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Every learner matters: Unpacking the learning crisis for children with disabilities

McCLAIN-NHLAPO, Charlotte
et al
June 2019

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This paper was developed by the World Bank in partnership with Leonard Cheshire and Inclusion International. It is an attempt to add knowledge to the current understanding of the importance of learning achievements, with a focus on children with disabilities. While the premise is that inclusive education refers to the inclusion of all children, the focus of this paper is on children with disabilities.

The aim of the paper is to:

  • Provide an evidence-based review of educational participation of children with disabilities.
  • Establish a case for focusing on learning achievements for students with disabilities.
  • Take stock of current mechanisms of measurement of learning outcomes and review their inclusivity.
  • Explore evidence of practice and systems which promote disability-inclusive learning for all. 

Four case studies are provided - from Pakistan, South Africa, Canada and UK.

Disability inclusion and accountability framework

McCLAIN-NHLAPO, Charlotte
et al
June 2018

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The main objective of the Disability Inclusion and Accountability Framework is to support the mainstreaming of disability in World Bank activities. It lays out a road map for (a) including disability in the Bank's policies, operations and analytical work, and (b) building internal capacity for supporting clients in implementing disability-inclusive development programs. The primary target audience of the Framework is Bank staff but it is also relevant to the Bank's client countries, development partners and persons with disabilities. The framework provides four main principles for guiding the World Bank’s engagement with persons with disabilities: nondiscrimination and equality, accessibility, inclusion and participation, and partnership and collaboration. 

 

The appendices to this framework highlight key areas in which the Bank can have a significant impact on the inclusion, empowerment, and full participation of persons with disabilities. These areas include transport, urban development, disaster risk management, education, social protection, jobs and employment, information and communication technology, water sector operations, and health care. 


Report No. 126977
 

Disability inclusion in disaster risk management - Promising practices and opportunities for enhanced engagements

GUERNSEY, Katherine
SCHERRER, Valerie
April 2018

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Disaster risk management aims to address vulnerability in order to reduce risk and therefore needs to consider the full range of vulnerability drivers, including those that affect persons with disabilities. This report presents the results of comprehensive review of the state of practice in disability-inclusive Disaster risk management (DRM) undertaken by GFDRR (Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery). The report is intended to help World Bank staff incorporate persons with disabilities and a disability perspective into their ongoing DRM work. The report will also be of interest to other development actors and stakeholders working on DRM.

Disability gaps in educational attainment and literacy - The price of exclusion : disability and education.

MALE, Chata
WODON, Quentin
December 2017

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This note provides an analysis of gaps in educational opportunities for children with disabilities. It also measures the impact at the margin of exclusion related to various types of disabilities on education outcomes for children. Four main outcomes are considered: whether children ever enroll in school, whether they complete their primary education, whether they complete their secondary education, and whether they are literate. The analysis is implemented using the most recent census data available for a total of 19 countries.

JSLU, JSPACA, PKSA, Cash and in-kind transfers for at-risk youth, the disabled, and vulnerable elderly social assistance programm and public expenditure review 7

WORLD BANK
February 2012

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Direct cash transfers for vulnerable elderly and disabled populations have been provided by the Indonesian Ministry of Social Welfare (Kementerian Sosial, Kemensos) since 2006; a similar cash transfer for at-risk youth was inaugurated in 2009. These programs Jaminan Sosial Lanjut Usia (JSLU), Jaminan Sosial Paca Berat (JSPACA), and program Kesejahteraan Sosial Anak (PKSA) for the elderly, disabled, and youth respectively transfer cash directly to beneficiaries. They account for increasing shares of the Kemensos overall budget, but subsidies directed to care and rehabilitation facilities as well as direct provision of institutional care still account for a noticeable portion of the Kemensos budget for these groups.  The report summarises quantitative and qualitative evidence in order to build a sound foundation for evaluating these cash transfer programs . Design features, efficiency and effectiveness of program implementation and operation, and impacts are analyzed. 

World Development Report 2006 : equity and development

WORLD BANK
September 2005

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The 2006 World Development Report focuses on equity and development strategy. It builds on and extends frameworks discussed in the 2004 report. Equity is a potentially important factor affecting both the workings of the investment environment and the empowerment of the poor - the two major lines of the World Bank's poverty reduction strategy. The report describes current levels of and recent trends in inequalities along some key dimensions, both within and across countries; discusses whether such inequalities matter and, if so, how it may be possible to reduce them in ways which, rather than harming economic efficiency and growth, may indeed help promote them; and explores the role of domestic policies and international forces, and the potential for international action to reduce inequalities

Counting on communication : the Uganda Nutrition and Early Childhood Development Project

VERZOSA, Cecilia
April 2005

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This publication presents the activities and lessons learned from a project which sought to halve malnutrition among preschool children, raise primary school enrollment, reduce dropout and repetition rates, improve psycho-social and cognitive development, and increase the number of mothers practicing appropriate childcare. A strategic communication programme was designed to help mothers and other caregivers adopt new behaviours needed to achieve project outcomes. It helped the project team identify necessary changes in behaviour, knowledge or attitude for all target audiences; frame project-related issues relevant to different stakeholders, such as parliamentarians, mothers, community leaders, educators, and local government administrators; craft persuasive messages according to their needs, concerns and perceptions; and use the most appropriate communication channels. The communication strategy included a: national advocacy effort aimed at parliamentarians, health and education ministry officials, district and community leaders; multi-media campaign that emphasized three behaviour change interventions; training programme for health workers and pre-school teachers on their role; and monitoring and evaluation component to ensure that materials were disseminated via cost-effective channels of communication and that messages reached target audiences. Lessons learned emphasize the value of developing a comprehensive communication strategy during project design.

Disability and development and the World Bank : a briefing summary

WORLD BANK
February 2005

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This briefing summary draws attention to the relation between disability and poverty, and outlines the World Bank's activities in the area of inclusive development. High disability prevalence (often misreported) in developing countries and high poverty rate among disabled people create a vicious circle, with poor people more at risk of acquiring disability. This memo contains a keynote speech by Amartya Sen on disability and justice

Strategic communications [Appendix 4] | Rolling back malaria : the global strategy and booster program

THE WORLD BANK
2005

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This short appendix discusses strategic communication, an important component of the Global Strategy and Programme of Action for Malaria Control. Roll Back Malaria partners held a communications and advocacy meeting in September 2004 to develop a comprehensive strategy in support of malaria control, providing a context for the World Bank to renew its operational and communications strategy simultaneously. It sets out goals, audiences, messages and key communications strategies

Inclusive education : an EFA strategy for all children

PETERS, Susan J
November 2004

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This paper studies inclusive education from within the context of the Education For All strategy. It examines experience of inclusive education and lessons learned from both northern and southern countries, and discusses economic issues (such as cost-effectiveness) and legal issues

Information and communication technologies and broad-based development : a partial review of the evidence

GRACE, Jeremy
KENNY, Charles
QIANG, Christine
et al
February 2004

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This paper reviews some of the evidence for the link between telecommunications and the Internet and economic growth, the likely impact of the new ICTs on income inequality and anecdotal evidence regarding the role of the Internet in improving government services and governance. It looks at methods to maximise access to the new ICTs, and improve their development impact both in promoting income generation and in the provision of quality services. The authors also note that the implementation of ICTs must be part of a broader reform agenda

Integrated questionnaire for the measurement of social capital

GROOTAERT, Christiaan
et al
2004

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This paper introduces a tool, the Integrated Questionnaire for the Measurement of Social Capital, with a focus on developing countries. The tool aims to generate quantitative data on six dimensions of social capital as part of a larger household survey. These dimensions are: groups and networks, trust and solidarity, collective action and cooperation, information and communication, social cohesion and inclusion, empowerment and political action. The tool was tested in Albania and Nigeria and the lessons learned are presented

Ten steps to a results-based monitoring and evaluation system : a handbook for development practitioners

ZALL, Jody Kusek
RIST, Ray C
2004

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This is a comprehensive introduction to results-based monitoring and evaluation, illustrating ten essential steps to designing, building and sustaining an effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system. The ten steps are: conducting a readiness assessment, agreeing on outcomes to monitor and evaluate, selecting key indicators to monitor outcomes, baseline data on indicators, selecting results targets, monitoring for results, role of evaluations, reporting findings, using findings and sustaining the M&E system within the organisation. Properly implemented, this model will provide essential information feedback for policymakers but also help project managers to assess the effectiveness of their organisations and their programmes

Monitoring and evaluation : some tools, methods and approaches

WORLD BANK
2004

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An introductory guide to methods and approaches for monitoring and evaluation. Provides an overview of key tools, with essential information about their use, advantages and disadvantages, costs, skills and time required. Types of evaluation discussed include: performance indicators, logical framework approach, theory-based evaluation, formal surveys, rapid appraisal methods, participatory methods, public expenditure tracking surveys, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis and impact evaluation

ICT and MDGs : a World Bank Group perspective

WORLD BANK GROUP
December 2003

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A 2003 policy paper from the World Bank on the relationship between ICT and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The main objectives of this report are: (i) to illustrate the opportunities ICT offers policy makers and practitioners in their efforts to achieve the MDGs, with the assumption that the appropriate policies and institutions exist or will be forthcoming; and (ii) to highlight selected World Bank Group funded projects with an ICT component which have contributed to the intended development outcomes. "The report does not aim to establish proven empirical links between ICT and the achievement of the MDGs, but to illustrate the positive impact ICT can make as an enabling tool for development." Includes a section on ICT and health MDGs

ICT and health [chapter] | ICT and MDGs : a World Bank Group perspective

WORLD BANK GROUP
December 2003

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This article explores the impact of ICTs on health care within developing countries. Topics covered include research and training of health-care workers, achieving health-related MDGs, and storing and disseminating health information. Details are also provided of selected World Bank-funded projects

Reducing maternal mortality : learning from Bolivia, China, Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Zimbabwe

KOBLINSKY, Marjorie
2003

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"To assist countries in their efforts to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality, the World Bank is publishing two volumes: Investing in Maternal Health: Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka, and Reducing Maternal Mortality: Learning from Bolivia, China, Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Zimbabwe. These two books offer success stories in improving health and reducing maternal mortality in a range of developing countries. The first book is based on the experiences of Malaysia and Sri Lanka during the past five to six decades. The second book discusses the more recent experiences of Bolivia, China (Yunnan), Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Zimbabwe. These nine countries have made important strides in improving maternal health, and these two books outline what worked and what did not"

Education and HIV/AIDS : a sourcebook of HIV/AIDS prevention programmes

WORLD BANK. Education Team
2003

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Education sectors of affected countries are playing an increasingly important role in the fight against HIV/AIDS. This sourcebook aims to support efforts by countries to strengthen the role of the education sector in the prevention of HIV/AIDS. It provides concise summaries of programmes around Africa, highlighting the main elements of the programme as well as what lessons can be learned from them

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