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Antimalarial drug quality in the most severely malarious parts of Africa - a six country study

BATE, Roger
COTICELLI, Philip
TREN, Richard
ATTARAN, Amir
May 2008

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This article describes research conducted on a range of antimalarial drugs, procured from private pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas in the major cities of six African countries which were subjected to semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and dissolution testing to measure active pharmaceutical ingredient content against internationally acceptable standards

Best practices in the socio-economic rehabilitation of persons affected by leprosy and other marginalised people in their communities: findings from nine evaluations in Bangladesh, India and Africa

VELEEMA, Johan P
2008

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This paper presents an overview of findings from the formal evaluation of 9 socio-economic rehabilitation programmes (SER), in 4 countries in Africa, in Bangladesh and in India from 2002-2005. Bringing together the recommendations resulted in a description of best practices in the implementation of socio-economic rehabilitation programmes, derived from actual experiences in different contexts.

All the 9 programmes focused on supporting individual leprosy-affected beneficiaries or their families. Four projects also supported other marginalised clients. The usual interventions were micro-credit, housing and sponsoring of education for the children.

The recommendations touched upon each of the five steps in individual rehabilitation: Selection of clients, needs assessment, choosing an intervention, monitoring / follow--up of clients during rehabilitation, and separation at the end of the rehabilitation process. The evaluators also suggested ways in which participation of the client in their own rehabilitation might be boosted, made recommendations for the organisational structure of programmes, on maximising community involvement and emphasised the importance of information systems and of investing in the programme staff. A number of recommendations were specific to the types of interventions implemented i.e, housing, education or micro-credit.

Evidence of the impact of SER on the quality of life of clients is limited, but suggests increased self-esteem and increased respect/status in the family and community.

 

Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, vol.19, no.1, 2008

Improving nutrition as a development priority : addressing undernutrition in national policy processes in sub-Saharan Africa

BENSON, Todd
2008

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This report examines the findings of a qualitative institutional study on nutrition in four countries in Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Uganda. The focus is twofold: first, to seek a general understanding as to why it is difficult for undernutrition to be targeted as a national development priority; and secondly to examine in more detail the four interrelated elements of the policy processes that are relevant to addressing undernutrition in each country. These are: policy making structures, political actors, the narrative of undernutrition that informs the policy choice and the timing of policy change

Missing the target #5 : improving AIDS drug access and advancing health care for all

INTERNATIONAL TREATMENT PREPAREDNESS COALITION (ITPC)
December 2007

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This report documents how the mobilisation around AIDS is driving health systems advancement in China, Dominican Republic, Zimbabwe, Russia, Kenya, India, Cameroon, Zambia and Cambodia, and it highlights the need for improvements in broader systems of care and services to meet the needs of people living with HIV & AIDS and the communities in which they live. It also considers ARV procurement, registration and stock-outs in Argentina, Belize, Cambodia, China, Dominican Republic, India, Malawi, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Russia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Community led total sanitation (CLTS) : an evaluation of the WaterAid’s CLTS programme in Nigeria

BURTON, Salma
August 2007

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Since establishing a programme in Nigeria in 1995, WANG and partners have tried several approaches to promoting sanitation which have not yielded sustainable changes. In its attempt to seek a more sustainable methodology, WANG initiated the pilot testing of the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach which aimed to facilitate a participatory process of empowering local communities to improve their sanitation situation. This evaluation report assesses the efficiency, effectiveness and relevance of the CLTS programme, and recommends ways of improving and scaling up the programme in Nigeria. The evaluation provides wide ranging evidence that that CLTS is an effective approach to establishing hygiene and sanitation practice in Nigeria, but the effectiveness varied depending on certain conditions which will need to be taken into consideration when scaling up the initiative

Missing the target #4 : time is running out to end AIDS - treatment and prevention for all!

INTERNATIONAL TREATMENT PREPAREDNESS COALITION (ITPC)
July 2007

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This report provides research from 17 countries to support the case that efforts to ensure universal access to treatment for HIV and AIDS are maintained and accelerated; that supplementary services are also provided free at the point of access; that there is increased investment in health care workers; and co-ordinated policy reforms. It also recommends that donors ensure sustainable funding for treatment programmes and identifies areas of weaknesses in global programmes. In addition, it provides focus reports for Cambodia, China, Malawi, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Zambia; brief updates on countries previously reported on: Dominican Republic, Kenya, Nigeria, India, Russia and South Africa; and short summaries on Argentina, Belize, Cameroon, Malaysia and Morocco

HIV/AIDS and disability : differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge between deaf and hearing people in Nigeria

GROCE, N E
YOUSAFZAI, A K
VAN DER MAAS, F
March 2007

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This quantitative study compares HIV and AIDS knowledge among hearing and deaf individuals in Nigeria, in order to identify if, and in what way, deaf community members lack access to AIDS information due to low literacy or problems in communication. Significant differences in levels of understanding and access to accurate information were found, indicating the need for inclusion of people with disabilities in HIV and AIDS strategies, and the need to address their specific vulnerabilities. The article would be useful for health and development professionals working in the field of HIVand AIDS, or with deaf individuals in Nigeria

Pain relieving drugs in 12 African PEPFAR countries : mapping current providers, identifying current challenges, and enabling expansion of pain control provision in the management of HIV/AIDS

HARDING, Richard
et al
January 2007

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This study aims to identify current opioid prescribing services and regulatory bodies within 12 African PEPFAR (Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief ) countries, and to examine the barriers to, and appraise the potential for, expansion in the number of opioid providers, for people with HIV and AIDS according to the World Health Organization pain ladder. It concludes that while there are common issues raised by services and International Narcotics Control Board competent authorities, it is clear that these key stakeholders have concerns regarding the potential roll-out of opioids

WHO/ILEP technical guide on community-based rehabilitation and leprosy

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
INTERANTIONAL FEDERATION OF ANTI-LEPROSY ASSOCIATIONS (ILEP)
2007

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This technical guide provides a reorientation and familiarisation tool for managers of leprosy projects and programmes. The analysis includes an outline of the broad objectives of CBR, the roles and tasks of programme managers, and the responsibilities of community workers. This resource would be useful for anyone with an interest in disability and development

Vaccine anxieties : global science, child health and society

LEACH, Melissa
2007

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"This book explores how parents understand and engage with childhood vaccination in contrasting global contexts. This rapidly advancing and universal technology has sparked dramatic controversy, whether over MMR in the UK or oral polio vaccines in Nigeria. Combining a fresh anthropological perspective with detailed field research, the book examines anxieties emerging as highly globalized vaccine technologies and technocracies encounter the deeply intimate personal and social worlds of parenting and childcare, and how these are part of transforming science-society relations"

Impact of socio-economic rehabilitation on leprosy stigma in Northern Nigeria: findings of a retrospective study

EBENSO, Bassey
FASHONA, Aminat
AYUBA, Mainas
IDAH, Mike
ADEYEMI, Gbemiga
S-FADA, Shehu
2007

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This study explored the perceptions of people affected by leprosy regarding impact of socio-economic rehabilitation (SER) on stigma-reduction. The study combined a quantitative questionnaire (the P-scale) with semi-structured interviews of 20 individual SER participants, five focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews. The P-scale results showed four men suffered significant participation restrictions (scores of >12 points) in finding work and in social integration. The narratives of SER participants, focus groups and key informants showed that SER improved self-esteem, financial independence, acquisition of new skills, and access to public institutions. The authors speculate that through the pathway of improvements in economic and living conditions, SER is beginning to influence the process of social interaction, resulting in positive attitudinal change towards SER participants. The subjective opinions of interviewees suggest that improved self-esteem, positive family and community support for SER participants and increasing participation in community activities are indications of stigma-reduction.

 

Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, Vol 18, No 2

Community advocates training manual : the HIV/AIDS prevention project for vulnerable youth in northern Nigeria

POPULATION COUNCIL
2007

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"The Community Advocates training manual is a curriculum developed by Population Council, Nigeria under the HIV Prevention Project for Vulnerable Youth in Northern Nigeria funded by USAID/Nigeria. The curriculum was developed as a tool for training community advocates to conduct advocacy activities on the issues of early marriage, HIV/AIDS and reproductive health. The curriculum is developed on the premise that community representatives can speak out on issues concerning their lives and community, if given the necessary skills"

Social protection : how important are the national plans of action for orphans and vulnerable children?

SABATES-WHEELER, Rachel
PELHAM, Lissa
October 2006

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This is a review of 14 national plans of action (NPA), or in the absence of a NPA, outputs from the rapid assessment analysis and action planning (RAAAP) work for orphans and children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS. It analyses the way that issues of social protection are incorporated into these plans and highlights areas within the plans where social protection activity may be needed to achieve stated outcomes. There are also country by country summaries of the social protection content of each NPA

CSO capacity for policy engagement : lessons learned from the CSPP consultations in Africa, Asia and Latin America

CHOWDHURY, Naved
FINLAY-NOTMAN, Chelsie
HOVLAND, Ignie
August 2006

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This paper explore the views of Southern civil society organisations (CSOs) on the issues of evidence-based policy engagement and came out of the Civil Society Partnerships Programme (CSPP). "During its first phase the CSPP conducted a series of consultative seminars and workshops in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The aim was to provide a forum for representatives from policy research institutions and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), as well as other stakeholders, to come together. Participants discussed the opportunities and challenges for CSOs when using evidence to inform policy, presented lessons and best practice in this area, shared experiences about ongoing activities and identified opportunities for collaborative work"

Civil society perspectives on TB policy in Bangladesh, Brazil, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Thailand

Public Health Watch, Open Society Institute
2006

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This publication contains an overview of the common themes and funding resulting from five country reports, and the five reports themselves. The World Health Organization has designated all five as TB-high burden countries. The research findings show a low level of awareness about TB, and TB and HIV co-infection; about how TB is transmitted and how it can be cured; and about the link between poverty and TB; as well as low media coverage of TB and a lack of strong communication strategies for national TB programmes. It also contains country-specific recommendations

Civil society involvement in rapid assessment, analysis and action planning (RAAAP) for orphans and vulnerable children : an independent review

GOSLING, Louisa
July 2005

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This review explores civil society organisations' experiences of the Rapid Assessement, Analysis and Action Planning (RAAAP) process - an initiative launched by USAID, UNICEF, UNAIDS, and the World Food Program - for orphans and other vulnerable children in November 2003. It comprises of a review of where civil society organisations were involved and where they were not and an overview of the process of their invovlement. It also offers recommendations for existing and future RAAAPs to ensure greater invovlement of civil society organisations, and includes individual reports on the 16 sub-Saharan African countries invovled in the first round of RAAAP in 2004

USAID project profiles : children affected by HIV/AIDS

UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (USAID)
January 2005

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This document presents profiles of 114 projects (90 country-specific, 12 regional, and 12 global) funded by USAID. It includes a section on USAID projects that support access to education in Africa. The project profiles include the names of implementing organisations, funding periods and amounts, objectives, strategies, key accomplishments, priority activities for the year ahead, and materials and tools available to other projects that can help meet the needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. The diversity of these projects demonstrates the US government's efforts to meet the wide variety of needs of children and youth affected by HIV and AIDS. Approaches vary in both strategy and scale. The vast majority of projects work with communities to identify opportunities that strengthen existing resources without undermining local ownership. In many places, communities are already mobilised and have systems in place to identify, protect, and provide basic necessities to the most vulnerable children. USAID supports the strengthening and monitoring of these existing activities

Information and communication technologies and the effects of globalization : twenty-first century digital slavery for developing countries -- myth or reality?

OGUNSOLA, L A
2005

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This paper examines the ICT (Information and Communication Technology) revolution and the concept of globalization as they effect developing countries. The wide gap in availability and use of ICTs across the world and the influences ICTs exert on globalization at the expense of developing countries are carefully examined and suggestions and necessary policies are offered for developing countries to leap-frog the industrialization stage and transform their economies into high value-added information economies that can compete with the advanced countries on the global market. This is why it is important for Africa, in general, and Nigeria, in particular, to be aware of the implications, prepare to avoid the most telling consequences and prepare to meet its challenges

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