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Global report on the participation of organisations of persons with disabilities (DPOs) in VNR (voluntary national review) processes

INTERNATIONAL DISABILITY ALLIANCE (IDA)
STAKEHOLDER GROUP OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
2017

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"This global report raises awareness for DPOs and how to engage with their governments in the national consultation processes on SDG implementation. This case study features the volunteering countries of Argentina, Bangladesh, Denmark, El Salvador, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, Nigeria, Peru, Sweden and Togo.

The information summarised in the country chapters was derived from DPOs and partners working at the national level on SDG implementation and information may be subjective. The country chapters are structured to include; status of persons with disabilities, engagement in the voluntary national review process, thematic issues--poverty alleviation, healthcare, women with disabilities and accessibility—and analysis of the submitted VNR report

How CBM Australia supports engagement with government for disability inclusion and prevention

CBM AUSTRALIA
March 2016

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CBM Australia engages both directly and indirectly with governments. Indirectly, CBM Australia supports other organisations, for instance disabled people’s organisations or civil society organisations to engage with governments. This report looks at the different ways that CBM partners seek influence government and promote sustainability. It considers the different roles and relevance of activism, advocacy, service delivery and advisory approaches.

 

The cases in this report were identified and gathered through semi-structured interviews with CBM’s Program Officers, Technical Advisors, regional/country office and project staff in-country, as well as drawing on reports and evaluations. The report starts with a section explaining the four different approaches to working with government, followed by a brief introduction to each approach, highlighting what CBM are doing and the key lessons learned. Each section is followed by case studies giving more detailed insight into how CBM are engaging, key achievements, challenges and the lessons learned. Fifteen case studies covering key projects from CBM Australia’s International Programs and the Inclusive Development Team are described in this report.

Who is being left behind in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America? 3 reports from ODI

LYNCH, Alainna
BERLINER, Tom
MAROTTI, Chiara
BHAKTAL Tanvi
RODRIGUEZ TAKEUCHI Laura
et al
February 2016

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The commitment to ‘leave no one behind’ has been a key feature of all the discussions on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Here are three papers setting out the first step to implementing this agenda - the step of identifying marginalised communities. The focus is on two case study countries for each of the three regions, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the papers identify gaps in achieving a number of outcomes relating to key SDGs targets for marginalised groups. The paper on Asia highlights people with disabilities in Bangladesh.

Enabling education review, issue 4

ENABLING EDUCATION NETWORK
December 2015

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This newsletter contains a variety of articles about inclusive education in several countries around the world. The topics focus mostly on funding, managing and sustaining inclusive education; engaging and empowering beneficiaries in finding solutions; facilitating parental and child involvement and early childhood education

Enabling Education Review, issue 4

Nigerian Realities: Can we ignore Traditional Leadership in developing successful CBR?

VERMEER, Bertine
CORNIELJE, Marije T
CORNIELJE, Huib
POST, Erik B
IDAH, Mike A
2015

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Purpose: To study the role of traditional leaders (Sarakuna) who provide a form of social welfare for persons with disabilities in the Hausa society of Northern Nigeria. From the results of this study, lessons are derived for cooperation with Sarakuna in (emerging) Community Based Rehabilitation programmes.

 

Methods: A literature study was done using different (non-)electronic sources. In addition, 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted with different stakeholders (e.g., non-governmental organisations, disabled people’s organisations), and 8 focus group discussions were held with (leaders of) persons with a disability. Question-led analysis was utilised by considering 4 dimensions: rehabilitation outcomes, rehabilitation services, involvement of beneficiaries, and social acceptability.

 

Results: Not much literature is available on the role of traditional leadership in rehabilitation programmes and social welfare. Nevertheless, this study found indications that traditional leadership is still present in contemporary NorthernNigeria. Some Sarakuna improve the socio-economic position of persons with disabilities by functioning as mediators and by their ability to provide social insurance. Their cooperation with multiple stakeholders enables them to distribute food and clothes. Also, since they possess essential information, NGOs are helped to access the community of persons with disabilities. Sarakuna are in a position to promote the inclusion and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities, but often lack necessary skills and training; yet, Community Based Rehabilitation programmes often ignore them.

 

Conclusions and Implications: Community Based Rehabilitation programmes should take better note of social contexts and therefore should also work in the specific context of traditional leadership. In this way, rehabilitation programmes are more likely to meet the expectations of persons with disability.

Mobile for development : transforming global healthcare through mobile technology

THEVATHASAN, Vanessa
GRADZEWICZ, Agnes
RUETZEL, Sonja
2015

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This paper outlines the need for greater connectivity & accessibility in less developed countries. Following this, the authors present the benefits of various different ‘mHealth’ solutions, presented through case studies. The report concludes by outlining some of the constraints holding back greater ‘mHealth’ innovation, including financing and sustainability issues

Beneath the rhetoric: Policy to reduce the mental health treatment gap in Africa

COOPER, Sara
2015

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In this paper I problematize knowledge on reducing the ‘gap’ in treatment produced by 14 national mental health policies in Africa. To contextualize this analysis, I begin with a historic-political account of the emergence of the notion of primary health care and its entanglement within decolonization forces of the 1960s. I unpack how and why this concept was subsequently atrophied, being stripped of its more revolutionary sentiments from the 1980s. Against this backdrop, I show how, although the 14 national mental health policies are saturated with the rhetoric of primary health care and associated concepts of community participation and ownership, in practice they tend to marginalize local meaning-systems and endorse a top-down framework heavily informed by colonial medicine. The policies thus end up reproducing many of the very Eurocentric assumptions that the original primary health care notion sought to transcend. More specifically, the paradigms of evidence-based research/practice and individualised human rights become the gatekeepers of knowledge. These two paradigms, which are deeply embedded within contemporary global mental health discourse, are legislating what are legitimate forms of knowing, and by extension, valid forms of care. I argue that a greater appreciation of the primary health care concept, in its earliest formulation, offers a potentially fruitful terrain of engagement for developing more contextually-embedded and epistemologically appropriate mental health policies in Africa. This in turn might help reduce the current ‘gap’ in mental health care treatment so many countries on the continent face.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2015, Vol. 2 No. 3

Applied research on disability in Africa : the Maghreb and West Africa report

BENKIRANE, Wassila
ZOUHAIRI, Abdellah
2014

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“This literature review concerns the achievements of a project which started in 2014 and will last three years. The aim of this project is the dissemination and promotion of applied research results and disability to researchers and field stakeholders of the African continent (particularly to Disabled People Organizations), in order to increase knowledge on the situation of people with disabilities and the recommendations made to improve their social participation… The mapping of applied research in West African countries shows the exclusion related to the environment, which lacks the school, health, and sports infrastructure required to promote their [people with disabilities] rights. We will mainly deal with the issue of exclusion and its multidimensional aspect in West Africa, as well as the institutional efforts to set up development plans for people with disabilities in these regions”

Does Africa dream of androids?

OKOYE, Florence
2014

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This paper is part of a broader investigation into the intersection of disability and technology in African societies. The paper will focus specifically on Nigerian cultures, exploring the social experience of disabled persons with respect to their use of available technologies in navigating a space within their respective cultures. The paper will first deal with the technologies available to disabled people in pre-colonial West Africa as suggested by archaeological and literary evidence, go on to analyse how changes in economic and cultural systems brought about by colonialism and the post-colonial state, shifted the roles and technologies available to disabled people. The paper argues that the African cyborg has been an inspiration for new technologies, and an agent of technological and social change. Simultaneously, increased connectivity has enabled indigenous technologists to more quickly share and develop ideas. It has also empowered new generations of technologists with the potential to radically improve disabled access to areas of public life. The paper concludes that as a focus of metaphysical anxieties, the cyborg has evolved to something approximating the New African, someone who can defy boundaries to achieve an act worthy of herself and the her community – an agent of revolution and social change rather than a passive recipient of imposed technologies.

 

Disability and the Global South (DGS), 2014, Vol. 1 No. 1

Leprosy: Knowledge and Attitudes of Physiotherapists in Nigeria

AYANNIYI, O
DUNCAN, F O
ADENIYI, A F
2013

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Purpose: The objectives of this study were to investigate the knowledge and attitudes towards leprosy of physiotherapists in Nigeria.

 

Method: A cross-sectional survey of 330 physiotherapists, with minimum 1-year work experience in public hospitals in the 6 geo-political zones of Nigeria, was carried out. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire with open and close- ended questions was employed. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics of Chi-square tests with Alpha level at 0.05.

 

Results: The respondents’ mean and range of years of job experience was 8.6 + 5.51 and 1 to 27 years respectively. Close to half (44.5%) of the physiotherapists had only a fair knowledge about leprosy and 165 (50%) had poor attitudes towards leprosy and persons with leprosy. There were significant associations between the schools of training and each level of knowledge (χ2 = 45.04; p = 0.0001) and attitudes of physiotherapists to leprosy and to persons who have suffered from leprosy (χ2 = 20.26; p = 0.009). There was, however, no significant association between years of job experience and each of knowledge (χ2 = 4.76; p = 0. 312), or attitudes of the physiotherapists to leprosy (χ2 = 4.55; p = 0.337).

 

Conclusions and Implications: It was concluded that a substantial number of physiotherapists in Nigeria had fair knowledge but poor attitudes towards leprosy. The institution of training appears to have an influence on their knowledge and attitudes. It is therefore recommended that educational and training programmes on leprosy should be organised and emphasised at the basic training institutions for physiotherapists.

Differences in HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners in Nigeria

ADEEMI, Toyin
PILLAY, Basil
ESTERRHUIZEN, Tonya
February 2013

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"This study sought to compare the HIV knowledge and sexual practices of learners with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities and non-disabled learners (NDL) in Nigeria. Findings could help in the development of HIV interventions that are accessible to Nigerian learners with intellectual impairments"
Journal of the International AIDS Society, Vol 16

Attitudes of Students towards Peers with Disability in an Inclusive School in Nigeria

OLALEYE, A
OGUNDELE, O
DEJI, S
AJAYI, O
OLALEYE, O
ADEYANJU, T
2012

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Purpose: The majority of children and young people with disabilities live in developing countries where they face inequalities in education and other opportunities. Negative attitudes constitute one of the major barriers to thedevelopment of their potential.

 

This study aimed to describe the attitudes of students without disability towards their peers with disability, and to assess the role that gender and interpersonal contact play in shaping these attitudes.

 

Method: A cross-sectional study involving 107 students was carried out at an inclusive secondary school located in a peri-urban area in South Western Nigeria.

 

Participants were recruited from a group of 118 students in the three junior classes and senior class one (JSS 1 to SSS 1). A semi-structured questionnaire containing items on the “Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes Towards Children with Handicaps (CATCH) scale”, which elicits responses on a Likert scale numbered 0 to 4 (0-strongly disagree, 4-strongly agree), was administered. Data analysis was done using Stata version 12. Descriptive analysis was carried out and association between variables was determined using independent two-tailed t-tests.

 

Results: The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the scale was 0.83. The attitudes of students in the school were generally positive (M = 22.55, SD = 3.79). Female students had higher total scores (M = 24.76, SD = 2.78) than their male contemporaries (M = 19.84, SD = 3.05), t (103) = 8.55, p = .000. Having a friend/relative with a disability was associated with more positive attitudes among female students.

 

Conclusions: In this inclusive setting, the attitudes of students towards their peers with disability were generally positive. Since interpersonal contact was associated with positive attitudes towards students with disabilities, interventions should be directed towards promoting interpersonal relationships in order to build an integrated society.

 

Moving towards universal health coverage: health insurance reforms in nine developing countries in Africa and Asia

LAGOMARSION, G
GARABRANT, A
ADYAS, A
OTOO, N
MUGA, R
September 2012

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The implementation of national health insurance reforms designed to move towards universal health coverage by 9 low-income and lower-middle-income countries in Africa and Asia  is reported. Five countries at intermediate stages of reform (Ghana, Indonesia, the Philippines, Rwanda, and Vietnam) and four at earlier stages (India, Kenya, Mali, and Nigeria) are considered. These countries’ approaches to raising prepaid revenues, pooling risk, and purchasing services are described using the functions-of-health-systems framework. Their progress across three dimensions of coverage: who, what services, and what proportion of health costs is assessed using the coverage-box framework. Patterns in the structure of these countries’ reforms including use of tax revenues to subsidise target populations and steps towards broader risk pools are identified. Trends in progress towards universal coverage, including increasing enrolment in government health insurance and a movement towards expanded benefits packages are reported. Common, comparable indicators of progress towards universal coverage are needed.

Constraint - Induced Movement Therapy: Determinants and Correlates of Duration of Adherence to Restraint use Among Stroke Survivors with Hemiparesis

OLASUNKANMI, D O
OLASUMBO, S A
2012

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Background: Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) was developed to improve purposeful movement of the stroke-affected extremity by restricting the use of the unaffected extremity. The two main components of CIMT are the training of the more-impaired arm to perform functional tasks, and the restraint of the less-impaired arm. One challenge that the application of CIMT faces is in ensuring adherence to the use of restraint.

 

Purpose: There is a need to determine the factors that may influence adherence, as this would allow CIMT to be delivered more effectively, and prevent situations where unrealistic expectations are placed on stroke–affected individuals.

 

Methods: Thirty stroke survivors with hemiparesis who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited from the physiotherapy out-patient clinics, using a purposive sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on clinical and socio-demographic parameters. The participants were given a restraint and an adherence time log-book, to make a daily record during the period they wore the restraint. The adherence time log- book was collected at the end of every week of the 3-week study. Motor function and functional use of the upper limb were measured using Motricity Index and Motor Activity Log respectively. Data was analysed using mean and standard deviations, independent t-test and Spearman rho; p was significant at 0.05.

 

Results: Gender (p=0.73) and side affected/handedness (p=0.79) had no significant influence on the percentage duration of adherence to restraint use (DARU). The influence of socio-economic status was seen, with the participants of middle socio-economic status adhering for longer duration (p=0.02). Age had weak and no significant correlation with percentage DARU (p=0.55). There was significantly fair correlation between motor function/functional use at any stage (p=0.55) and the corresponding percentage duration of adherence to restraint use, except the functional use in the first week (p=0.44).

 

Conclusion: Socio-economic status should be considered when applying CIMT.

The Face of Disability in Nigeria: A Disability Survey in Kogi and Niger States

SMITH, N
2011

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The Leprosy Mission Nigeria conducted a disability survey in Kogi and Niger States of Nigeria in 2005, investigating the demographic characteristics of people with disabilities, including gender, age, religion, marital, educational, occupational, employment and economic status, understanding of disability and health-seeking behaviour.

 

Information was gathered from a convenience sample of participants, across 30 randomly selected towns and villages in the two states. Twelve trained bilingual research assistants were used, to translate the English language questionnaire verbally into the local language of each participant.

 

From the 1093 respondents studied, the most common disabilities involved vision (37%), mobility (32%) or hearing (15%). A third of these were less than 21 years of age and had no occupation, and 72% were Muslim. Over half of them had no education, 20% had primary, 8% secondary, 2% tertiary and 18% had Islamic education. Common occupations were begging (16%), studying (14%), farming (11%) and trading (8%). The majority were unemployed (61%) due to their disability. Over 70% were not able to access disability specific health services and 37% had an assistive device. Services accessed included health - mainstream (90%), traditional (61%) and counselling (58%); and other - rehabilitation (30%), assistive device provision (24%), welfare (22%), special education (15%), vocational training (10%) and economic empowerment (4%).

 

These results are comparable with findings in other studies. Disability affects a person’s ability to participate in education, work, family life and religion, influences health-seeking behaviour and contributes to poverty.

Lessons from the evolution of a CBR programme for people affected by leprosy in Northern Nigeria

EBENSO, Bassey
et al
December 2010

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"This paper reviews the 13-year evolution of the social economic activities in Northern Nigeria from a welfare-oriented to a community-centred programme for people affected by leprosy...Findings revealed that the transformation among other things, demanded formulation of new programme policies and guidelines; and staff training in CBR principles and practice. Findings also showed that adopting CBR principles and community development projects can stimulate improvements in living conditions,self-esteem and acceptance of people affected by leprosy into the community"
Leprosy Review Journal, Vol 81

Illiteracy among adults with disabilities in the developing world : an unexplored area of concern

GROCE, Nora Ellen
BAKHSHI, Parul
August 2009

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This paper reviews findings from a literature search on literacy of adults with disability in developing countries. The research indicates that there are limited studies in international development, education, health, or disability studies that address this issue. The paper highlights that, though inclusive efforts for children are important, more attention should to be directed to providing literacy skills to illiterate and marginally literate disabled adults. This paper is useful for people interest in illiteracy among adults with disabilities in the developing world
Working Paper Series No 9

Integrating multiple gender strategies to improve HIV and AIDS interventions : a compendium of programs in Africa

INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON WOMEN
May 2009

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This report looks at how four specific gender strategies are being used in HIV and AIDS intervention programmes, how they are working, and how people are learning from and sharing their experiences toward strengthening programmes and expanding successes. A number of programmes in 11 African countries, as well as multi-country programmes are examined. The four gender strategies are: - Reducing gender-based violence; - Increasing women‘s legal protection; - Addressing male norms and behaviours, and - Strategies to increase women‘s income and productive resources.

Malaria treatment in Nigeria : the role of patent medicine vendors

OLADEPO, Oladimeji
et al
March 2009

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"This scoping study provides a quick assessment of the malaria treatment markets and the role played by patent medicine vendors in Nigeria, and offers ways to improve the regulation and provision of anti-malarial drugs. It documented the sources of drugs in the three states and people’s problems in getting access to appropriate treatment for malaria"

Sustainability and equity aspects of total sanitation programmes : a study of recent WaterAid supported programmes in three countries global synthesis report

EVANS, Barbara
et al
2009

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This report is a synthesis of three individual country studies on Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS) activities in WaterAid programmes in Bangladesh, Nepal and Nigeria. The studies examined whether CLTS had led to sustainable and equitable sanitation behaviour change. The study explored whether achieving open-defecation-free (ODF) status is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the entire community to use and maintain hygienic latrines in the long-term. Also, where possible, the study explored the additional factors that enhance the probability that ODF status will translate into entrenched behaviour change, as well as the capacity of communities to move onwards up the ‘sanitation ladder’

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