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Containing antimicrobial resistance

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
April 2005

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The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a natural phenomenon that follows use of antimicrobial drugs but it is being accelerated by inappropriate antimicrobial use. This leaflet considers various methods that can be used to help contain antimicrobial resistance

Pharmacovigilance : ensuring the safe use of medicines

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
October 2004

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This leaflet looks at the need for pharmacovigilance to prevent or reduce the harm to patients caused by adverse effects of some medication. Pharmacovigilance is considered in terms of a national drugs policy, the regulation of medicines, clinical practice and disease control in public health programmes

Equitable access to essential medicines : a framework for collective action

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
March 2004

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Equitable and universal access to essential medicines is a vital aspect of any health strategy in resource-limited settings. This document provides a framework of action for policy makers, highlighting the key objectives of successful essential drugs programmes: rational selection and use of essential medicines; affordable prices; sustainable financing; reliable supply systems

The quality of anti-malarials : a study in selected African countries

MAPONGA, Charles
ONDARI, Clive
May 2003

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This was a pilot study to assess the quality of anti-malarials in selected African countries, and to determine whether the quality of these products was related to the level of the distribution chain at which the samples were collected. The data from this study indicate significant problems of substandard anti-malarial products circulating within the drug distribution chains in the African region. It therefore recommends that quality surveillance systems be set up within drug regulatory authorities in the region and that support be given to manufacturers to improve compliance with good manufacturing practices

How to develop and implement a national drug policy

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
January 2003

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This leaflet outlines the steps to creating a national drugs policy. It sets out the key components, the selection process for essential medicines, affordability, financing options, supply systems, regulation and quality assurance, rational use, human resources development, and monitoring and evaluation

Guidelines for price discounts of single-source pharmaceuticals

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy
et al
2003

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These guidelines are designed to maximise the benefit of price discounts arrangements for single-source products. They are intended for policy makers and technical staff in international and bilateral agencies active in international health development support, for pharmaeutical companies and for governments and NGOs in recipient countries. It highlights a number of issues that WHO feels need to be considered when planning or negotiating offers of price discounts

IPR, innovation, human rights and access to drugs : an annotated bibliography

VELASQUEZ, Germán
VIDAL, Jaume
2003

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This annotated bibliography brings together references to scientific, legal and other materials on globalisation, patents and drugs. It is organised into sections on general articles (basic literature on the topic), country studies (by region), thematic sections on TRIPS (the World Trade Organization treaty on patents) and patents, drug research and development, and human rights and access to drugs. Finally a section on electronic information sources highlights useful websites and discussion groups on these issues. Each reference includes full bibliographic information and a thorough, descriptive abstract detailing the key points of each item

The selection of essential medicines

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
June 2002

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Essential medicines are those that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population. This leaflet looks at the policy and relevance of the concept of essential medicines, how they can be selected, and how to implement a national list of essential medicines

WHO model list of essential medicines

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
April 2002

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Guide for the development of national and institutional essential medicines list. Aims to identify cost-effecetive medicines for priority conditions, together with the reasons for their inclusion. The list has two sections. Section one, which is the core list, represents the minimum medicine needs for a basic health care system. Section two, the complementary list, presents essential medicines for priority conditions

Globalization, TRIPS and access to pharmaceuticals

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
March 2001

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This leaflet looks at the impact on the health sector of global trade and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). It lists the articles of the agreement that have the greatest relevance to essential medicines and to the pharmaceutical industry

WHO medicines strategy : 2000-2003

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)
December 2000

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This strategy is the basis for coordinated action to bring essential medicines to where they are most urgently needed. Where public health services and insurance are inadequate, health care and medicine costs mean that serious illness is a major reason why poor populations remain trapped in poverty

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