists in malaria control : identifying enabling and constraining factors

NGALAME, Paulyne M
et al
December 2004

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This article discusses research examining the enabling and constraining factors that influence African social scientists' involvement in malaria control. Findings showed that most participants did not necessarily seek malaria as a career path. Having a mentor who provided research and training opportunities, and developing strong technical skills in malaria control and grant or proposal writing facilitated career opportunities in malaria. A paucity of jobs and funding and inadequate technical skills in malaria limited the type and number of opportunities available to social scientists in malaria control. Understanding the factors that influence job satisfaction, recruitment and retention in malaria control is necessary for better integration of social scientists into malaria control. However, given the wide array of skills that social scientists have and the variety of deadly diseases competing for attention in sub-Saharan Africa, it might be more cost effective to employ social scientists to work broadly on issues common to communicable diseases in general rather than solely on malaria

Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

GONZALEZ-BLOCK, M A
2004

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This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the health policy and systems research (HPSR) portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. The framework proposed offers a basis to identify and contrast research needs, projects and products at the international level and to identify the actor agendas and their influence. Research gaps are suggested when comparing topic ranking against the challenges to health system strengthening and scaling up of disease control programmes. Differences across per capita income groups suggests the need for differentiated priority setting mechanisms guiding international support. Data suggests that stakeholders have different agendas, and that donors predominate in determining the research portfolio. High-level consensus building at the national and international levels is necessary to ensure that the diverse agendas play a complementary role in support of health system objectives

Bridging the implementation gap between knowledge and action for health

HAINES, A
KURUVILLA, S
BORCHERT, M
2004

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There is widespread evidence of failure to implement health interventions that have been demonstrated to be cost-effective by high-quality research; this failure affects both high-income and low-income countries. Low-income countries face additional challenges to using research evidence including: the weakness of their health systems, the lack of professional regulation and a lack of access to evidence. There is a need to strengthen institutions and mechanisms that can more systematically promote interactions between researchers, policy-makers and other stakeholders who can influence the uptake of research findings. The concept of public engagement with health research requires a public that is both informed and active. Even when systematic reviews are available further work is needed to translate their findings into guidelines or messages that are understandable to patients and health professionals. Many of the commonly used approaches for keeping health professionals' knowledge up-to-date appear to have small or inconsistent effects. The evidence-base is more extensive for interventions directed towards professionals, such as education, reminders or feedback, than for those directed at organisations or patients. The effect of interventions varies according to the setting and the behaviour that is targeted. Case studies in low-income settings suggest that some strategies can result in increased coverage of evidence-based interventions, but there is a lack of evidence from systematic reviews of rigorous research. Given the potential for near-term improvements in health, finding more effective ways of promoting the uptake of evidence-based interventions should be a priority for researchers, practitioners and policy-makers

Portal Diassere - Derechos, Investigación y Abogacía en Salud, Sexualidad y Reproducción. Internet como herramienta para el establecimiento de una red que fortalezca la investigación y la abogacía en regiones del Perú

CLÍMACO, Danilo
2004

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Describes a website called Diassere (Rights, Research and Advocacy in Health, Sexuality and Reproduction), which is part of a wider project which aims to fortify capacities for research and advocacy. This site is being used by researchers exchanging experiences and evidences related to sexuality and reproductive health. Given the fact that information is highly centralized in Lima, the site is benefiting researchers from different regions, guaranteeing an equal access to evidence, information and opportunities

Poverty and disability : breaking the vicious cycle through inclusion

MOORE, K
YEO, Rebecca
December 2003

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This article highlights the fact that disabled people and disability issues are largely excluded from international development organisations and research. The Chronic Poverty Research Centre and Action on Disability in Development undertook research on disability and poverty which showed that most disabled people are vulnerable, excluded and deprived. The article advocates for mainstreaming and inclusion to break the links between poverty and disability

Measuring health inequality among children in developing countries : does the choice of the indicator of economic status matter?

HOUWELING, Tanja A J
KUNST, Anton E
MACKENBACH, Johan P
October 2003

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Poor-rich inequalities in health in developing countries receive a lot of attention from researchers and policy makers. However, different indicators of wealth are used in different studies. There is a lack of evidence on the extent to which the use of different measures of economic status affects the observed magnitude of health inequalities. This paper provides empirical evidence for 10 developing countries, using the Demographic and Health Surveys data-set. It compares the World Bank asset index to three alternative wealth indices, all based on household assets. Results indicated that the relative position of households in the national wealth hierarchy varied to an important extent with the asset index used; observed poor-rich inequalities in under-5 mortality and immunisation coverage often changed, in some cases to an important extent; and the size and direction of this change varied per country, index, and health indicator

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